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1.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(2): e232-e233, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382602
2.
ASAIO J ; 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878844

ABSTRACT

Anticoagulation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for Coronovirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be performed by direct or indirect thrombin inhibitors but differences in outcomes with these agents are uncertain. A retrospective, multicenter study was conducted. All consecutive adult patients with COVID-19 placed on ECMO between March 1, 2020 and April 30, 2021 in participating centers, were included. Patients were divided in groups receiving either a direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) or an indirect thrombin inhibitor such as unfractionated heparin (UFH). Overall, 455 patients with COVID-19 from 17 centers were placed on ECMO during the study period. Forty-four patients did not receive anticoagulation. Of the remaining 411 patients, DTI was used in 160 (39%) whereas 251 (61%) received UFH. At 90-days, in-hospital mortality was 50% (DTI) and 61% (UFH), adjusted hazard ratio: 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-1.32. Deep vein thrombosis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.60, 95% CI: 0.90-6.65], ischemic (aOR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.18-14.0), and hemorrhagic (aOR:1.22, 95% CI: 0.39-3.87) stroke were similar with DTI in comparison to UFH. Bleeding requiring transfusion was lower in patients receiving DTI (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.18-0.87). Anticoagulants that directly inhibit thrombin are associated with similar in-hospital mortality, stroke, and venous thrombosis and do not confer a higher risk of clinical bleeding in comparison to conventional heparin during ECMO for COVID-19.

3.
Artif Organs ; 46(8): 1659-1668, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701591

ABSTRACT

In a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 435 patients with refractory COVID-19 placed on V-V ECMO, cannulation by a single, dual-lumen catheter with directed outflow to the pulmonary artery was associated with lower inpatient mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , COVID-19/therapy , Catheterization/methods , Catheters , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Retrospective Studies
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(10): ofab170, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526173

ABSTRACT

It has been established that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a membrane-bound regulatory peptide, for host cell entry. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors have been reported to increase ACE2 in type 2 pneumocyte pulmonary tissue. Controversy exists for the continuation of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in the current pandemic. ACE2 serves as a regulatory enzyme in maintaining homeostasis between proinflammatory angiotensin II and anti-inflammatory angiotensin 1,7 peptides. Derangements in these peptides are associated with cardiovascular disease and are implicated in the progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Augmentation of the ACE2/Ang 1,7 axis represents a critical target in the supportive management of coronavirus disease 2019-associated lung disease. Observational data describing the use of RAAS inhibitors in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 have not borne signals of harm to date. However, equipoise persists, requiring an analysis of novel agents including recombinant human-ACE2 and existing RAAS inhibitors while balancing ongoing controversies associated with increased coronavirus infectivity and virulence.

6.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 163(6): 2107-2116.e6, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233517

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine characteristics, outcomes, and clinical factors associated with death in patients with COVID-19 requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study was conducted. The cohort consisted of adult patients (18 years of age and older) requiring ECMO in the period from March 1, 2020, to September 30, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality after ECMO initiation assessed with a time to event analysis at 90 days. Multivariable Cox proportional regression was used to determine factors associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 292 patients from 17 centers comprised the study cohort. Patients were 49 (interquartile range, 39-57) years old and 81 (28%) were female. At the end of the follow-up period, 19 (6%) patients were still receiving ECMO, 25 (9%) were discontinued from ECMO but remained hospitalized, 135 (46%) were discharged or transferred alive, and 113 (39%) died during the hospitalization. The cumulative in-hospital mortality at 90 days was 42% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36%-47%). Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61 per 10 years), renal dysfunction measured according to serum creatinine level (aHR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01-1.45), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation before ECMO placement (aHR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.01-3.46). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19 necessitating ECMO support, in-hospital mortality occurred in fewer than half of the cases. ECMO might serve as a viable modality for terminally ill patients with refractory COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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