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1.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology-Farmatsiya I Farmakologiya ; 11(1):72-88, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20232876

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an RNA double-stranded sodium salt drug, a lyophilisate for a solution preparation for an intramuscular and subcutaneous administration, as a means of post-exposure COVID-19 prophylaxis in comparison with placebo.Material and methods. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, randomized phase III clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a double-stranded sodium salt RNA drug (RADAM IN (R) VIRO), a lyophilisate for preparing a solution for intramuscular and subcutaneous administration as a means of post-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19. The study was conducted in 10 research centers in the Russian Federation from May 31, 2022 to January 17, 2023. The study included men and women aged =18 years who cohabitate with a person with a documented COVID-19 diagnosis and do not have symptoms characteristic of COVID-19. At the randomization stage, the subjects were assigned to one of two groups: group 1 (n=400) received a study drug RADAM IN (R) VIRO 5 mg (1 vial) intramuscularly once a day;group 2 (n=400) received placebo 1 vial intramuscularly once a day. The total duration of the study for each subject was no more than 30 days.Results. By day 10-11, in the double-stranded sodium salt RNA drug group, the proportion of the subjects with confirmed COVID-19 and at least 1 symptom characteristic of COVID-19 was 5.76% (23/399), and in the placebo group - 11.03% (44/399). The difference in proportions between the study drug and placebo groups was 0.0526 (5.26%), the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference in proportions between the groups was [0.0123;0.0937]). More than 94% of single-dose subjects did not become infected with COVID-19 with any symptoms during the 11 days of the follow-up. As a result of a comparative analysis, it was shown that the infection frequency in the study drug group was statistically significantly (almost twice) less than in the comparison group, which indicates a high efficiency and expediency of using the double-stranded sodium salt RNA drug as a means of the post-exposure COVID-19 prophylaxis.Conclusion. Thus, regardless of the vaccination availability, the effectiveness and feasibility of using the study double -stranded sodium salt RNA drug as a means of the post-exposure COVID-19 prophylaxis was demonstrated not only in medical institutions (outpatient clinics and hospitals), but also in caregivers and/or the persons in contact with COVID-19 patients. The situation was the same in the organizations and enterprises in case of evolution of a mass infection threat and the availability of appropriate medical personnels.

2.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology-Farmatsiya I Farmakologiya ; 10(4):371-386, 2022.
Article in Russian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2321846

ABSTRACT

The article presents the data from an open, two-stage, multicenter study on the efficacy and safety evaluation of a combined drug (a fixed combination of nirmatrelvir 300 mg, and ritonavir 100 mg) in the complex therapy in COVID-19 patients. The aim of the study was to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic parameters of the fixed combination of nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg in healthy volunteers, the efficacy and safety assessment of the drug in the combination therapy compared with the standard therapy in COVID-19 patients. Material and methods. An open two-stage multicenter clinical study to assess the main pharmacokinetic parameters, safety, and efficacy against COVID-19 of the drug nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg combination (Skyvira((R)) PROMOMED RUS LLC, Russia) in the adult population, included 2 stages. At stage 1, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated in healthy volunteers (over 18 years of age) in order to confirm their comparability with the literature data known for a set of active substances. Phase 2 assessed efficacy and safety in COVID-19 patients. As a part of the second stage, the study involved 264 patients (men and women aged 18 to 80 years), who had been divided into two groups. The first group patients (n=132) received the study drugs (nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg) - 1 tablet twice a day with an interval of 12 +/- 2 hours for 5 days in combination with pathogenetic and symptomatic therapy. The second group patients (n=132) received standard therapy in accordance with the approved Temporary Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Infection (Version 15 dated February 22, 2022). Results. During the study, none of the patients from the (nirmatrelvir + ritonavir) group experienced a transition of the COVID-19 course to a heavier severity level, in contrast to the patients in the standard therapy group. The study participants included patients with comorbidities (68% of the general population), with risk factors for COVID-19 progression to a heavier severity level and the risk of hospitalization (75% of the general population). There were no cases of COVID-19 progression to a heavier severity level in the study drug group. By the 6th day, in the nirmatrelvir + ritonavir group, the proportion of the patients who had achieved a complete recovery was twice more and amounted to 35.61% (p=0.0001), and the proportion of the patients with a negative RNA analysis to SARS-CoV-2 was 20% higher than in the comparison group, and amounted to 82.58% (p=0.0001). The fixed nirmatrelvir + ritonavir combination therapy has a favorable safety profile comparable to the standard therapy. The identified adverse reactions were transient in nature and did not require discontinuation of therapy or changes in the treatment regimen. Conclusion. The fixed nirmatrelvir + ritonavir combination has a favorable safety profile in COVID-19 patients, comparable to the standard therapy. The data obtained demonstrate a clinical and pharmacoeconomic feasibility of including the fixed (nirmatrelvir + ritonavir) combination in the COVID-19 treatment regimen.

3.
Farmatsiya i Farmakologiya ; 10(6):573-588, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2251079

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are data that that make it possible to speak about a high clinical efficacy of the use of succinic salt of tyrosylD-alanyl-glycyl-phenylalanyl-leucyl-arginine (hexapeptide succinate) for the COVID-19 treatment. This article is devoted to the results of clinical trials of the original Russian drug based on it. The aim of the study was to evaluate a clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of intramuscular and inhalation use of hexapeptide succinate in complex therapy in comparison with standard therapy in patients with moderate COVID-19. Materials and methods. The research was conducted from February 28, 2022 to November 22, 2022 based on 10 research centers in the Russian Federation. The study included hospitalized patients (n=312) over 18 years of age with moderate COVID-19 who had undergone a screening procedure and were randomized into 3 groups: group 1 received standard therapy in accordance with the Interim Guidelines in force at the time of the study, within 10 days;group 2 received hexapeptide succinate (Ambervin Pulmo) intramuscularly at the dose of 1 mg once a day for 10 days;group 3 received hexapeptide succinate (Ambervin Pulmo) 10 mg once a day by inhalation for 10 days. Results. According to the results of the study, therapy with the drug hexapeptide succinate, both intramuscular and inhaled, provided an acceleration of recovery up to the complete absence of the disease signs in more than 80% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. By the end of the therapy course with the drug, more than 60% of patients had met the criteria for discharge from hospital and could continue the treatment on an outpatient basis. About 70% of patients in the inhalation group and 80% in the intramuscular hexapeptide succinate injection group had concomitant diseases (hypertension - 28%, obesity - 14%), which indicates the effectiveness of this drug use in comorbid patients. The use of the drug contributed to the restoration of damaged lung tissues, normalization of oxygenation, the disappearance of shortness of breath and a decrease in the duration of the disease symptoms compared with standard therapy. As a result of a comparative analysis of adverse events in terms of their presence, severity, causal relationship with the therapy and outcome, there were no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups. Conclusion. Thus, the results of the clinical study of the succinate hexapeptide efficacy and safety showed the feasibility of using the drug in pathogenetic therapy COVID-19 regimens.Copyright © 2022 Volgograd State Medical University, Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. All rights reserved.

4.
Farmatsiya i Farmakologiya ; 10(4):371-386, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2155963

ABSTRACT

The article presents the data from an open, two-stage, multicenter study on the efficacy and safety evaluation of a combined drug (a fixed combination of nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg) in the complex therapy in COVID-19 patients. The aim of the study was to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic parameters of the fixed combination of nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg in healthy volunteers, the efficacy and safety assessment of the drug in the combination therapy compared with the standard therapy in COVID-19 patients. Material and methods. An open two-stage multicenter clinical study to assess the main pharmacokinetic parameters, safety, and efficacy against COVID-19 of the drug nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg combination (Skyvira PROMOMED RUS LLC, Russia) in the adult population, included 2 stages. At stage 1, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated in healthy volunteers (over 18 years of age) in order to confirm their comparability with the literature data known for a set of active substances. Phase 2 assessed efficacy and safety in COVID-19 patients. As a part of the second stage, the study involved 264 patients (men and women aged 18 to 80 years), who had been divided into two groups. The first group patients (n=132) received the study drugs (nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg) - 1 tablet twice a day with an interval of 12+/-2 hours for 5 days in combination with pathogenetic and symptomatic therapy. The second group patients (n=132) received standard therapy in accordance with the approved Temporary Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Infection (Version 15 dated February 22, 2022). Results. During the study, none of the patients from the (nirmatrelvir + ritonavir) group experienced a transition of the COVID-19 course to a heavier severity level, in contrast to the patients in the standard therapy group. The study participants included patients with comorbidities (68% of the general population), with risk factors for COVID-19 progression to a heavier severity level and the risk of hospitalization (75% of the general population). There were no cases of COVID-19 progression Copyright © 2022 Volgograd State Medical University, Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. All rights reserved.

5.
Farmatsiya i Farmakologiya ; 10(1):113-126, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1887390

ABSTRACT

Research in the development of new therapeutic agents with a wide spectrum of the antiviral activity and a low ability to develop resistance remains the main dimension in combating the global threat to public health. The need for a parenteral form of favipiravir was dictated by the necessity to increase the efficacy of therapy in COVID-19 inpatients. This dosage form has expanded the possibilities of drug therapy in the inpatients, for whom a therapeutic effect acceleration and a high safety profile of the drugs used are especially important. The aim of the article is the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a medicinal product containing favipiravir for the parenteral administration against the background of pathogenetic and symptomatic therapy, in comparison with standard therapy in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods. An open, randomized, multicenter comparative study was conducted in 6 research centers in the Russian Federation to evaluate the efficacy and safety of favipiravir, a lyophilisate for the preparation of a concentrate for the infusion solution administrated to the patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Screening procedures and randomization were completed in 217 patients, 209 of which had completed the study in accordance with the protocol. Results. Between the study groups, statistically significant differences have been found out, making it possible to consider the hypothesis of the drug Areplivir (favipiravir) superiority for the parenteral administration over the standard therapy, which included favipiravir (p. o.) and remdesivir. A comparative analysis has shown that a course of therapy with the parenteral favipiravir drug leads to a significant improvement in the condition of patients with COVID-19, significant benefits in terms of the speed and frequency of improvement in the clinical status of patients, as well as a reduction in the hospital stay length. It has been proven that therapy with a drug containing favipiravir for the parenteral administration does not adversely affect the parameters of clinical and biochemical blood tests, urinalysis, coagulograms, vital signs and ECG, which indicates the therapy safety. The study drug is characterized by a high safety profile and tolerability. Conclusion. The versatility and resistance to mutations of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase make it possible to consider it as the main target for combating the most common RNA viruses that cause ARVI, that determines the need further studies of favipiravir to expand the range of its indications.

6.
Infektsionnye Bolezni ; 18(3):30-40, 2020.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1000751

ABSTRACT

Objective. Тo evaluate the efficacy and safety of favipiravir (Areplivir) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and compare it with recommended standard therapy. Patients and methods. Two hundred men and women aged between 18 and 80 years with COVID-19 were randomized into this study. The experimental group included patients who received favipiravir, whereas the control group comprised patients who received causal therapy in accordance with the latest version of the temporary methodical recommendations of the Ministry of Health of Russia ‘Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus infection (COVID-19).’ The efficacy and safety of therapy were evaluated by assessing clinical improvement using the WHO Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement, clinical and laboratory parameters, findings of chest computed tomography (CT), and elimination of SARS-CoV-2. We also analyzed the frequency and type of adverse events, need for invasive and non-invasive ventilation, and death rates. Results. Our analysis has demonstrated significant benefits of favipiravir over standard therapy in terms of the time to clinical improvement (in the experimental group it was 4 days shorter on average), time to recovery, frequency of recovery after 10 days (44% of patients from the experimental group and 10% of patients from the control group had no clinical signs of the disease at this time-point), and frequency of virus elimination by day 10 of therapy. Treatment with favipiravir was associated with a significant improvement in the lung condition (according to CT), normalization of laboratory parameters, and saturation level. Favipiravir has demonstrated a good safety profile similar to that of standard therapy. There was no difference in the frequency of adverse events between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion. The use of favipiravir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection reduced the time to clinical improvement by 4 days on average compared to standard therapy, ensured improvement of the lung condition (according to CT scans), and facilitated virus elimination in more than 90% of patients, thereby promoting faster recovery. Favipiravir had a good safety profile and was well tolerated by patients. This treatment regimen was shown to be effective, sufficient, and clinically reasonable to achieve good outcomes. Timely initiation of therapy with favipiravir (Areplivir) improves disease prognosis and reduces the global socioeconomic burden of the current pandemic. © 2020, Dynasty Publishing House. All rights reserved.

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