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Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5771, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778635


SARS-CoV-2 is still a health problem worldwide despite the availability of vaccines. Therefore, there is a need for effective and safe antiviral. SARS-CoV-2 and HCV necessitate RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for replication; therefore, it has been hypothesized that RdRp inhibitors used to treat HCV may be effective treating SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of the sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) combination in early SARS-CoV-2 infection. A multicenter case-control study was conducted, enrolling 120 patients with mild or moderate COVID-19, of whom 30, HCV coinfected or not, received SOF/VEL tablets (400/100 mg) once daily for 9 days within a median of 6 days from the beginning of infection and 90 controls were treated with standard care. The primary endpoint was the effect on viral clearance, and the secondary endpoint was the improvement of clinical outcomes. Nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR were performed every 5-7 days. Between 5-14 days after starting SOF/VEL treatment, SAS-CoV-2 clearance was observed in 83% of patients, while spontaneous clearance in the control was 13% (p < 0.001). An earlier SARS-CoV-2 clearance was observed in the SOF/VEL group than in the control group (median 14 vs 22 days, respectively, p < 0.001) also when the first positivity was considered. None of the patients in the SOF/VEL group showed disease progression, while in the control group, 24% required more intensive treatment (high flow oxygen or noninvasive/invasive ventilation), and one patient died (p < 0.01). No significant side effects were observed in the SOF/VEL group. Early SOF/VEL treatment in mild/moderate COVID-19 seems to be safe and effective for faster elimination of SARS-CoV-2 and to prevent disease progression.

COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates , Case-Control Studies , Disease Progression , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings/adverse effects , Humans , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir , Treatment Outcome
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 698184, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288785


BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcome of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and dementia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a multicenter, observational, 1:2 matched case-control study all 23 patients with a history of dementia, hospitalized with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection from February 28th 2020 to January 31st 2021 were enrolled. For each Case, 2 patients without dementia observed in the same period study, pair matched for gender, age (±5 years), PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio at admission (<200, or >200), number of comorbidities (±1; excluding dementia) were chosen (Control group). RESULTS: The majority of patients were males (60.9% of Cases and Controls) and very elderly [median age 82 years (IQR: 75.5-85) in the Cases and 80 (IQR: 75.5-83.75) in the Controls]. The prevalence of co-pathologies was very high: all the Cases and 43 (93.5%) Controls showed a Charlson comorbidity index of at least 2. During hospitalization the patients in the Case group less frequently had a moderate disease of COVID-19 (35 vs. 67.4%, p = 0.02), more frequently a severe disease (48 vs. 22%, p = 0.03) and more frequently died (48 vs. 22%, p = 0.03). Moreover, during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), 14 (60.8%) patients in the Case group and 1 (2.1%; p < 0.000) in the Control group showed signs and symptoms of delirium. CONCLUSION: Patients with dementia are vulnerable and have an increased risk of a severe disease and death when infected with COVID-19.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(3): 201-208, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066078


INTRODUCTION: In people living with HIV (PLWH), immune activation and inflammation levels are high even when viral suppression is maintained, potentially contributing to several comorbidities, and hampering the immune response to infections such as the recent SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). AREAS COVERED: Immune activation and inflammation play a role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Severe COVID-19 patients may experience cytokine release syndrome (CRS), leading to alveolar damage, pulmonary fibrinolysis, dysregulated coagulation, and pulmonary injury. Into the systemic circulation, cytokines in excess might leak out of pulmonary circulation, causing systemic symptoms and possibly a multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome. Preexisting comorbidities are also linked to worse COVID-19 outcome: studies suggest that diabetes and hypertension are linked to higher mortality rates. Such comorbidities are more frequent in PLWH, but it is unclear if they have worse outcomes in the case of COVID-19. The literature was searched in PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE, and manually in COVID-19 resources. EXPERT OPINION: A body of evidence shows that HIV and SARS-CoV-2 are able to activate inflammatory pathways, acute in the case of SARS-CoV-2, chronic in the case of HIV, while the comorbidities seem to represent, in the first case, a contributory cause, in the second an effect of the virus-induced damage.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Comorbidity , Cytokines/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Inflammation , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2