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1.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 29(1):26-35, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198449

ABSTRACT

Down syndrome is the most common human chromosomal disorder. Whether Down syndrome is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes in pediatric patients remains unclear, especially in low-to-middle income countries. We gathered data on patients <18 years of age with SARS-CoV-2 infection from a national registry in Brazil to assess the risk for severe outcomes among patients with Down syndrome. We included data from 14,684 hospitalized patients, 261 of whom had Down syndrome. After adjustments for sociodemographic and medical factors, patients with Down syndrome had 1.8 times higher odds of dying from COVID-19 (odds ratio 1.82, 95% CI 1.22-2.68) and 27% longer recovery times (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.61-0.86) than patients without Down syndrome. We found Down syndrome was associated with increased risk for severe illness and death among COVID-19 patients. Guidelines for managing COVID-19 among pediatric patients with Down syndrome could improve outcomes for this population.

2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 3): e20201428, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140908

ABSTRACT

Based on an extensive analysis of public databases, we provide an overview of the global scientific output and describe the dynamics of the profound changes in the scientific enterprise during the last decades. The analysis included the scientific production of 53 countries over the 1996-2018 period. During this period, the production of articles per year has tripled. There was a strong correlation between the growth of the global gross domestic product and the increase in the number of articles (R2 = 0.973, P<0.001). Six countries showed a robust increment of their scientific production and are currently among the top 20 in the ranking of world scientific production (China, India, South Korea, Brazil, Turkey, and Iran). The mean annual growth rate was about 12.7% for these six countries. The share of the global scientific production of these countries increased from 7% in 1996 to 27.8% in 2018. Conversely, the participation of the 10 most traditional countries has dropped from 73% to 45% during the same period. In conclusion, we believe that our findings may contribute to further studies aiming to evaluate the impact and changes of the scientific endeavor over the next years in light of the forthcoming new world framework.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Brazil , China , Databases, Factual , India
3.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There have been conflicting reports on the relationship between asthma and COVID-19 severity. This study aimed to compare the risk of death among children with asthma and healthy peers hospitalized due to COVID-19. METHODS: We carried out an analysis of all pediatric patients 2-19 years of age with asthma and COVID-19 registered in Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System-Gripe, a Brazilian nationwide surveillance database, between February 2020 and March 2022. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated considering discharge as a competitive risk using the cumulative incidence function. RESULTS: Among 30,405 hospitalized children with COVID-19, 21,340 (70.2%) had no comorbidities, 6444 (21.2%) had comorbidities other than asthma, 2165 (7.1%) had asthma, and 465 (1.5%) had asthma with other comorbidities. The estimated probability of a fatal outcome for each group was 4.1%, 14.9%, 2.1%, and 10.7%, respectively. After adjustment, children with asthma had a 60% reduction in the hazard of death than healthy peers (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.53, p < 0.0001). Among children with asthma and no other comorbidities, two covariates were independently associated with in-hospital mortality, age ≥12 years, HR = 4.0, 95% CI, 2.5-6.4), and low oxygen saturation at admission (HR = 2.3, 95% CI, 1.4-3.2). CONCLUSION: Children with asthma and no comorbidities had a lower risk of death compared with healthy peers after controlling for clinical and demographic confounding factors.

4.
Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on the Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (Eciair 2021) ; : 150-156, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072480

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically exposed the limits of globalization and the fragility of our societies. On the other hand, it has also accelerated the pace of the digital transformation underway (Schwab, 2016). Notwithstanding the subsequent deep economic crisis, the resilience revealed by the society and the economy owes a lot to a vast range of solutions based in telecommunications and ICT in work organization, services, sales, education and telemedicine. The rapid extension of teleworking represents a major change that is likely to be not fully reversed after the pandemic. In addition to the benefits provided in averting a dramatic blockade (stoppage) of the system, it has also revealed or deepen inequalities among workers, between those who may work from home with adequate access to digital devices and those who cannot. Work-life balance is both a major objective for employees and a big challenge for enterprises. Teleworking may contribute to this balance. It occupies a central place in EU social policies, especially related with the working environment and organization associated with work-life balance, health, performance and workers' perspectives (Eurofound, 2020). In this paper, we will address theoretically and empirically the extension of teleworking and its socioeconomic, legal, and ethical impacts in advanced countries, with a particular focus on the Portuguese case. We will draw on official data and recent surveys carried out by the European Commission agencies, the OECD, the Portuguese Statistical Office, and other entities, such as research institutions, international consultancy companies and employers' organizations. We will also analyze the return to face-to-face activity after many workers have experienced the flexibility of working from home. These changes may strongly influence the shape of work organization and labour markets landscape in the short-term an in the future and affect society and economy as a whole (Huws, 2017;ILO, 2020).

5.
J Pediatr ; 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) against hospitalization and severe illness in adolescents due to infection with SARS-CoV-2 variants (gamma, delta, and omicron). STUDY DESIGN: A test-negative, case-control analysis was conducted in Brazil from July 2021 to March 2022. We enrolled 8,458 eligible individuals (12 - 19 years of age) hospitalized with an acute respiratory syndrome, including 3,075 cases with laboratory-proven COVID-19 and 4,753 controls with negative tests for COVID-19. The primary exposure of interest was vaccination status. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 infection during gamma/delta vs. omicron-predominant periods. The adjusted odds ratio for the association of prior vaccination and outcomes was used to estimate VE. RESULTS: In the pre-omicron period, VE against COVID-19 hospitalization was 88% (95%CI, 83% to 92%) and has dropped to 59% (95%CI, 49% to 66%) during the omicron period. For hospitalized cases of COVID-19, considering the entire period of the analysis, 2-dose schedule was moderately effective against ICU admission (46%, [95%CI, 27 to 60]), need of mechanical ventilation (49%, [95%CI, 32 to 70]), severe COVID-19 (42%, [95%CI, 17 to 60]), and death (46%, [95%CI, 8 to 67]). There was a substantial reduction of about 40% in the VE against all endpoints, except for death, during the omicron-predominant period. Among cases, 240 (6.6%) adolescents died; of fatal cases, 224 (93.3%) were not fully vaccinated. CONCLUSION: Among adolescents, the VE against all endpoints was substantially reduced during the omicron-predominant period. Our findings suggest that the two-dose regimen may be insufficient for SARS-CoV-2 variants and support the need for updated vaccines to provide better protection against severe COVID-19.

6.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018334

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for COVID-19-related death in a large cohort of hospitalized children with hematological disorders. We performed an analysis of all pediatric patients with COVID-19 registered in a Brazilian nationwide surveillance database between February 2020 and May 2021. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated considering discharge as a competitive risk by using the cumulative incidence function. Among 21,591 hospitalized pediatric patients with COVID-19, 596 cases (2.8%) had hematological diseases. Sixty-one children (27.4%) with malignant hematological diseases had a fatal outcome as compared with 4.2% and 7.4% of nonmalignant hematological and nonhematological cohorts, respectively (P<0.0001). Children with hematological diseases had a significant increased hazard of death compared with those without these conditions (hazard ratio [HR],=2.40, 95% confidence interval, 1.98 - 2.91). In multivariable analysis, the factors associated with death were the presence of malignant hematological disease (HR, 2.22, 95% CI 1.47 - 3.36), age >10 years (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.46 - 3.19), male (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02 - 2.27), oxygen saturation <95% (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.38 - 2.96), and abdominal pain at admission (HR 2.75, 95% CI 1.76 - 4.27). Children with malignant hematological diseases had a higher risk of death compared with those without these disorders.

7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 in post-partum women is commonly overlooked. The present study assessed whether puerperium is an independent risk factor of COVID-19 related in-hospital maternal death and whether fatality is preventable in the Brazilian context. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the clinical data of post-partum/pregnant patients hospitalized with COVID-19 gathered from a national database that registered severe acute respiratory syndromes (SIVEP-Gripe) in Brazil. Logistic regressions were used to examine the associations of in-hospital mortality with obstetric status and with the type of public healthcare provider, adjusting for socio-demographic, epidemiologic, clinical and healthcare-related measures. RESULTS: As of 30 November 2021, 1943 (21%) post-partum and 7446 (79%) pregnant patients of age between 15 and 45 years with COVID-19 that had reached the clinical endpoint (death or discharge) were eligible for inclusion. Case-fatality rates for the two groups were 19.8% and 9.2%, respectively. After the adjustment for covariates, post-partum patients had almost twice the odds of in-hospital mortality compared with pregnant patients. Patients admitted to private (not-for-profit) hospitals, those that had an obstetric centre or those located in metropolitan areas were less likely to succumb to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Those admitted to the Emergency Care Unit had similar mortality risk to those admitted to other public healthcare providers. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that puerperium was associated with an increased odds of COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality. Only part of the risk can be reduced by quality healthcare such as non-profit private hospitals, those that have an obstetric centre or those located in urban areas.

8.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 60(2): 234-242, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy involves dynamic changes in the maternal immune system, thus potentially affecting women's response to infection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational age at the time of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with mortality and morbidity related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hospitalized pregnant women. METHODS: This was a cohort study of pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at any gestational age (categorized into trimesters) who were hospitalized in Brazil from February 2020 to November 2021. Sociodemographic and epidemiological characteristics, signs and symptoms, comorbidities, interventions, vaccination status and type of healthcare establishment were obtained from a nationwide database. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors for in-hospital COVID-19-related mortality and morbidity (defined as time from hospital admission to recovery). RESULTS: A total of 7461 SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women were included in the study (9.3%, 28.4% and 62.3% in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively). After adjustment for sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and intervention-related variables, gestational age at infection was found not to be associated with COVID-19-related mortality and morbidity. Women admitted to establishments with an obstetric center, compared to hospitals without, were 38% less likely to die from SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.80), while patients who received private not-for-profit healthcare had a 13% shorter time to recovery (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.20) compared to those who received public healthcare. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a higher percentage of women being admitted in the third trimester, we found no association between gestational age and COVID-19 mortality and morbidity. The previously reported increase in morbidity and mortality in the third trimester in pregnant women with COVID-19 may be attributable to other gestational-age-affected variables for which adjustment was made in our study. © 2022 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Cohort Studies , Female , Gestational Age , Hospitals , Humans , Morbidity , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Curr Med Chem ; 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection commonly leads to neurologic manifestations. In the present review, we aimed to investigate potential neuroimaging markers of early diagnosis and prognosis of neurologic manifestations in COVID-19. METHODS: Our study was registered in the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) under the protocol CDR42021265443. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we selected 51 studies for whole-manuscript analysis. RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was the most common imaging method. The pattern, sites of lesion, signs, and symptoms of neurologic injury varied. Such manifestations possibly resulted from a direct viral infection or, most likely, from indirect mechanisms including coagulation disturbances, hypoxemia, and immunological responses. CONCLUSION: The heterogeneity of the studies precludes any generalization of the findings. Brain MRI is the most informative imaging exam. Population studies including the entire spectrum of COVID-19 are missing. There is still a need for future population studies evaluating neurologic manifestations of all COVID-19 severities acutely and chronically.

11.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with kidney diseases (KD) appear to be at particularly high risk for severe COVID-19. This study aimed to characterize the clinical outcomes and risk factors for COVID-19-related death in a large cohort of hospitalized pediatric patients with KD. METHODS: We performed an analysis of all pediatric patients with KD and COVID-19 registered in SIVEP-Gripe, a Brazilian nationwide surveillance database, between February 16, 2020, and May 29, 2021. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated considering discharge as a competitive risk by using cumulative incidence function. RESULTS: Among 21,591 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 290 cases (1.3%) had KD. Of these, 59 (20.8%) had a fatal outcome compared with 7.5% of the non-KD cohort (P < 0.001). Pediatric patients with KD had an increased hazard of death compared with the non-KD cohort (Hazard ratio [HR] = 2.85, 95% CI 2.21-3.68, P < 0.0001). After adjustment, the factors associated with the death among KD patients were living in Northeast (HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.13-4.31) or North regions (HR 3.50, 95% CI 1.57-7.80), oxygen saturation < 95% at presentation (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.30-4.10), and presence of two or more associated comorbidities (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.08-4.04). CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with KD had a higher risk of death compared with the non-KD cohort. The higher risk was associated with low oxygen saturation at admission, living in socioeconomically disadvantaged regions, and presence of other pre-existing comorbidities. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

12.
Pediatr Obes ; 17(9): e12920, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for critical illness and death among adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize the clinical outcomes and risk factors of death related to obesity in a cohort of hospitalized paediatric patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed an analysis of all paediatric patients with obesity and COVID-19 registered in SIVEP-Gripe, a Brazilian nationwide surveillance database, between February 2020 and May 2021. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated by using cumulative incidence function. RESULTS: Among 21 591 hospitalized paediatric patients with COVID-19, 477 cases (2.2%) had obesity. Of them, 71 (14.9%) had a fatal outcome as compared with 7.5% for patients without obesity (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-2.53, p < 0.001). After adjustment, the factors associated with death among patients with obesity were female gender (HR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.70-4.61), oxygen saturation < 95% (HR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.38-4.79), presence of one (HR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.11-3.26), and two or more comorbidities (HR = 4.0, 95% CI 2.21-7.56). CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with obesity had higher risk of death compared with those without obesity. The higher risk of death was associated with female gender, low oxygen saturation at admission, and presence of other comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(6): 763-772, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been recognized as a major comorbidity for COVID-19 severity in adults. This study aimed to characterize the clinical outcomes and risk factors for COVID-19-related death in a large cohort of hospitalized pediatric patients with diabetes. METHODS: We performed an analysis of all pediatric patients with diabetes and COVID-19 registered in SIVEP-Gripe, a Brazilian nationwide surveillance database, between February 2020 and May 2021. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated considering discharge as a competitive risk by using cumulative incidence function. RESULTS: Among 21,591 hospitalized pediatric patients with COVID-19, 379 (1.8%) had diabetes. Overall, children and adolescents with diabetes had a higher prevalence of ICU admission (46.6% vs. 26%), invasive ventilation (16.9% vs. 10.3%), and death (15% vs. 7.6%) (all P < 0.0001). Children with diabetes had twice the hazard of death compared with pediatric patients without diabetes (Hazard ratio [HR] = 2.0, 95% CI, 1.58-2.66). Among children with diabetes, four covariates were independently associated with the primary outcome, living in the poorest regions of the country (Northeast, HR, 2.17, 95% CI 1.18-4.01, and North, (HR 4.0, 95% CI 1.79-8.94), oxygen saturation < 95% at admission (HR 2.97, 95% CI 1.64-5.36), presence of kidney disorders (HR 3.39, 95% CI 1.42-8.09), and presence of obesity (HR 3.77, 95% CI 1.83-7.76). CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents with diabetes had a higher risk of death compared with patients without diabetes. The higher risk of death was associated with clinical and socioeconomic factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Pediatr ; 244: 178-185.e3, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the severity and clinical outcomes of the SARS-CoV-2 gamma variant in children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in Brazil. STUDY DESIGN: In this observational retrospective cohort study, we performed an analysis of all 21 591 hospitalized patients aged <20 years with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection registered in a national database in Brazil. The cohort was divided into 2 groups according to the predominance of SARS-CoV-2 lineages (WAVE1, n = 11 574; WAVE2, n = 10 017). The characteristics of interest were age, sex, geographic region, ethnicity, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated by competing-risks analysis, using cumulative incidence functions. A predictive Fine and Gray competing-risks model was developed based on the WAVE1 cohort with temporal validation in the WAVE2 cohort. RESULTS: Compared with children and adolescents admitted during the first wave, those admitted during the second wave had significantly more hypoxemia (52.5% vs 41.1%; P < .0001) and intensive care unit admissions (28.3% vs 24.9%; P < .0001) and needed more noninvasive ventilatory support (37.3% vs 31.6%; P < .0001). In-hospital deaths and death rates were 896 (7.7%) in the first wave and 765 (7.6%) in the second wave (P = .07). The prediction model of death included age, ethnicity, region, respiratory symptoms, and comorbidities. In the validation set (WAVE2), the C statistic was 0.750 (95% CI, 0.741-0.758; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: This large national study found a more severe spectrum of risk for pediatric patients with COVID-19 caused by the gamma variant. However, there was no difference regarding the probability of death between the waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
15.
Curr Pediatr Rev ; 17(4): 253-263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In pediatric patients, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been mostly associated with mild symptoms. However, as in adults, renal involvement has been reported in children and adolescents with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to report data about renal involvement in pediatric COVID-19 patients. The focuses were on the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury in Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated (PIMS-TS) with SARS-CoV-2 and the possible impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection upon kidney function, as well as data concerning patients with previous kidney diseases, including Nephrotic Syndrome and Chronic Renal Disease. The implications for COVID-19 outcomes in pediatric patients were also discussed. METHODS: This integrative review searched for articles on renal involvement in pediatric COVID-19 patients. The databases evaluated were PubMed and Scopus. RESULTS: The emergence of PIMS-TS with SARS-CoV-2 has shown that pediatric patients are at risk of severe COVID-19, with multi-organ involvement and dysfunction. In addition to intense inflammation, several systems are affected in this syndrome, collectively creating a combination of factors that results in acute kidney injury. Several studies have proposed that kidney cells, including the podocytes, might be at risk of direct infection by SARS-CoV-2, as high levels of ACE2, the virus receptor, are expressed on the membrane of such cells. Some cases of glomerular diseases triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection and relapses of previous renal diseases have been reported. CONCLUSION: Further studies are necessary to establish risk factors for renal involvement in pediatric COVID-19 and to predict disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
16.
An Bras Dermatol ; 97(1): 75-88, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509458

ABSTRACT

This article will address the main aspects of skin manifestations associated with COVID-19, based on a review of the literature published to date. Since the beginning of the pandemic, more than 1,500 articles have been published on the subject. Regarding the pathophysiology, it is believed that the same mechanisms responsible for the disease in the main target organs also act in the skin, although they are not yet fully elucidated. The actual frequency of dermatological manifestations remains uncertain - it can range from 0.2% to 45%, being close to 6% in systematic reviews. Pioneering studies of large case series conducted in European countries and the USA provide the first information on the main skin manifestations associated with COVID-19 and propose classifications regarding their clinical presentation, pathophysiology, as well as their frequencies. Although there is yet no consensus, maculopapular eruptions are considered the most frequent presentations, followed by erythema pernio-like (EPL) lesions. Manifestations such as urticaria, vesicular conditions and livedo/purpura/necrosis are rare. The time of onset, severity, need for specific treatment and prognosis vary according to the clinical presentation pattern. The increasing histopathological description of skin conditions can contribute to the diagnosis, as well as to the understanding of the pathophysiology. Also, in the dermatological field, the relationship between COVID-19 and androgens has been increasingly studied. Despite all the generated knowledge, the actual biological meaning of skin manifestations remains uncertain. Therefore, the exclusion of the main differential diagnoses is essential for the correlation between skin manifestation and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/etiology , Systematic Reviews as Topic
17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common, familial genitourinary disorder, and a major cause of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) and kidney failure. The genetic basis of VUR is not well understood. METHODS: A diagnostic analysis sought rare, pathogenic copy number variant (CNV) disorders among 1737 patients with VUR. A GWAS was performed in 1395 patients and 5366 controls, of European ancestry. RESULTS: Altogether, 3% of VUR patients harbored an undiagnosed rare CNV disorder, such as the 1q21.1, 16p11.2, 22q11.21, and triple X syndromes ((OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.10 to 4.54; P=6.35×10-8) The GWAS identified three study-wide significant and five suggestive loci with large effects (ORs, 1.41-6.9), containing canonical developmental genes expressed in the developing urinary tract (WDPCP, OTX1, BMP5, VANGL1, and WNT5A). In particular, 3.3% of VUR patients were homozygous for an intronic variant in WDPCP (rs13013890; OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 2.39 to 5.56; P=1.86×10-9). This locus was associated with multiple genitourinary phenotypes in the UK Biobank and eMERGE studies. Analysis of Wnt5a mutant mice confirmed the role of Wnt5a signaling in bladder and ureteric morphogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the genetic heterogeneity of VUR. Altogether, 6% of patients with VUR harbored a rare CNV or a common variant genotype conferring an OR >3. Identification of these genetic risk factors has multiple implications for clinical care and for analysis of outcomes in VUR.

18.
Anais Da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias ; 93(4):e20210543, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398986

ABSTRACT

The world is looking forward to a prompt response by the scientific community in order to overcome the first pandemic of the 21st century. This study aimed to provide an overview of scientific output on COVID-19 during its first year. We assembled information regarding 60,830 articles related to COVID-19 indexed in the WoS database from January 24 to December 13, 2020. Only 4 countries accounted for about 60% of the articles (USA, China, Italy, and England) and 12 countries accounted for about 95% of the world scientific output on COVID-19 (USA, China, Italy, England, India, Canada, Germany, Spain, Australia, Brazil, Iran, and Turkey). 25 research centers around the world contributed with more than 500 papers on COVID-19. Papers were scattered throughout 6,133 journals, with 12 journals with > 250 articles. 20 articles (0.03%) have already received more than the 1,000 citations. The response of the scientific endeavor to this acute global public health emergency has been fast and robust. The overview provided by the analysis of the scientific response to the pandemic may contribute to further studies aiming to evaluate the impact and changes in the scientific endeavor for the next years in light of the forthcoming new world framework.

19.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(15): 2673-2690, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a global effort towards quickly developing safe and effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to discuss the main vaccines available, their mechanisms of action, results of clinical trials, and epidemiological behavior. The implications of viral variants were also debated. METHODS: A non-systematic literature review was performed between February and March 2021 by searching the Pubmed, Scopus, and SciELO databases, using different combinations of the following terms: "vaccines", "clinical trials" , "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19", "mechanisms of action". Data regarding clinical trials of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and epidemiological information were also searched. RESULTS: The mechanisms of action included vector-virus, mRNA and inactivated virus vaccines. The vaccines showed positive results in phases 2/3 clinical trials. The efficacy of the mRNA 1273 and of mRNA BNT 162b2 vaccines were 94.1% and 95%, respectively. The effectiveness of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine varied according to the scheme, with an overall value of 70.4%. The Gam-COVID-Vac vaccine had an efficacy of 91.6%. Regarding the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine, 99% or more of seroconversion was observed in all subgroups 29 days after vaccination. The CoronaVac vaccine induced an immune response in 92% of the volunteers receiving 3ug and in 98% with 6ug, in comparison to 3% in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Global efforts have resulted in vaccines being available in record time, with good safety and immunogenicity profile. However, only long-term studies can provide more information on the duration of immunity and the need for additional doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
20.
Curr Med Chem ; 28(22): 4499-4530, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The identification of vulnerable subgroups and risk factors associated with the susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is of utmost importance in a pandemic scenario. Potential interactions between renin-angiotensin system (RAS), immune markers and COVID-19 play a role in disease outcome in specific groups of patients. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to describe the particularities of the RAS and the immune system profile of particular subgroups of patients. METHODS: This non-systematic review summarizes evidence on SARS-CoV-2 infection in specific subgroups of patients and possible relationships between immune system, RAS and the pathophysiology of COVID-19. RESULTS: The RAS and the immune system exert a role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of COVID-19, mainly in cases of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and other chronic diseases. The overactivation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis and the enhancement of inflammation contribute to deleterious effects of COVID-19. Likewise, pregnant women and elderly patients usually display immune responses that are less effective in withstanding exposition to viruses, while children are relatively protected against severe complications of COVID-19. Women, conversely, exhibit stronger antiviral responses and are less sensitive to the effects of increased Ang II. Future Perspectives: The recognition of vulnerable subgroups and risk factors for disease severity is essential to better understand the pandemic. Precision medicine tools, including proteomics and metabolomics approaches, identified metabolic patterns of the severe form of disease and might be the alternative to diagnose, evaluate and predict the prognosis and the efficiency of therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Child , Female , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
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