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1.
Int J Educ Res Open ; 3: 100169, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945172

ABSTRACT

In an attempt to curb the spread of COVID-19, Emergency Remote Teaching was implemented worldwide. The global educational disruption led to a rise in quantitative studies investigating the effect of this shift on student outcomes. These studies suggest a greater negative impact of the pandemic on students from disadvantaged backgrounds, but often fall short of exploring learners' perspectives on online teaching practices. A Q study with 23 Newly Arrived Migrant Students in Flemish upper secondary education was conducted to investigate these pupils' perceptions of blended Emergency Remote Teaching. The results show that these students hold at least four different viewpoints regarding Emergency Remote Teaching. The importance pupils assign to interaction and the role of the teacher is an important grouping variable in these analyses.

3.
Infect Dis Now ; 52(3): 123-128, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND: Wei et al. have published a meta-analysis (MA), which aimed to evaluate the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Using classical random-effects model, they found that SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with preeclampsia, preterm birth and stillbirth. Performing MA with low event rates or with few studies may be challenging insofar as MA relies on several within and between-study distributional assumptions. The objective was to assess the robustness of the results provided by Wei et al. METHODS: We performed a sensitivity analysis using frequentist and Bayesian meta-analysis methods. We also estimated fragility indexes. RESULTS: For eclampsia, the confidence intervals of most frequentist models contain 1. All beta-binomial models (Bayesian) lead to credible intervals containing 1. The prediction interval, based on DL method, ranges from 0.75 to 2.38. The fragility index is 2 for the DL method. For preterm, the confidence (credible) intervals exclude 1. The prediction interval is broad, ranging from 0.84 to 20.61. The fragility index ranges from 27 to 10. For stillbirth, the confidence intervals of most frequentist models contain 1. Six Bayesian MA models lead to credible intervals containing 1. The prediction interval ranges from 0.52 to 8.49. The fragility index is 3. CONCLUSION: Given the available data and the results of our broad sensitivity analysis, we can suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with preterm, and that it may be associated with preeclampsia. For stillbirth, more data are needed as none of the Bayesian analyses are conclusive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
4.
Br J Gen Pract ; 72(720): e464-e471, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The NHS response to COVID-19 altered provision and access to primary care. AIM: To examine the impact of COVID-19 on GP contacts with children and young people (CYP) in England. DESIGN AND SETTING: A longitudinal trends analysis was undertaken using electronic health records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum database. METHOD: All CYP aged <25 years registered with a GP in the CPRD Aurum database were included. The number of total, remote, and face-to-face contacts during the first UK lockdown (March to June 2020) were compared with the mean contacts for comparable weeks from 2015 to 2019. RESULTS: In total, 47 607 765 GP contacts with 4 307 120 CYP were included. GP contacts fell 41% during the first lockdown compared with previous years. Children aged 1-14 years had greater falls in total contacts (≥50%) compared with infants and those aged 15-24 years. Face-to-face contacts fell by 88%, with the greatest falls occurring among children aged 1-14 years (>90%). Remote contacts more than doubled, increasing most in infants (over 2.5-fold). Total contacts for respiratory illnesses fell by 74% whereas contacts for common non-transmissible conditions shifted largely to remote contacts, mitigating the total fall (31%). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, CYP's contact with GPs fell, particularly for face-to-face assessments. This may be explained by a lower incidence of respiratory illnesses because of fewer social contacts and changing health-seeking behaviour. The large shift to remote contacts mitigated total falls in contacts for some age groups and for common non-transmissible conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Primary Health Care
5.
6.
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews ; 2021(5), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1864142

ABSTRACT

Objectives This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of remote non‐pharmacologic interventions, compared with other specific intervention, non‐intervention or alternative intervention for sleep problems in in healthcare workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak.

7.
International journal of educational research open ; 3:100169-100169, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824423

ABSTRACT

In an attempt to curb the spread of COVID-19, Emergency Remote Teaching was implemented worldwide. The global educational disruption led to a rise in quantitative studies investigating the effect of this shift on student outcomes. These studies suggest a greater negative impact of the pandemic on students from disadvantaged backgrounds, but often fall short of exploring learners’ perspectives on online teaching practices. A Q study with 23 Newly Arrived Migrant Students in Flemish upper secondary education was conducted to investigate these pupils’ perceptions of blended Emergency Remote Teaching. The results show that these students hold at least four different viewpoints regarding Emergency Remote Teaching. The importance pupils assign to interaction and the role of the teacher is an important grouping variable in these analyses.

8.
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews ; 2021(4), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824162

ABSTRACT

Objectives This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of remote non‐pharmacologic interventions, compared with other specific intervention, non‐intervention or alternative intervention for sleep problems in adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak.

9.
BMJ ; 377: o953, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788940
10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 44: 101287, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe pre-existing factors associated with severe disease, primarily admission to critical care, and death secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalised children and young people (CYP), within a systematic review and individual patient meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, European PMC, Medline and Embase for case series and cohort studies published between 1st January 2020 and 21st May 2021 which included all CYP admitted to hospital with ≥ 30 CYP with SARS-CoV-2 or ≥ 5 CYP with PIMS-TS or MIS-C. Eligible studies contained (1) details of age, sex, ethnicity or co-morbidities, and (2) an outcome which included admission to critical care, mechanical invasive ventilation, cardiovascular support, or death. Studies reporting outcomes in more restricted groupings of co-morbidities were eligible for narrative review. We used random effects meta-analyses for aggregate study-level data and multilevel mixed effect models for IPD data to examine risk factors (age, sex, comorbidities) associated with admission to critical care and death. Data shown are odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI).PROSPERO: CRD42021235338. FINDINGS: 83 studies were included, 57 (21,549 patients) in the meta-analysis (of which 22 provided IPD) and 26 in the narrative synthesis. Most studies had an element of bias in their design or reporting. Sex was not associated with critical care or death. Compared with CYP aged 1-4 years (reference group), infants (aged <1 year) had increased odds of admission to critical care (OR 1.63 (95% CI 1.40-1.90)) and death (OR 2.08 (1.57-2.86)). Odds of death were increased amongst CYP over 10 years (10-14 years OR 2.15 (1.54-2.98); >14 years OR 2.15 (1.61-2.88)).The number of comorbid conditions was associated with increased odds of admission to critical care and death for COVID-19 in a step-wise fashion. Compared with CYP without comorbidity, odds ratios for critical care admission were: 1.49 (1.45-1.53) for 1 comorbidity; 2.58 (2.41-2.75) for 2 comorbidities; 2.97 (2.04-4.32) for ≥3 comorbidities. Corresponding odds ratios for death were: 2.15 (1.98-2.34) for 1 comorbidity; 4.63 (4.54-4.74) for 2 comorbidities and 4.98 (3.78-6.65) for ≥3 comorbidities. Odds of admission to critical care were increased for all co-morbidities apart from asthma (0.92 (0.91-0.94)) and malignancy (0.85 (0.17-4.21)) with an increased odds of death in all co-morbidities considered apart from asthma. Neurological and cardiac comorbidities were associated with the greatest increase in odds of severe disease or death. Obesity increased the odds of severe disease and death independently of other comorbidities. IPD analysis demonstrated that, compared to children without co-morbidity, the risk difference of admission to critical care was increased in those with 1 comorbidity by 3.61% (1.87-5.36); 2 comorbidities by 9.26% (4.87-13.65); ≥3 comorbidities 10.83% (4.39-17.28), and for death: 1 comorbidity 1.50% (0.00-3.10); 2 comorbidities 4.40% (-0.10-8.80) and ≥3 co-morbidities 4.70 (0.50-8.90). INTERPRETATION: Hospitalised CYP at greatest vulnerability of severe disease or death with SARS-CoV-2 infection are infants, teenagers, those with cardiac or neurological conditions, or 2 or more comorbid conditions, and those who are obese. These groups should be considered higher priority for vaccination and for protective shielding when appropriate. Whilst odds ratios were high, the absolute increase in risk for most comorbidities was small compared to children without underlying conditions. FUNDING: RH is in receipt of a fellowship from Kidney Research UK (grant no. TF_010_20171124). JW is in receipt of a Medical Research Council Fellowship (Grant No. MR/R00160X/1). LF is in receipt of funding from Martin House Children's Hospice (there is no specific grant number for this). RV is in receipt of a grant from the National Institute of Health Research to support this work (grant no NIHR202322). Funders had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

11.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S22-S23, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746807

ABSTRACT

Background. Accurately identifying COVID-19 patients at-risk to deteriorate remains challenging. Dysregulated immune responses impact disease progression and development of life-threatening complications. Tools integrating host immune-protein expression have proven useful in determining infection etiology and hold potential for prognosticating disease severity. Methods. Adults with COVID-19 were enrolled at medical centers in Israel, Germany, and the United States (Figure 1). Severe outcome was defined as intensive care unit admission, non-invasive or invasive ventilation, or death. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured using an analyzer providing values within 15 minutes (MeMed Key®). A signature indicating the likelihood of severe outcome was derived generating a score (0-100). Description of derivation cohort RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results. Between March and November 2020, 518 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, of whom 394 were eligible, 29% meeting a severe outcome. Age ranged between 19-98 (median 61.5), with 59.1% male. Patients meeting severe outcomes exhibited higher levels of CRP and IP-10 and lower levels of TRAIL (Figure 2;p < 0.001). Likelihood of severe outcome increased significantly (p < 0.001) with higher scores. The signature's area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.81-0.91). Performance was not confounded by age, sex, or comorbidities and was superior to IL-6 (AUC 0.77;p = 0.033) and CRP (AUC 0.78;p < 0.001). Clinical deterioration proximal to blood draw was associated with higher signature score. Scores of patients meeting a first outcome over 3 days after blood draw were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than scores of non-severe patients (Figure 3). Moreover, the signature differentiated patients who further deteriorated after meeting a severe outcome from those who improved (p = 0.004) and projected 14-day survival probabilities (p < 0.001;Figure 4). TRAIL, IP-10, CRP and the severity signature score are differentially expressed in severe and non-severe COVID-19 infection Dots represent patients and boxes denote median and interquartile range (IQR) The signature score of patients meeting a severe outcome on or after the day of blood draw is significantly (p < 0.001) higher than the signature score of non-severe patients. Dots represents patients and boxes denote median and IQR Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for signature score bins Conclusion. The derived signature combined with a rapid measurement platform has potential to serve as an accurate predictive tool for early detection of COVID-19 patients at risk for severe outcome, facilitating timely care escalation and de-escalation and appropriate resource allocation.

12.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3484-3489, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740252

ABSTRACT

This report of a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Kingdom (UK) Health Research Authority (HRA) workshop discusses the ethics review of the first COVID-19 human challenge studies, undertaken in the midst of the pandemic. It reviews the early efforts of international and national institutions to define the ethical standards required for COVID-19 human challenge studies and create the frameworks to ensure rigorous and timely review of these studies. This report evaluates the utility of the WHO's international guidance document Key criteria for the ethical acceptability of COVID-19 human challenge studies (WHO Key Criteria) as a practical resource for the ethics review of COVID-19 human challenge studies. It also assesses the UK HRA's approach to these complex ethics reviews, including the formation of a Specialist Ad-Hoc Research Ethics Committee (REC) for COVID-19 Human Challenge Studies to review all current and future COVID-19 human challenge studies. In addition, the report outlines the reflections of REC members and researchers regarding the ethics review process of the first COVID-19 human challenge studies. Finally, it considers the potential ongoing scientific justification for COVID-19 human challenge studies, particularly in relation to next-generation vaccines and optimisation of vaccination schedules. Overall, there was broad agreement that the WHO Key Criteria represented an international consensus document that played a powerful role in setting norms and delineating the necessary conditions for the ethical acceptability of COVID-19 human challenge studies. Workshop members suggested that the WHO Key Criteria could be practically implemented to support researchers and ethics reviewers, including in the training of ethics committee members. In future, a wider audience may be engaged by the original document and potential additional materials, informed by the experiences of those involved in the first COVID-19 human challenge studies outlined in this document.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethical Review , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethics Committees, Research , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , World Health Organization
13.
BMJ ; 376: o368, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704790
14.
Cureus ; 14(2): e21987, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677769

ABSTRACT

One of the challenges that emerged during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and is still relevant today is the need to identify patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) who could benefit from conventional oxygen therapy (COT) - oxygen supplementation with nasal cannulas, Venturi masks, and non-rebreather masks - without recurring to advanced respiratory therapy, such as high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), or invasive mechanical ventilation. The aim of the study was to develop a clinical tool able to predict the failure of COT in COVID-19 patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with ARF. This was a retrospective monocentric cohort study carried out in the ED of the University Hospital of Bologna Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Polyclinic, Italy. The cohort comprised 101 COVID-19 patients with ARF from the first pandemic wave who received COT. This cohort was used to develop a scale that considers serum lactate concentration, partial arterial oxygen pressure/inspired oxygen fraction (PaO2/FiO2) ratio, and body temperature to predict COT failure, referred to as the Lactate, Oxygenation, and Temperature (LOT) score. The highest possible score was 17 points. The LOT score was associated with COT failure (area under the receiver operating curve or AUROC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.69 - 0.89, p < 0.001); the cut-off value of > 5 points had optimal predictive power and showed significantly higher 30-day mortality (log-rank χ2 = 28,828, p < 0.0001). The LOT score was able to effectively predict COT failure in COVID-19 patients with ARF. Patients with LOT score > 5 had a very high risk of therapy failure, and more advanced respiratory therapies must be considered in these patients.

15.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21267339

ABSTRACT

BackgroundReports of myocarditis and pericarditis following vaccination with mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have occurred after countries began vaccinating adolescents. We undertook a systematic review of cardiac adverse effects associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in children and young people (CYP)< 18 years. MethodsSystematic review with protocol prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021275380). Six electronic databases were searched from 1 December 2019 to 14 September 2021. Eligible studies were those reporting on CYP with reported or proven myocarditis, pericarditis and/or myopericarditis associated with vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. We summarized findings across all clinical cases reported in case report / case series studies. As a number of studies reported data from two publicly available vaccine surveillance systems, we updated estimates of reporting rates for cardiac adverse events up to 31 October for the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and 13 November for EudraVigilance covering European Union and European Economic Area (EUEA) countries. ResultsTwenty-one studies were included from 338 identified records. Seventeen were case reports/series describing a total of 127 CYP. Three studies described reporting rates from passive surveillance databases (VAERS, EudraVigilance, and the WHO VigiBase) and one described 22 cases from the US Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). Clinical series reported that 99.2% presented with chest pain, 100% had raised troponin and 73.8% had an abnormal ECG. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in 91 cases identified myocardial injury in 61.5%, with 90.1% showing late gadolinium enhancement. NSAIDs were the most common treatment (76.0%). One US dataset (VSD) estimated a significant excess of 29.6 events per million vaccine doses across both sexes and doses. There were 1129 reports of myocarditis and 358 reports of pericarditis from across the USA and EU/EEA. The VAERS reporting rate per million for myocarditis was 12.4 for boys and 1.4 for girls after the first dose, and 49.6 for boys and 6.1 for girls after the second dose. There was a marked trend for VAERS reporting to be highest soon after initiation of the vaccine schedule, suggesting reporting bias. ConclusionsCardiac adverse effects are very rare after mRNA vaccination for COVID-19 in CYP <18 years. The great majority of cases are mild and self-limiting without significant treatment. No data are yet available on children under 12 years. Larger detailed longitudinal studies are urgently needed from active surveillance sources.

16.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 185-192, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514420

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is rarely fatal in children and young people (CYP, <18 years old), but quantifying the risk of death is challenging because CYP are often infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibiting no or minimal symptoms. To distinguish between CYP who died as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection and those who died of another cause but were coincidentally infected with the virus, we undertook a clinical review of all CYP deaths with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test from March 2020 to February 2021. The predominant SARS-CoV-2 variants were wild-type and Alpha. Here we show that, of 12,023,568 CYP living in England, 3,105 died, including 61 who were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of these deaths, 25 were due to SARS-CoV-2 infection (mortality rate, two per million), including 22 due to coronavirus disease 2019-the clinical disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection-and 3 were due to pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2. In total, 99.995% of CYP with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test survived. CYP older than 10 years, Asian and Black ethnic backgrounds and comorbidities were over-represented in SARS-CoV-2-related deaths compared with other CYP deaths. These results are important for guiding decisions on shielding and vaccinating children. New variants might have different mortality risks and should be evaluated in a similar way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Age Distribution , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data
18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21259779

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDeaths in children and young people (CYP) following SARS-CoV-2 infection are rare. Quantifying the risk of mortality is challenging because of high relative prevalence of asymptomatic and non-specific disease manifestations. Therefore, it is important to differentiate between CYP who have died of SARS-CoV-2 and those who have died of an alternative disease process but coincidentally tested positive. MethodsDuring the pandemic, the mandatory National Child Mortality Database (NCMD) was linked to Public Health England (PHE) testing data to identify CYP (<18 years) who died with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. A clinical review of all deaths from March 2020 to February 2021 was undertaken to differentiate between those who died of SARS-CoV-2 infection and those who died of an alternative cause but coincidentally tested positive. Then, using linkage to national hospital admission data, demographic and comorbidity details of CYP who died of SARS-CoV-2 were compared to all other deaths. Absolute risk of death was estimated where denominator data were available. Findings3105 CYP died from all causes during the first pandemic year in England. 61 of these deaths occurred in CYP who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. 25 CYP died of SARS-CoV-2 infection; 22 from acute infection and three from PIMS-TS. 99{middle dot}995% of CYP with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test survived. The 25 CYP who died of SARS-CoV-2 equates to a mortality rate of 2/million for the 12,023,568 CYP living in England. CYP >10 years, of Asian and Black ethnic backgrounds, and with comorbidities were over-represented compared to other children. InterpretationSARS-CoV-2 is very rarely fatal in CYP, even among those with underlying comorbidities. These findings are important to guide families, clinicians and policy makers about future shielding and vaccination. FundingRH is in receipt of a fellowship from Kidney Research UK. JW is in receipt of a Medical Research Council Fellowship. LF is in receipt of funding from Martin House Childrens Hospice.

19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 678570, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295637

ABSTRACT

Passive immunization using monoclonal antibodies will play a vital role in the fight against COVID-19. The recent emergence of viral variants with reduced sensitivity to some current antibodies and vaccines highlights the importance of broad cross-reactivity. This study describes deep-mining of the antibody repertoires of hospitalized COVID-19 patients using phage display technology and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire sequencing to isolate neutralizing antibodies and gain insights into the early antibody response. This comprehensive discovery approach has yielded a panel of potent neutralizing antibodies which bind distinct viral epitopes including epitopes conserved in SARS-CoV-1. Structural determination of a non-ACE2 receptor blocking antibody reveals a previously undescribed binding epitope, which is unlikely to be affected by the mutations in any of the recently reported major viral variants including B.1.1.7 (from the UK), B.1.351 (from South Africa) and B.1.1.28 (from Brazil). Finally, by combining sequences of the RBD binding and neutralizing antibodies with the B cell receptor repertoire sequencing, we also describe a highly convergent early antibody response. Similar IgM-derived sequences occur within this study group and also within patient responses described by multiple independent studies published previously.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Surface Display Techniques/methods , Data Mining/methods , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods
20.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21259785

ABSTRACT

Identifying which children and young people (CYP) are vulnerable to severe disease following SARS-CoV-2 is important to guide shielding and vaccination policy. MethodsWe used data for all inpatient hospital admissions in England in CYP aged 0-17 between March 1st 2015 to Feb 28th 2021, linked to paediatric intensive care unit (PICU), SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing, and mortality data. We examined associations between PICU admission and death by sociodemographic factors and comorbidities within COVID-19 and PIMS-TS admissions. We calculated odds ratios and predicted probability of PICU admission using generalized estimation equations, and compared these between COVID-19, PIMS-TS, other admissions in 2020/21, all admissions in 2019/20, and admissions due to influenza in 20219/20. Analyses of deaths were descriptive due to low numbers. FindingsWithin COVID-19, there were 6,338 hospital admissions, 259 PICU admissions and 8 deaths. Within PIMS-TS there were 712 hospital admissions 312 PICU admissions and <5 deaths. Males were 52.8% of COVID-19 admissions (similar to other causes of admission), but were 63.5% of PIMS-TS admissions. CYP aged 10-17 were 35.6 and 29% of COVID-19 and PIMS-TS admissions respectively, higher than in all admission and influenza admissions in 2019/20. In multivariable models, odds of PICU admission were: increased amongst neonates and decreased amongst 15-17 compared with 1-4 year olds with COVID-19, increased in older CYP and females with PIMS-TS, and increased for Black compared with White ethnicity in COVID-19 and PIMS-TS. Odds of PICU admission with COVID-19 were increased for CYP with any comorbidity and were highest for CYP with multiple medical problems. Increases in risk of PICU admission associated with comorbidities showed similar patterns for COVID-19 and all admissions in 2019/20 and influenza admissions in 2019/20, but were greater for COVID-19. Interpreting associations with comorbidities within PIMS-TS was complex due to the multisystem nature of the disease. InterpretationCYP were at very low risk of severe disease and death from COVID-19 or PIMS-TS. PICU admission due to PIMS-TS was associated with older non-white CYP. Patterns of vulnerability for severe COVID-19 appear to magnify background risk factors for serious illness in CYP. Evidence before this studyWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating risk factors associated with severe disease among children and young people admitted with COVID-19 and PIMS-TS, [Harwood, R et al. 2021 (submission to the Lancet linked with this paper)]. We identified 81 studies. Infants were found to have increased odds of PICU admission compared with 1-4, but there were no associations by sex. Other factors associated with PICU admission included number of co-morbid conditions, with neurological, cardiac and gastrointestinal associated with the greatest risk. Low numbers of serious SARS-CoV-2 infections or deaths amongst CYP limit these analyses, yet national studies of CYP have not yet been published. Importantly, we found these studies did not take into account background risks for severe illness in CYP who are known to be vulnerable before the pandemic. What this study addsThis is the first population base study of risk factors for severe disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection in CYP in England. We analyse all admissions to hospital amongst 0-17 year olds nationally between 2015-2021 linked to multiple other health datasets. We explore how socioeconomic factors and co-morbidities are associated with Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admission and death amongst CYP admitted with COVID-19 and PIMS-TS, and compare this with other causes for admission during the pandemic and in the year prior. As CYP with PIMS-TS are highly likely to require hospitalization, we were able to analyse total national cases of the condition during 2020/21. We found extremely low numbers of CYP required PICU or died as a result of SARS-CoV-2 in the first pandemic year. CYP admitted due to COVID-19 disease were older and more likely to be non-white with pre-existing conditions, similar to patterns seen in adults. Patterns of associations between comorbidities and risk of PICU admission amongst COVID-19 were similar to those seen for all admissions and influenza admissions in the year prior to the pandemic. However, the increase in risk associated with comorbidities for COVID-19 admissions were greater than in these cohorts. We found most cases of PIMS-TS were amongst non-white male adolescents without previous hospital admissions. Interpreting associations between comorbidities and PICU admission for PIMS-TS was complicated by the multi-system nature of the disease. Implications of all the available evidenceCYP with most vulnerable to COVID-19 were also those most at risk of prior to the pandemic due to other illnesses such as influenza, although COVID-19 appears to amplify this risk profile. It is important to consider this context when advising parents and carers regarding the risk posed by COVID-19, considering potential harms to CYP as a result of shielding precautions.

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