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1.
Children's Health Care ; 51(4):408-430, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-20243270

ABSTRACT

Without the structure and schedule of traditional activities such as in-person school and socialization, evidence is emerging of pediatric sleep changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. A narrative review was conducted of the sleep literature during the pandemic for preschoolers, school-aged children, and adolescents. Changes in sleep and risk and protective factors for sleep heath during the COVID-19 pandemic are reviewed along with real-life clinical case examples for each developmental period. Given the high rates of pediatric sleep disturbance, clinicians, researchers, and policymakers should refine screening strategies and facilitate referrals for behavioral interventions to support sleep health during pandemics and other natural disasters. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

2.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1139921, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315829

ABSTRACT

Background: Adolescents from historically racial and ethnic minoritized and low-income communities have higher rates of early-life and chronic difficulties with anxiety and depression compared to non-Hispanic White youth. With mental health distress exacerbated during and in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a need for accessible, equitable evidence-based programs that promote psychological well-being, strengthen one's ability to adapt to adversity, and build self-efficacy prior to adolescence. Methods: An evidenced-based resiliency-focused health coaching intervention was adapted using a health equity implementation framework to meet the needs of a Title I elementary school in rural Alabama (AL) that serves over 80% Black and Hispanic students. To ensure that the program met local community needs while maintaining core program educational activities, all adaptations were documented utilizing a standard coding system. Results: Leveraging an existing academic-community partnership with Auburn University and a local AL school district, a new program, Advocates 4-All Youth (ALLY), was created. Three major adaptations were required: (1) the use of local community volunteers (ALLYs) to deliver the program versus health coaches, (2) the modification of program materials to meet the challenge of varying levels of general and health-related literacy, and (3) the integration of the Empower Action Model to target protective factors in a culturally-tailored delivery to ensure key program outcomes are found equitable for all students. Conclusion: With continued increases in youth mental health distress, there is a need for the development of universal primary prevention interventions to promote mental well-being and to strengthen protective factors among youth from historically disadvantaged backgrounds. ALLY was created to meet these needs and may be an effective strategy if deemed efficacious in improving program outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion , Mental Health , Anxiety Disorders
3.
Behav Sleep Med ; : 1-13, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298357

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in duration, timing, and social jetlag in adolescent sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate the impact of mood, physical activity, and social interactions on sleep. STUDY DESIGN: An online survey queried adolescents' sleep before (through retrospective report) and during the initial phase of COVID-19 in May 2020. Adolescents (N = 3,494), 13-19 years old, in the United States (U.S.) answered questions about their current and retrospective (prior to COVID-19) sleep, chronotype, mood, and physical and social activities. Linear regression models were fit for time in bed, reported bed and wake times, and social jetlag during COVID-19, accounting for pre-COVID-19 values. RESULTS: Total reported time in bed (a proxy for sleep duration) increased on weekdays by an average of 1.3 ± 1.8 hours (p < .001) during COVID-19, compared to retrospective report of time in bed prior to COVID-19. During COVID-19, 81.3% of adolescents reported spending 8 hours or more in bed on weekdays compared to only 53.5% prior to COVID-19. On weekdays, bedtimes were delayed on average by 2.5 hours and wake times by 3.8 hours during COVID-19 compared to prior to COVID-19. On weekends, bedtimes were delayed on average by 1.6 hours and waketimes by 1.5 hours (all p's < 0.001). Social jetlag of >2 hours decreased to 6.3% during COVID-19 compared to 52.1% prior to COVID-19. Anxiety and depression symptoms and a decline in physical activity during COVID-19 were associated with delayed bed and wake times during COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19, adolescents reported spending more time in bed, with most adolescents reporting 8 hours of sleep opportunity and more consistent sleep schedules. As schools return to in-person learning, additional research should examine how sleep schedules may change due to school start times and what lessons can be learned from changes that occurred during COVID-19 that promote favorable adolescent sleep.

4.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 322, 2022 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to describe anxiety and depression symptoms at two timepoints during the coronavirus pandemic and evaluate demographic predictors. METHODS: U.S. high school students 13-19 years old completed a self-report online survey in May 2020 and November 2020-January 2021. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric Depression and Anxiety short forms queried depression and anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 694 participants (87% White, 67% female, 16.2 ± 1.1 years). Nearly 40% of participants reported a pre-pandemic depression diagnosis and 49% reported a pre-pandemic anxiety diagnosis. Negative affect, defined as both moderate to severe depression and anxiety PROMIS scores, was found in ~ 45% of participants at both timepoints. Female and other gender identities and higher community distress score were associated with more depression and anxiety symptoms. Depression symptoms T-score decreased slightly (- 1.3, p-value ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: Adolescent mental health screening and treatment should be a priority as the pandemic continues to impact the lives of youth.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Child , Young Adult , Adult , Male , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Pandemics , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology
5.
J Biol Rhythms ; 37(6): 690-699, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038527

ABSTRACT

The majority of high school-aged adolescents obtain less than the recommended amount of sleep per night, in part because of imposed early school start times. Utilizing a naturalistic design, the present study evaluated changes in objective measurements of sleep, light, and physical activity before (baseline) and during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (during COVID-19) in a group of US adolescents. Sixteen adolescents (aged 15.9 ± 1.2 years, 68.8% female) wore an actigraphy monitor for 7 consecutive days during an in-person week of school before the pandemic (October 2018-February 2020) and again during the pandemic when instruction was performed virtually (May 2020). Delayed weekday sleep onset times of 1.66 ± 1.33 h (p < 0.001) and increased sleep duration of 1 ± 0.87 h (p < 0.001) were observed during COVID-19 compared with baseline. Average lux was significantly higher during COVID-19 compared with baseline (p < 0.001). Weekday physical activity parameters were not altered during COVID-19 compared with baseline, except for a delay in the midpoint of the least active 5 h (p value = 0.044). This analysis provides insight into how introducing flexibility into the traditional school schedule might influence sleep in adolescents.


Subject(s)
Actigraphy , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Child , Male , Circadian Rhythm , Pandemics , Time Factors , Sleep
7.
J Investig Med ; 68(6): 1128-1134, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639865

ABSTRACT

Mentorship is a critical component of career development, particularly in academic medicine. Peer mentorship, which does not adhere to traditional hierarchies, is perhaps more accessible for underrepresented groups, including women and minorities. In this article, we review various models of peer mentorship, highlighting their respective advantages and disadvantages. Structured peer mentorship groups exist in different settings, such as those created under the auspices of formal career development programs, part of training grant programs, or through professional societies. Social media has further enabled the establishment of informal peer mentorship through participatory online groups, blogs, and forums that provide platforms for peer-to-peer advice and support. Such groups can evolve rapidly to address changing conditions, as demonstrated by physician listserv and Facebook groups related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Peer mentorship can also be found among colleagues brought together through a common location, interest, or goal, and typically these relationships are informal and fluid. Finally, we highlight here our experience with intentional formation of a small peer mentoring group that provides structure and a safe space for professional and social-emotional growth and support. In order to maximize impact and functionality, this model of peer mentorship requires commitment among peers and a more formalized process than many other peer mentoring models, accounting for group dynamics and the unique needs of members. When done successfully, the depth of these mentoring relationships can produce myriad benefits for individuals with careers in academic medicine including, but not limited to, those from underrepresented backgrounds.


Subject(s)
Inservice Training , Interprofessional Relations , Mentoring , Mentors , COVID-19 , Career Choice , Coronavirus Infections , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Occupational Exposure , Pandemics , Peer Group , Physicians , Physicians, Women , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Media , Social Support , Societies, Medical , United States , Universities
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