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TH Open ; 6(3): e251-e256, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062315


Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection causes acute respiratory insufficiency with severe interstitial pneumonia and extrapulmonary complications; in particular, it may predispose to thromboembolic disease. The reported incidence of thromboembolic complications varies from 5 to 30% of cases. Aim We conducted a multicenter, Italian, retrospective, observational study on COVID-19 patients admitted to ordinary wards, to describe the clinical characteristics of patients at admission and bleeding and thrombotic events occurring during the hospital stay. Results The number of hospitalized patients included in the START-COVID-19 Register was 1,135, and the number of hospitalized patients in ordinary wards included in the study was 1,091, with 653 (59.9%) being males and 71 years (interquartile range 59-82 years) being the median age. During the observation, two (0.2%) patients had acute coronary syndrome episodes and one patient (0.1%) had an ischemic stroke; no other arterial thrombotic events were recorded. Fifty-nine patients had symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) (5.4%) events, 18 (30.5%) deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 39 (66.1%) pulmonary embolism (PE), and 2 (3.4%) DVT+PE. Among patients with DVT, eight (44.4%) were isolated distal DVT and two cases were jugular thrombosis. Among patients with PE, seven (17.9%) events were limited to subsegmental arteries. No fatal PE was recorded. Major bleeding events occurred in nine (1.2%) patients and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events in nine (1.2%) patients. All bleeding events occurred among patients receiving thromboprophylaxis, more frequently when treated with subtherapeutic or therapeutic dosages. Conclusion Our findings confirm that patients admitted to ordinary wards for COVID-19 infection are at high risk for thromboembolic events. VTE recorded among these patients is mainly isolated PE, suggesting a peculiar characteristic of VTE in these patients.

J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367859


Jak inhibitors are potent anti-inflammatory drugs that have the potential to dampen the hyperactive inflammatory response associated with severe COVID-19. We reviewed the clinical outcomes of 218 patients with COVID-19 hospitalized for severe pneumonia and treated with ruxolitinib through a compassionate use program. Data on the duration of treatment; outcomes at 4, 7, 14, and 28 days; oxygen support requirements; clinical status; and laboratory parameters were retrospectively collected. Overall, according to the physician evaluation, 66.5% of patients showed improvement at follow-up; of these, 83.5% showed improvement by day 7. Oxygen support status also showed improvement, and by day 7, 21.6% of patients were on ambient air, compared with 1.4% at baseline, which increased to 48.2% by day 28. Significant decreases in C-reactive protein and increases in the lymphocyte total count were already observed by day 4, which seemed to correlate with a positive outcome. At the end of the observation period, 87.2% of patients were alive. No unexpected safety findings were observed, and grade 3/4 adverse events were reported in 6.9% of patients.

Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 466, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732891


Background: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is causing millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. Cumulative clinical and laboratory evidence suggest that a subset of patients with severe COVID-19 may develop a cytokine storm syndrome during the course of the disease, with severe respiratory impairment requiring ventilatory support. One field of research nowadays is to identify and treat viral-induced hyperinflammation with drugs used in other clinical conditions characterized by an hyperinflammation status. These drugs might help to reduce COVID19 mortality. Methods: Ruxolitinib, a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, has been successfully used to treat severe immune-mediated diseases, such as graft vs. host disease and Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We used ruxolitinib in 18 patients with clinically progressive COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome, with a primary endpoint to rapidly reduce the degree of respiratory impairment and as a secondary endpoint to rapidly restore the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, as an evaluation of clinical status, and monitoring of drug related Adverse Events. Parameters of inflammation responses and organ functions were assessed and monitored. The treatment plan was ruxolitinib 20 mg bid for the first 48 h and subsequent two-step de-escalation at 10 mg bid and 5 mg bid for a maximum of 14 days of treatment. Results: Our data collection shows a rapid clinical response with no evolution from non-invasive ventilation to mechanical ventilation in 16/18 patients and no response in two patients (overall response rate-ORR 89%). Already after 48 h of ruxolitinib treatment 16/18 patients showed evident clinical improvement, and after 7 days of treatment 11/18 patients showed fully recovered respiratory function (pO2 > 98% in spontaneous breathing), 4/18 patients had minimal oxygen requirement (2-4 L/m), 1/18 patient showed stable disease, and 2/18 patient showed progressive disease. After 14 days, 16/18 patients showed complete recovery of respiratory function (ORR 89%). Compliance to ruxolitinib planned treatment was 100% and no serious adverse event was recorded. In our case series of 18 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, administration of ruxolitinib resulted in a clinical improvement that concurred to modify the standard course of disease. Ruxolitinib can be a therapeutic option for patients with respiratory insufficiency in COVID-19 related ARDS. RESPIRE Study (Ruxolitinib for the treatment of acute rESPIratory distREss syndrome, Identifier: NCT04361903).