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Stroke ; 52(1): 31-39, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939945


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion can be concurrent with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion in patients with COVID-19 are substantially unknown. Our aim was to study early outcomes after MT in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter, European, cohort study involving 34 stroke centers in France, Italy, Spain, and Belgium. Data were collected between March 1, 2020 and May 5, 2020. Consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases with large vessel occlusion, who were treated with MT, were included. Primary investigated outcome: 30-day mortality. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: early neurological improvement (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale improvement ≥8 points or 24 hours National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 0-1), successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade ≥2b), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. RESULTS: We evaluated 93 patients with COVID-19 with large vessel occlusion who underwent MT (median age, 71 years [interquartile range, 59-79]; 63 men [67.7%]). Median pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score were 17 (interquartile range, 11-21) and 8 (interquartile range, 7-9), respectively. Anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke represented 93.5% of cases. The rate modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b to 3 was 79.6% (74 patients [95% CI, 71.3-87.8]). Thirty-day mortality was 29% (27 patients [95% CI, 20-39.4]). Early neurological improvement was 19.5% (17 patients [95% CI, 11.8-29.5]), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 5.4% (5 patients [95% CI, 1.7-12.1]). Patients who died at 30 days exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte count, higher levels of aspartate, and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). After adjustment for age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, and successful reperfusion, these biological markers remained associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio of 2.70 [95% CI, 1.21-5.98] per SD-log decrease in lymphocyte count, 2.66 [95% CI, 1.22-5.77] per SD-log increase in aspartate, and 4.30 [95% CI, 1.43-12.91] per SD-log increase in LDH). CONCLUSIONS: The 29% rate of 30-day mortality after MT among patients with COVID-19 is not negligible. Abnormalities of lymphocyte count, LDH and aspartate may depict a patient's profiles with poorer outcomes after MT. Registration: URL: Unique identifier: NCT04406090.

COVID-19/complications , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Europe , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/mortality , Treatment Outcome
Front Neurol ; 11: 587226, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914438


Introduction: Neurological manifestations are emerging as relatively frequent complications of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including stroke and encephalopathy. Clinical characteristics of the latter are heterogeneous and not yet fully elucidated, while the pathogenesis appears related to neuroinflammation in a subset of patients. Case: A middle-aged man presented with acute language disturbance at the emergency department. Examination revealed expressive aphasia, mild ideomotor slowing, and severe hypocapnic hypoxemia. Multimodal CT assessment and electroencephalogram (EEG) did not reveal any abnormalities. COVID-19 was diagnosed based on chest CT findings and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) on nasopharyngeal swab. The following day, neurological symptoms progressed to agitated delirium and respiratory status worsened, requiring admission to the ICU and mechanical ventilation. Brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies were unremarkable. RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on CSF was negative. He received supportive treatment and intravenous low-dose steroids. His neurological and respiratory status resolved completely within 2 weeks. Conclusions: We report a patient with reversible COVID-19-related encephalopathy presenting as acute aphasia, mimicking stroke or status epilepticus, eventually evolving into delirium. Although large-vessel stroke is frequently encountered in COVID-19, our case suggests that focal neurological deficits may occur as the earliest feature of encephalopathy. Neurological status reversibility and the absence of abnormalities on brain MRI are consistent with a functional rather than a structural neuronal network impairment.

Neurol Sci ; 41(12): 3395-3399, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841441


INTRODUCTION: A reduction of the hospitalization and reperfusion treatments was reported during COVID-19 pandemic. However, high variability in results emerged, potentially due to logistic paradigms adopted. Here, we analyze stroke code admissions, hospitalizations, and stroke belt performance for ischemic stroke patients in the metropolitan Bologna region, comparing temporal trends between 2019 and 2020 to define the impact of COVID-19 on the stroke network. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included all people admitted at the Bologna Metropolitan Stroke Center in timeframes 1 March 2019-30 April 2019 (cohort-2019) and 1 March 2020-30 April 2020 (cohort-2020). Diagnosis, treatment strategy, and timing were compared between the two cohorts to define temporal trends. RESULTS: Overall, 283 patients were admitted to the Stroke Center, with no differences in demographic factors between cohort-2019 and cohort-2020. In cohort-2020, transient ischemic attack (TIA) was significantly less prevalent than 2019 (6.9% vs 14.4%, p = .04). Among 216 ischemic stroke patients, moderate-to-severe stroke was more represented in cohort-2020 (17.8% vs 6.2%, p = .027). Similar proportions of patients underwent reperfusion (45.9% in 2019 vs 53.4% in 2020), although a slight increase in combined treatment was detected (14.4% vs 25.4%, p = .05). Door-to-scan timing was significantly prolonged in 2020 compared with 2019 (28.4 ± 12.6 vs 36.7 ± 14.6, p = .03), although overall timing from stroke to treatment was preserved. CONCLUSION: During COVID-19 pandemic, TIA and minor stroke consistently reduced compared to the same timeframe in 2019. Longer stroke-to-call and door-to-scan times, attributable to change in citizen behavior and screening at hospital arrival, did not impact on stroke-to-treatment time. Mothership model might have minimized the effects of the pandemic on the stroke care organization.

Coronavirus Infections , Neurology/trends , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment/trends