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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322700

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity triggers responsible for viral control or hyperinflammation in COVID- 19 are largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein primes inflammasome activation and interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) secretion in macrophages derived from COVID-19 patients but not in macrophages from healthy SARS-CoV-2 naïve controls. Chemical NLRP3 inhibition blocks spike protein-induced IL-1β secretion ex vivo . These findings can accelerate research on COVID-19 vaccine design and drug treatment.

2.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470996

ABSTRACT

Infections with viral pathogens are widespread and can cause a variety of different diseases. In-depth knowledge about viral triggers initiating an immune response is necessary to decipher viral pathogenesis. Inflammasomes, as part of the innate immune system, can be activated by viral pathogens. However, viral structural components responsible for inflammasome activation remain largely unknown. Here we analyzed glycoproteins derived from SARS-CoV-1/2, HCMV and HCV, required for viral entry and fusion, as potential triggers of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in THP-1 macrophages. All tested glycoproteins were able to potently induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation, indicated by ASC-SPECK formation and secretion of cleaved IL-1ß. Lytic cell death via gasdermin D (GSDMD), pore formation, and pyroptosis are required for IL-1ß release. As a hallmark of pyroptosis, we were able to detect cleavage of GSDMD and, correspondingly, cell death in THP-1 macrophages. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of NLRP3 and GSDMD in THP-1 macrophages confirmed and strongly support the evidence that viral glycoproteins can act as innate immunity triggers. With our study, we decipher key mechanisms of viral pathogenesis by showing that viral glycoproteins potently induce innate immune responses. These insights could be beneficial in vaccine development and provide new impulses for the investigation of vaccine-induced innate immunity.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/biosynthesis , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Pyroptosis/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , THP-1 Cells
3.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e14150, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271067

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity triggers responsible for viral control or hyperinflammation in COVID-19 are largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein) primes inflammasome formation and release of mature interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in macrophages derived from COVID-19 patients but not in macrophages from healthy SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses reveal robust S-protein-driven inflammasome activation in macrophages isolated from convalescent COVID-19 patients, which correlates with distinct epigenetic and gene expression signatures suggesting innate immune memory after recovery from COVID-19. Importantly, we show that S-protein-driven IL-1ß secretion from patient-derived macrophages requires non-specific monocyte pre-activation in vivo to trigger NLRP3-inflammasome signaling. Our findings reveal that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes profound and long-lived reprogramming of macrophages resulting in augmented immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein, a major vaccine antigen and potent driver of adaptive and innate immune signaling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-1beta , Macrophages , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(1): e13105, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-814824

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic stresses the need for effective antiviral drugs that can quickly be applied in order to reduce morbidity, mortality, and ideally viral transmission. By repurposing of broadly active antiviral drugs and compounds that are known to inhibit viral replication of related viruses, several advances could be made in the development of treatment strategies against COVID-19. The nucleoside analog remdesivir, which is known for its potent in vitro activity against Ebolavirus and other RNA viruses, was recently shown to reduce the time to recovery in patients with severe COVID-19. It is to date the only approved antiviral for treating COVID-19. Here, we provide a mechanism and evidence-based comparative review of remdesivir and other repurposed drugs with proven in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzamidines , Drug Repositioning/methods , Esters/pharmacology , Esters/therapeutic use , Guanidines/pharmacology , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Guanine/pharmacology , Guanine/therapeutic use , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/pharmacology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
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