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1.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(3): e23, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the experiences of caregivers of children with tracheostomies. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured interviews. SETTING: All participants were currently, or had previously cared for, a tracheostomised child who had attended a tertiary care centre in the North of England. Health professionals were purposively sampled to include accounts from a range of professions from primary, community, secondary and tertiary care. PARTICIPANTS: Carers of children with tracheostomies (n=34), including health professionals (n=17) and parents (n=17). INTERVENTIONS: Interviews were undertaken between July 2020 and February 2021 by telephone or video link. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Qualitative reflexive thematic analysis with QSR NVivo V.12. RESULTS: The pandemic has presented an additional and, for some, substantial challenge when caring for tracheostomised children, but this was not always felt to be the most overriding concern. Interviews demonstrated rapid adaptation, normalisation and varying degrees of stoicism and citizenship around constantly changing pandemic-related requirements, rules and regulations. This paper focuses on four key themes: 'reconceptualising safe care and safe places'; 'disrupted support and isolation'; 'relationships, trust and communication'; and 'coping with uncertainty and shifting boundaries of responsibility'. These are described within the context of the impact on the child, the emotional and physical well-being of carers and the challenges to maintaining the values of family-centred care. CONCLUSIONS: As we move to the next phase of the pandemic, we need to understand the impact on vulnerable groups so that their needs can be prioritised.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Parents/psychology , Tracheostomy , Adaptation, Psychological , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care Team , Professional-Family Relations , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Social Support , Trust
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7092, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561304

ABSTRACT

The nasal epithelium is a plausible entry point for SARS-CoV-2, a site of pathogenesis and transmission, and may initiate the host response to SARS-CoV-2. Antiviral interferon (IFN) responses are critical to outcome of SARS-CoV-2. Yet little is known about the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and innate immunity in this tissue. Here we apply single-cell RNA sequencing and proteomics to a primary cell model of human nasal epithelium differentiated at air-liquid interface. SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates widespread tropism for nasal epithelial cell types. The host response is dominated by type I and III IFNs and interferon-stimulated gene products. This response is notably delayed in onset relative to viral gene expression and compared to other respiratory viruses. Nevertheless, once established, the paracrine IFN response begins to impact on SARS-CoV-2 replication. When provided prior to infection, recombinant IFNß or IFNλ1 induces an efficient antiviral state that potently restricts SARS-CoV-2 viral replication, preserving epithelial barrier integrity. These data imply that the IFN-I/III response to SARS-CoV-2 initiates in the nasal airway and suggest nasal delivery of recombinant IFNs to be a potential chemoprophylactic strategy.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Kinetics , Nasal Mucosa/cytology , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
J Immunol ; 207(7): 1776-1784, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497460

ABSTRACT

Acquired neutrophil dysfunction frequently develops during critical illness, independently increasing the risk for intensive care unit-acquired infection. PI3Kδ is implicated in driving neutrophil dysfunction and can potentially be targeted pharmacologically. The aims of this study were to determine whether PI3Kδ inhibition reverses dysfunction in neutrophils from critically ill patients and to describe potential mechanisms. Neutrophils were isolated from blood taken from critically ill patients requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, renal support, or blood pressure support. In separate validation experiments, neutrophil dysfunction was induced pharmacologically in neutrophils from healthy volunteers. Phagocytosis and bacterial killing assays were performed, and activity of RhoA and protein kinase A (PKA) was assessed. Inhibitors of PI3Kδ, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), and PKA were used to determine mechanisms of neutrophil dysfunction. Sixty-six patients were recruited. In the 27 patients (40.9%) with impaired neutrophil function, PI3Kδ inhibition consistently improved function and significantly increased bacterial killing. These findings were validated in neutrophils from healthy volunteers with salbutamol-induced dysfunction and extended to demonstrate that PI3Kδ inhibition restored killing of clinical isolates of nine pathogens commonly associated with intensive care unit-acquired infection. PI3Kδ activation was associated with PDK1 activation, which in turn phosphorylated PKA, which drove phosphorylation and inhibition of the key regulator of neutrophil phagocytosis, RhoA. These data indicate that, in a significant proportion of critically ill patients, PI3Kδ inhibition can improve neutrophil function through PDK1- and PKA-dependent processes, suggesting that therapeutic use of PI3Kδ inhibitors warrants investigation in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Critical Illness , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sepsis/immunology , 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Load , Bacteriolysis , Cells, Cultured , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phagocytosis , Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Respiratory Insufficiency , Risk
4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438096

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 100 million cases worldwide. The UK has had over 4 million cases, 400 000 hospital admissions and 100 000 deaths. Many patients with COVID-19 suffer long-term symptoms, predominantly breathlessness and fatigue whether hospitalised or not. Early data suggest potentially severe long-term consequence of COVID-19 is development of long COVID-19-related interstitial lung disease (LC-ILD). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The UK Interstitial Lung Disease Consortium (UKILD) will undertake longitudinal observational studies of patients with suspected ILD following COVID-19. The primary objective is to determine ILD prevalence at 12 months following infection and whether clinically severe infection correlates with severity of ILD. Secondary objectives will determine the clinical, genetic, epigenetic and biochemical factors that determine the trajectory of recovery or progression of ILD. Data will be obtained through linkage to the Post-Hospitalisation COVID platform study and community studies. Additional substudies will conduct deep phenotyping. The Xenon MRI investigation of Alveolar dysfunction Substudy will conduct longitudinal xenon alveolar gas transfer and proton perfusion MRI. The POST COVID-19 interstitial lung DiseasE substudy will conduct clinically indicated bronchoalveolar lavage with matched whole blood sampling. Assessments include exploratory single cell RNA and lung microbiomics analysis, gene expression and epigenetic assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All contributing studies have been granted appropriate ethical approvals. Results from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals. CONCLUSION: This study will ensure the extent and consequences of LC-ILD are established and enable strategies to mitigate progression of LC-ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
Crit Care Med ; 49(3): 503-516, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, shortness of breath, recovery, and mortality have been identified as critically important core outcomes by more than 9300 patients, health professionals, and the public from 111 countries in the global coronavirus disease 2019 core outcome set initiative. The aim of this project was to establish the core outcome measures for these domains for trials in coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Three online consensus workshops were convened to establish outcome measures for the four core domains of respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, shortness of breath, and recovery. SETTING: International. PATIENTS: About 130 participants (patients, public, and health professionals) from 17 countries attended the three workshops. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Respiratory failure, assessed by the need for respiratory support based on the World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale, was considered pragmatic, objective, and with broad applicability to various clinical scenarios. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment was recommended for multiple organ failure, because it was routinely used in trials and clinical care, well validated, and feasible. The Modified Medical Research Council measure for shortness of breath, with minor adaptations (recall period of 24 hr to capture daily fluctuations and inclusion of activities to ensure relevance and to capture the extreme severity of shortness of breath in people with coronavirus disease 2019), was regarded as fit for purpose for this indication. The recovery measure was developed de novo and defined as the absence of symptoms, resumption of usual daily activities, and return to the previous state of health prior to the illness, using a 5-point Likert scale, and was endorsed. CONCLUSIONS: The coronavirus disease 2019 core outcome set recommended core outcome measures have content validity and are considered the most feasible and acceptable among existing measures. Implementation of the core outcome measures in trials in coronavirus disease 2019 will ensure consistency and relevance of the evidence to inform decision-making and care of patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Research Design , Dyspnea , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure , Recovery of Function , Reproducibility of Results , Respiratory Insufficiency
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