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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266086, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833644

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests have been marketed to diagnose previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and as a test of immune status. There is a lack of evidence on the performance and clinical utility of these tests. We aimed to carry out an evaluation of 14 point of care (POC) SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests. Serum from participants with previous RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction) confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and pre-pandemic serum controls were used to determine specificity and sensitivity of each POC device. Changes in sensitivity with increasing time from infection were determined on a cohort of study participants. Corresponding neutralising antibody status was measured to establish whether the detection of antibodies by the POC device correlated with immune status. Paired capillary and serum samples were collected to ascertain whether POC devices performed comparably on capillary samples. Sensitivity and specificity varied between the POC devices and in general did not meet the manufacturers' reported performance characteristics, which signifies the importance of independent evaluation of these tests. The sensitivity peaked at ≥20 days following onset of symptoms, however sensitivity of 3 of the POC devices evaluated at extended time points showed that sensitivity declined with time. This was particularly marked at >140 days post infection. This is relevant if the tests are to be used for sero-prevalence studies. Neutralising antibody data showed that positive antibody results on POC devices did not necessarily confer high neutralising antibody titres, and that these POC devices cannot be used to determine immune status to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Comparison of paired serum and capillary results showed that there was a decline in sensitivity using capillary blood. This has implications in the utility of the tests as they are designed to be used on capillary blood by the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580424

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a gammacoronavirus, is an economically important virus to the poultry industry, as well as a significant welfare issue for chickens. As for all positive strand RNA viruses, IBV infection causes rearrangements of the host cell intracellular membranes to form replication organelles. Replication organelle formation is a highly conserved and vital step in the viral life cycle. Here, we investigate the localization of viral RNA synthesis and the link with replication organelles in host cells. We have shown that sites of viral RNA synthesis and virus-related dsRNA are associated with one another and, significantly, that they are located within a membrane-bound compartment within the cell. We have also shown that some viral RNA produced early in infection remains within these membranes throughout infection, while a proportion is trafficked to the cytoplasm. Importantly, we demonstrate conservation across all four coronavirus genera, including SARS-CoV-2. Understanding more about the replication of these viruses is imperative in order to effectively find ways to control them.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/metabolism , Intracellular Membranes/metabolism , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/growth & development , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/growth & development , Infectious bronchitis virus/metabolism , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , Viral Replication Compartments/metabolism
3.
Appl Clin Inform ; 11(5): 802-806, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE: When hospitals are subject to prolonged surges in patients, such as during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, additional clinicians may be needed to care for the rapid increase of acutely ill patients. How might we quickly prepare a large number of ambulatory-based clinicians to care for hospitalized patients using the inpatient workflow of the electronic health record (EHR)? OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to create a successful training intervention which prepares ambulatory-based clinicians as they transition to inpatient services. METHODS: We created a training guide with embedded videos that describes the workflow of an inpatient clinician. We delivered this intervention via an e-mail hyperlink, a static hyperlink inside of the EHR, and an on-demand hyperlink within the EHR. RESULTS: In anticipation of the first peak of inpatients with COVID-19 in April 2020, the training manual was accessed 261 times by 167 unique users as clinicians anticipated being called into service. As our institution has not yet needed to deploy ambulatory-based clinicians for inpatient service, usage data of the training document is still pending. CONCLUSION: We intend that our novel implementation of a multimedia, highly accessible onboarding document with access from points inside and outside of the EHR will improve clinician performance and serve as a helpful example to other organizations during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/education , Inpatients , Inventions , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Clinical Competence , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Time Factors , User-Computer Interface
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