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1.
Hosp Pediatr ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe COVID-19-related pediatric hospitalizations during a period of B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance and to determine age-specific factors associated with severe illness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We abstracted data from medical charts to conduct a cross-sectional study of patients aged <21 years hospitalized at 6 US children's hospitals during July-August 2021 for COVID-19 or with an incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Among patients with COVID-19, we assessed factors associated with severe illness by calculating age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR). We defined severe illness as receiving high-flow nasal cannula, positive airway pressure, or invasive mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Of 947 hospitalized patients, 759 (80.1%) had COVID-19, of whom 287 (37.8%) had severe illness. Factors associated with severe illness included coinfection with RSV (PR 3.64) and bacteria (PR 1.88) in infants; RSV coinfection in patients aged 1-4 years (PR 1.96); and obesity in patients aged 5-11 (PR 2.20) and 12-17 years (PR 2.48). Having ≥2 underlying medical conditions was associated with severe illness in patients aged <1 (PR 1.82), 5-11 (PR 3.72), and 12-17 years (PR 3.19). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, factors associated with severe illness included RSV coinfection in those aged <5 years, obesity in those aged 5-17 years, and other underlying conditions for all age groups <18 years. These findings can inform pediatric practice, risk communication, and prevention strategies, including vaccination against COVID-19.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1766-1772, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727019

ABSTRACT

During June 2021, the highly transmissible† B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating strain in the United States. U.S. pediatric COVID-19-related hospitalizations increased during July-August 2021 following emergence of the Delta variant and peaked in September 2021.§ As of May 12, 2021, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccinations for persons aged ≥12 years,¶ and on November 2, 2021, COVID-19 vaccinations were recommended for persons aged 5-11 years.** To date, clinical signs and symptoms, illness course, and factors contributing to hospitalizations during the period of Delta predominance have not been well described in pediatric patients. CDC partnered with six children's hospitals to review medical record data for patients aged <18 years with COVID-19-related hospitalizations during July-August 2021.†† Among 915 patients identified, 713 (77.9%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 (acute COVID-19 as the primary or contributing reason for hospitalization), 177 (19.3%) had incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (asymptomatic or mild infection unrelated to the reason for hospitalization), and 25 (2.7%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare but serious inflammatory condition associated with COVID-19.§§ Among the 713 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 24.7% were aged <1 year, 17.1% were aged 1-4 years, 20.1% were aged 5-11 years, and 38.1% were aged 12-17 years. Approximately two thirds of patients (67.5%) had one or more underlying medical conditions, with obesity being the most common (32.4%); among patients aged 12-17 years, 61.4% had obesity. Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 15.8% had a viral coinfection¶¶ (66.4% of whom had respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] infection). Approximately one third (33.9%) of patients aged <5 years hospitalized for COVID-19 had a viral coinfection. Among 272 vaccine-eligible (aged 12-17 years) patients hospitalized for COVID-19, one (0.4%) was fully vaccinated.*** Approximately one half (54.0%) of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 received oxygen support, 29.5% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 1.5% died; of those requiring respiratory support, 14.5% required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Among pediatric patients with COVID-19-related hospitalizations, many had severe illness and viral coinfections, and few vaccine-eligible patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were vaccinated, highlighting the importance of vaccination for those aged ≥5 years and other prevention strategies to protect children and adolescents from COVID-19, particularly those with underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(7): e272-e274, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258811

ABSTRACT

The estimated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 seroprevalence in children was found to be 9.46% for the Washington Metropolitan area. Hispanic/Latinx individuals were found to have higher odds of seropositivity. While chronic medical conditions were not associated with having antibodies, previous fever and body aches were predictive symptoms.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/ethnology , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Maryland/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Virginia/epidemiology , West Virginia/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-2, 2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225460
6.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 44(3): 184-196, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165539

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic produced an abrupt and near shutdown of nonemergent patient care. Children's National Hospital (CNH) mounted a multidisciplinary, coordinated ambulatory response that included supply chain management, human resources, risk management, infection control, and information technology. To ensure patient access, CNH expanded telemedicine and instituted operational innovations for outpatient procedures. While monthly in-person ambulatory subspecialty visits decreased from 25 889 pre-COVID-19 to 4484 at nadir of the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine visits increased from 70 to 13 539. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of innovations in health care delivery and operations that the crisis prompted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Planning , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine
7.
J Pediatr ; 231: 157-161.e1, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056954

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographics, clinical features, and test results of children referred from their primary provider for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the community setting. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study of children ≤22 years of age who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 at a community-based specimen collection site in Washington, DC, affiliated with a large children's hospital between March 21 and May 16, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 1445 patients tested at the specimen collection site for SARS-CoV-2 virus, 408 (28.2%) had a positive polymerase chain reaction test. The daily positivity rate increased over the study period, from 5.4% during the first week to a peak of 47.4% (Ptrend < .001). Patients with fever (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3) or cough (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) and those with known contact with someone with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.4.) were more likely have a positive test, but these features were not highly discriminating. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of mildly symptomatic or well children and adolescents referred to a community drive-through/walk-up SARS-CoV-2 testing site because of risk of exposure or clinical illness, 1 in 4 patients had a positive test. Children and young adults represent a considerable burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Assessment of their role in transmission is essential to implementing appropriate control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Services , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , District of Columbia , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 174(11): 1028-1029, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713255
9.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate racial and/or ethnic and socioeconomic differences in rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among children. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of children tested for SARS-CoV-2 at an exclusively pediatric drive-through and walk-up SARS-CoV-2 testing site from March 21, 2020, to April 28, 2020. We performed bivariable and multivariable logistic regression to measure the association of patient race and/or ethnicity and estimated median family income (based on census block group estimates) with (1) SARS-CoV-2 infection and (2) reported exposure to SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Of 1000 children tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 20.7% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. In comparison with non-Hispanic white children (7.3%), minority children had higher rates of infection (non-Hispanic Black: 30.0%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.4]; Hispanic: 46.4%, aOR 6.3 [95% CI 3.3-11.9]). In comparison with children in the highest median family income quartile (8.7%), infection rates were higher among children in quartile 3 (23.7%; aOR 2.6 [95% CI 1.4-4.9]), quartile 2 (27.1%; aOR 2.3 [95% CI 1.2-4.3]), and quartile 1 (37.7%; aOR 2.4 [95% CI 1.3-4.6]). Rates of reported exposure to SARS-CoV-2 also differed by race and/or ethnicity and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of children tested for SARS-CoV-2 through a community-based testing site, racial and/or ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged children carry the highest burden of infection. Understanding and addressing the causes of these differences are needed to mitigate disparities and limit the spread of infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Epidemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Race Factors/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data
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