Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 151, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our goals are to quantify the impact on acute care utilization of a specialized COVID-19 clinic with an integrated remote patient monitoring program in an academic medical center and further examine these data with stakeholder perceptions of clinic effectiveness and acceptability. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was drawn from enrolled and unenrolled ambulatory patients who tested positive in May through September 2020 matched on age, presence of comorbidities and other factors. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with patients, frontline clinician, and administrators were analyzed in an inductive-deductive approach to identify key themes. RESULTS: Enrolled patients were more likely to be hospitalized than unenrolled patients (N = 11/137 in enrolled vs 2/126 unenrolled, p = .02), reflecting a higher admittance rate following emergency department (ED) events among the enrolled vs unenrolled, though this was not a significant difference (46% vs 25%, respectively, p = .32). Thirty-eight qualitative interviews conducted June to October 2020 revealed broad stakeholder belief in the clinic's support of appropriate care escalation. Contrary to beliefs the clinic reduced inappropriate care utilization, no difference was seen between enrolled and unenrolled patients who presented to the ED and were not admitted (N = 10/137 in enrolled vs 8/126 unenrolled, p = .76). Administrators and providers described the clinic's integral role in allowing health services to resume in other areas of the health system following an initial lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Acute care utilization and multi-stakeholder interviews suggest heightened outpatient observation through a specialized COVID-19 clinic and remote patient monitoring program may have contributed to an increase in appropriate acute care utilization. The clinic's role securing safe reopening of health services systemwide was endorsed as a primary, if unmeasured, benefit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Retrospective Studies
2.
J Patient Saf ; 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Opioid misuse has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in the United States, and safer opioid use represents an important challenge in the primary care setting. This article describes a research collaborative of health service researchers, systems engineers, and clinicians seeking to improve processes for safer chronic opioid therapy management in an academic primary care center. We present implementation results and lessons learned along with an intervention toolkit that others may consider using within their organization. METHODS: Using iterative improvement lifecycles and systems engineering principles, we developed a risk-based workflow model for patients on chronic opioids. Two key safe opioid use process metrics-percent of patients with recent opioid treatment agreements and urine drug tests-were identified, and processes to improve these measures were designed, tested, and implemented. Focus groups were conducted after the conclusion of implementation, with barriers and lessons learned identified via thematic analysis. RESULTS: Initial surveys revealed a lack of knowledge regarding resources available to patients and prescribers in the primary care clinic. In addition, 18 clinicians (69%) reported largely "inheriting" (rather than initiating) their chronic opioid therapy patients. We tracked 68 patients over a 4-year period. Although process measures improved, full adherence was not achieved for the entire population. Barriers included team structure, the evolving opioid environment, and surveillance challenges, along with disruptions resulting from the 2019 novel coronavirus. CONCLUSIONS: Safe primary care opioid prescribing requires ongoing monitoring and management in a complex environment. The application of a risk-based approach is possible but requires adaptability and redundancies to be reliable.

3.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(7): 1737-1747, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In August 2021, up to 30% of Americans were uncertain about taking the COVID-19 vaccine, including some healthcare personnel (HCP). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify barriers and facilitators of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) HCP vaccination program. DESIGN: We conducted key informant interviews with employee occupational health (EOH) providers, using snowball recruitment. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 43 VHA EOH providers representing 29 of VHA's regionally diverse healthcare systems. APPROACH: Thematic analysis elucidated 5 key themes and specific strategies recommended by EOH. KEY RESULTS: Implementation themes reflected logistics of distribution (supply), addressing any vaccine concerns or hesitancy (demand), and learning health system strategies/approaches for shared learnings. Specifically, themes included the following: (1) use interdisciplinary task forces to leverage diverse skillsets for vaccine implementation; (2) invest in processes and align resources with priorities, including creating detailed processes, addressing time trade-offs for personnel involved in vaccine clinics by suspending everything non-essential, designating process/authority to shift personnel where needed, and proactively involving leaders to support resource allocation/alignment; (3) expect and accommodate vaccine buy-in occurring over time: prepare for some HCP's slow buy-in, align buy-in facilitation with identities and motivation, and encourage word-of-mouth and hyper-local testimonials; (4) overcome misinformation with trustworthy communication: tailor communication to individuals and address COVID vaccines "in every encounter," leverage proactive institutional messaging to reinforce information, and invite bi-directional conversations about any vaccine concerns. A final overarching theme focused on learning health system needs and structures: (5) use existing and newly developed communication channels to foster shared learning across teams and sites. CONCLUSIONS: Expecting deliberation allows systems to prepare for complex distribution logistics (supply) and make room for conversations that are trustworthy, bi-directional, and identity aligned (demand). Ideally, organizations provide time for conversations that address individual concerns, foster bi-directional shared decision-making, respect HCP beliefs and identities, and emphasize shared identities as healthcare providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , United States , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Vaccination
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311154

ABSTRACT

Background: As of August 2021 up to 30% of Americans were uncertain about taking the COVID-19 vaccine. Some healthcare personnel (HCP) also delayed or declined vaccination. Objective Identify barriers and facilitators of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) HCP vaccination program Design: Key informant interviews with employee occupational health (EOH) providers Participants: 38 VHA EOH providers representing 26 of VHA’s regionally diverse healthcare systems. Approach: Thematic analysis elucidated 5 key themes, and specific strategies recommended by EOH Key Results: Implementation themes included: 1) Leverage diverse skillsets through multidisciplinary effort, specifically COVID-19 vaccination teams with clear goals/roles. 2) “ Focus like a laser” : invest in processes and align resources with priorities, including specific strategies of: creating detailed processes, eg. logistics plan to prevent wastage and allocate excess vaccine doses;addressing time trade-offs for personnel involved in vaccine clinics by suspending everything non-essential;designating process/authority to shift personnel where needed;and proactively involving leaders to support resource allocation/alignment. 3) Expect and accommodate vaccine buy-in occurring over time, including specific strategies of: preparing for some HCP slow buy-in;aligning buy-in facilitation with identities and motivation;encouraging word-of-mouth and hyper-local testimonials. 4) Overcome misinformation through trustworthy communication, with specific strategies including: tailoring communication to individuals and addressing COVID vaccines “in every encounter”;leveraging proactive institutional messaging (e.g., townhalls, Q&As) to reinforce information;inviting bi-directional conversations about hesitancy. 5) Use existing and newly developed communication channels to foster sharing and learning across teams and sites, eg. a national VHA EOH listserv. Conclusions Expecting deliberation allows systems to prepare for complex distribution logistics, and conversations that are trustworthy, bi-directional, and identity-aligned - overall supporting mandate goals. Ideally, organizations 1) provide time for conversations about vaccines;those conversations would 2) address individual concerns and foster bi-directional shared decision-making, 3) be informed by identity-based motivation, and 4) delivered by identity-concordant individuals.

5.
Digit Health ; 7: 20552076211067651, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582489

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown COVID-19 patients may have a low oxygen saturation (SpO2) independent of visible respiratory distress, a phenomenon termed "silent hypoxia." Silent hypoxia creates uncertainty in the outpatient setting for clinicians and patients alike. In this study, we examined the potential for pulse oximeters in identifying early signs of clinical deterioration. We report descriptive results on COVID-positive patients' experiences with a comprehensive home monitoring tool comprised of home SpO2 measurements with a novel symptom-tracking short message service/text messaging application. Of patients who required hospitalization, 83% sought care as a result of low pulse oximeter readings. Nearly all patients who did not require hospitalization reported that having a pulse oximeter provided them with the confidence to stay at home. Essentially all patients found a home pulse oximeter useful. Keeping COVID-19-positive patients at home reduces the potential for disease spread and prevents unnecessary costs and strain on the healthcare system.

6.
Adv Health Care Manag ; 202021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517972

ABSTRACT

Purpose: While COVID-19 has upended lives, it has also catalyzed innovation with potential to advance health delivery. Yet, we know little about how the delivery system, and primary care in particular, has responded and how this has impacted vulnerable patients. We aimed to understand the impact of COVID-19 on primary care practice sites and their vulnerable patients and to identify explanations for variation. Approach: We developed and administered a survey to practice managers and physician leaders from 173 primary care practice sites, October-November 2020. We report and graphically depict results from univariate analysis and examine potential explanations for variation in practices' process innovations in response to COVID-19 by assessing bivariate relationships between seven dependent variables and four independent variables. Findings: Among 96 (55.5%) respondents, primary care practice sites on average took more safety (8.5 of 12) than financial (2.5 of 17) precautions in response to COVID-19. Practice sites varied in their efforts to protect patients with vulnerabilities, providing care initially postponed, and experience with virtual visits. Financial risk, practice size, practitioner age, and emergency preparedness explained variation in primary care practices' process innovations. Many practice sites plan to sustain virtual visits, dependent mostly on patient and provider preference and continued reimbursement. Value: While findings indicate rapid and substantial innovation, conditions must enable primary care practice sites to build on and sustain innovations, to support care for vulnerable populations, including those with multiple chronic conditions and socio-economic barriers to health, and to prepare primary care for future emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vulnerable Populations
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049134, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee occupational health (EOH) providers were tasked with assuming a central role in coordinating employee COVID-19 screening and clearance for duty, representing entirely novel EOH responsibilities. In a rapid qualitative needs assessment, we aimed to identify learnings from the field to support the vastly expanding role of EOH providers in a national healthcare system. METHODS: We employed rapid qualitative analysis of key informant interviews in a maximal variation sample on the parameters of job type, rural versus urban and provider gender. We interviewed 21 VHA EOH providers between July and December 2020. This sample represents 15 facilities from diverse regions of the USA (large, medium and small facilities in the Mid-Atlantic; medium sites in the South; large facilities in the West and Pacific Northwest). RESULTS: Five interdependent needs included: (1) infrastructure to support employee population management, including tools that facilitate infection control measures such as contact tracing (eg, employee-facing electronic health records and coordinated databases); (2) mechanisms for information sharing across settings (eg, VHA listserv), especially for changing policy and protocols; (3) sufficiently resourced staffing using detailing to align EOH needs with human resource capital; (4) connected and resourced local and national leaders; and (5) strategies to support healthcare worker mental health.Our identified facilitators for EOH assuming new challenging and dynamically changing roles during COVID-19 included: (A) training or access to expertise; (B) existing mechanisms for information sharing; (C) flexible and responsive staffing; and (D) leveraging other institutional expertise not previously affiliated with EOH (eg, chaplains to support bereavement). CONCLUSIONS: Our needs assessment highlights local and system level barriers and facilitators of EOH assuming expanded roles during COVID-19. Integrating changes both within and across systems and with alignment of human capital will enable EOH preparedness for future challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Health Personnel , Humans , Needs Assessment , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Veterans Health , Workforce
8.
Health Secur ; 19(5): 508-520, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447554

ABSTRACT

Federal investment in emergency preparedness has increased notably since the 9/11 attacks, yet it is unclear if and how US hospital readiness has changed in the 20 years since then. In particular, understanding effective aspects of hospital emergency management programs is essential to improve healthcare systems' readiness for future disasters. The authors of this article examined the state of US hospital emergency management, focusing on the following question: During the COVID-19 pandemic, what aspects of hospital emergency management, including program components and organizational characteristics, were most effective in supporting and improving emergency preparedness and response? We conducted semistructured interviews of emergency managers and leaders at 12 urban and rural hospitals across the country. Through qualitative analysis of content derived from examination of transcripts from our interviews, we identified 7 dimensions of effective healthcare emergency management: (1) identify capable leaders; (2) assure robust institutional support; (3) design effective, tiered communications systems; (4) embrace the hospital incident command system to delineate roles and responsibilities; (5) actively promote collaboration and team building; (6) appreciate the necessity of training and exercises; and (7) balance structure and flexibility. These dimensions represent the unique and critical intersection of organizational factors and emergency management program characteristics at the core of hospital emergency preparedness and response. Extending these findings, we provide several recommendations for hospitals to better develop and sustain what we call a response culture in supporting effective emergency management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Med Care Res Rev ; 79(4): 475-486, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390448

ABSTRACT

The global scale and unpredictable nature of the current COVID-19 pandemic have put a significant burden on health care and public health leaders, for whom preparedness plans and evidence-based guidelines have proven insufficient to guide actions. This article presents a review of empirical articles on the topics of "crisis leadership" and "pandemic" across medical and business databases between 2003 (since SARS) and-December 2020 and has identified 35 articles for detailed analyses. We use the articles' evidence on leadership behaviors and skills that have been key to pandemic responses to characterize the types of leadership competencies commonly exhibited in a pandemic context. Task-oriented competencies, including preparing and planning, establishing collaborations, and conducting crisis communication, received the most attention. However, people-oriented and adaptive-oriented competencies were as fundamental in overcoming the structural, political, and cultural contexts unique to pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Leadership , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL