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1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1247, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967428

ABSTRACT

Introduction Vaccines have emerged as our primary line of defence against the scourge of COVID-19. Patients with cirrhosis have a higher risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality and are thus high priority patients for vaccination. However, cirrhotics were excluded from the phase 2 and 3 trials of COVID-19 vaccines. Hence, we aimed to assess the seroconversion rate and safety of currently available COVID-19 vaccines in India, namely COVISHIELD (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) and COVAXIN (BBV 152), in patients with cirrhosis. Methods All patients who had attended tele-hepatology services at our institute from March 2020 to June 2021 and diagnosed with cirrhosis as per their medical records were telephonically interviewed in July 2021 using a pre-specified questionnaire. Patients who had completed full course of vaccine (with the 2nd dose being administered at least 2 weeks back) and without history of documented COVID-19 infection (pre or post vaccination) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies using an automated chemiluminescent assay (Orthoclinical Diagnostics). Our primary outcome was seroconversion in patients with cirrhosis who had received complete COVID-19 vaccination. Secondary outcomes included vaccine acceptance, documented COVID-19 infection post-vaccination and adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines in cirrhosis. Results We identified and interviewed 784 patients with cirrhosis [compensated: 213 (27.2%), decompensated 561 (72.8%)] with a mean age of 51.07 ± 8.53 years. Two eighty-three (36.1%) patients had received at least 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine [COVISHIELD: 231 (29.5%), COVAXIN: 52 (6.6%)] and 159 (20.3%) patients had completed full course of vaccination with 2 doses [COVISHIELD: 134 (17.1%), COVAXIN: 25 (3.2%)]. Documented COVID-19 (on RT-PCR) was reported in 3.2% (9/283) patients who had received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine while breakthrough COVID-19 (at-least 2 weeks after administration of 2nd dose) was reported in 3.1% (5/159). Adverse events were reported by 19.8% (56/283) patients with the most common being fever (13.1%), myalgia (5.6%) and sore throat (1.1%). No grade III/IV adverse events were reported. So far, 100 fully vaccinated patients (COVISHIELD: 88, COVAXIN: 12) have been tested for seroconversion. Seroconversion rate with COVISHIELD and COVAXIN were 92% (81/88) and 91.7% (11/ 12), respectively. Seropositive patients were divided into high, moderate, and low antibody responses based on the observed signal/cut-off response and no differences were observed between patients with compensated and decompensated cirrhosis (Table 1). There was no correlation between antibody signal/cut-off ratios and CTP (tau: 0.07, p=0.32) or MELD (tau: 0.08, p=0.29) scores. Conclusion Our preliminary data suggests that currently available COVID-19 vaccines in India are safe with high seroconversion rates in patients with cirrhosis. (Table Presented)

2.
Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961340

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to identify key supply chain challenges and opportunities of the case of Hong Kong toy manufacturing company during the COVID-19 outbreak and develop a comprehensive structural relationship to rank them. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a toy model company in Hong Kong is considered to discuss about what challenges and opportunities have the biggest impacts on non-necessary goods companies and how to deal with different impacts on entire supply chain flow disruption during COVID-19. A semi-structured interview with five decision-makers from the company was made to give key challenges and opportunities scores. The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) technique is used to establish the model and rank them afterward to overcome the challenges. Findings: From the data analysis and results, “salary of employee” and “inconvenient transportation” have emerged as top and bottom key challenges respectively. The sequence of organized challenges in the list needs to mitigate one by one in this order to improve the supply chain performance. The “client's orders’ frequency, customer management” and “supplier/partner relationship management” are identified as the top and bottom respectively to develop the opportunities. Research limitations/implications: These key challenges and opportunities are identified as contributing attributes and provide the way to measure to improve production, profits and sustainable growth of the toy manufacturing company during a pandemic. Moreover, it helps to improve the distribution level and good planning with appropriate decision making to manage the supply chain performance considering humanitarian aspects during a pandemic outbreak. Originality/value: The novelty of this study is to identify the key supply chain challenges and opportunities measured by the TOPSIS method to rank them and consider the case of a Hong Kong toy manufacturing company as a case-based approach to measuring its performance during the COVID-19 outbreak. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

3.
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961635

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has increased the demand for antioxidant and micronutrient-rich foods that are easy to prepare, consume, and require less handling. In this research, we worked on the development of nutritious extruded snack made from barnyard millet, defatted soy flour, Indian gooseberry powder, and rice flour. Box–Behnken Design of Response Surface Methodology was utilized to determine the influence of process variables viz;blend ratio of barnyard millet and defatted soy flour, extruder barrel temperature, and Indian gooseberry powder on nutritional and organoleptic properties of snack. Optimized extruded snack were attained at blend ratio (6:1), barrel temperature (115°C), and Indian gooseberry (12.25 g/100 g of total flour). Extruded snack presented good overall acceptability along with high fiber (16.84 g/100 g), protein (18.91 g/100 g), total phenol (67.51 mg GAE/100 g), and total flavonoid (153.61 mg RE/100 g) content. Microbial analysis indicates that extruded snack can be stored for up to 60 days without microbial contamination. Novelty impact statement: The pandemic has made people refocus on the foods that are nutritious, yet take less time to prepare and handle. In the present research, we explored the use of locally available and low-cost barnyard millet and defatted soy flour coupled with Indian gooseberry powder—a rich source of antioxidants and rice flour for the preparation of nutritious snack. Extrudates developed with a higher blend ratio at higher barrel temperature and enriched with Indian gooseberry content displayed excellent nutritional, bioactive, and dimensional characteristics. The study will help formulate extruded snack with high protein, antioxidants, as well as fiber content. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

4.
International Journal of Clinical Dentistry ; 15(2):347-356, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958501

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The study aimed at evaluating orthodontics and dental emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: An online-questionnaire survey was developed using google form and sent to orthodontists and dental surgeons in Nepal, practicing during the pandemic. Responses were collected and statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0. Result: It was seen that the most frequently encountered orthodontic emergencies were due to, loose brackets (60%) and poking wires (47.6%) followed by loose bands (31.4%) and debonded loose buccal tubes (30.5%). Most frequently reported dental emergencies were broken or loose removable prosthesis and broken or loose crowns and/or bridges (13.3%) followed by bleeding while brushing (41.9%), swelling due to periodontal origin (33.1%), and severe pain due to tooth decay (44.8%). Conclusion: Loosening of brackets and poking wires were the most frequently reported orthodontic emergencies while, broken or loose prosthesis were reported commonly during the pandemic. © 2022 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

5.
Journal of Cardiac Critical Care ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956441
6.
IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948860

ABSTRACT

Healthcare systems are equipped with the latest technological advancement and remotely diagnose the patients. In critical conditions, the patients need continuous monitoring by health experts, which is almost impossible in many cases—for example- in the recent COVID-19 crisis when the hospitals are full of infected people. The advanced cyber-physical system (CPS) based medical devices supplement this monitoring system. Health specialists can connect with patients remotely and receive updated health reports simultaneously using Internet-enabled CPS devices. Due to the openness of security protocols, transferring information in the CPS module is a challenging task. Securing health data, on the other hand, is critical. Existing data security techniques, such as RSA and DSA, have drawbacks;one of the most prominent drawbacks of all existing data security strategies is a lack of resources. This study proposed a lightweight data security technique for sharing information in real-time to address this problem. The proposed approach is generalized, as it will work with all categories of data and provide security to the critical information of healthcare data. Additionally, the model is tested with the cross-platform dataset of different categories like.txt, .pdf, .doc, .png, etc., and found promising outcomes. IEEE

7.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS THEORY, APPLICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT (GISTAM) ; : 75-81, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939296

ABSTRACT

There is a growing need for spatial privacy considerations in the many geo-spatial technologies that have been created as solutions for COVID-19-related issues. Although effective geo-spatial technologies have already been rolled out, most have significantly sacrificed privacy for utility. In this paper, we explore spatial k-anonymity, a privacy-preserving method that can address this unnecessary tradeoff by providing the best of both privacy and utility. After evaluating its past implications in geo-spatial use cases, we propose applications of spatial k-anonymity in the data sharing and managing of COVID-19 contact tracing technologies as well as heat maps showing a user's travel history. We then justify our propositions by comparing spatial k-anonymity with several other spatial privacy methods, including differential privacy, geo-indistinguishability, and manual consent based redaction. Our hope is to raise awareness of the ever-growing risks associated with spatial privacy and how they can be solved with Spatial K-anonymity.

9.
JMS - Journal of Medical Society ; 35(3):118-121, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1934421

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 since its inception from the month of December 2019 has been associated with myriads of systemic complication apart from the respiratory failure, with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) being one of the prominent neurological complication. More than 220 patients with GBS have been reported thus far. We wish to share 3 cases of GBS associated with COVID 19 admitted in our institute. GBS is one of the most common causes of acute, acquired weakness and is often provoked by a preceding infection, which triggers an immune response, cross-reacts with shared epitopes on peripheral nerve (molecular mimicry). Interestingly one of the cases developed limb weakness concurrently with the respiratory symptoms, probably during the viremic phase;the other 2 cases few weeks after recovering from COVID 19. So, is there a specific association with covid 19 and GBS? If associated, is it Para infectious or Post infectious? Further studies are needed to unravel its association with COVID 19. © 2022 Journal of Medical Society.

10.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2816-2823, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934408

ABSTRACT

Background: Estimating seroepidemiolgical prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody is an essential public health strategy. There is insufficient evidence of prevalence among those belonging to young age population in India.

11.
5th ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency, FAccT 2022 ; : 160-172, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932814

ABSTRACT

On March 23, 2020, the Government of India (GoI) announced one of the strictest nationwide lockdowns in the world to curb the spread of novel SARS-CoV-2, otherwise known as CoVID-19. The country came to a standstill overnight and the service industry, including small businesses and restaurants, took a massive financial hit. The unknown nature of the virus and its spread deepened anxiety among the general public, quickly turning to distrust towards any "outside"contact with goods and people. In the hopes of (re)building consumer trust, food delivery platforms Zomato and Swiggy began providing digital solutions to exhibit care towards their customers, including: (1) sharing delivery workers' live temperatures alongside the workers' profile inside the app;(2) mandating the use of the controversial contact tracing app Aarogya Setu for the workers;(3) monitoring workers' usage of masks through random selfie requests;and (4) sharing specific worker vaccination details on the app for customers to view, including vaccination date and the vaccine's serial number. Such invasive data gathering infrastructures to address public health threats have long focused on the surveillance of laborers, migrants, and the bodies of other marginalized communities. Framed as public health management, such biometric and health data gathering is treated as a necessary feature of caring for the well-being of the general public. However, such datafication practices - ones which primarily focus on the extraction of data from one specific community in order to mollify the concerns of another - normalizes the false perception that disease is transmitted unidirectionally: from worker to the consumer. By centering food delivery workers' experiences during the pandemic and examining the normalization of such surveillance in the name of care and recovery, this paper aims to examine how new regimes of care are manufactured and legitimized using harmful and unethical datafication practices. © 2022 ACM.

12.
1st International Conference on Informatics, ICI 2022 ; : 137-142, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932110

ABSTRACT

Virtual Reality (VR) has been incorporated in almost every possible application domain, but majority of the online shopping platforms are providing their customers only simple two-dimensional image-based and text-based interfaces to shop upon. This kind of monotonous shopping environment not only makes consumers lose their interest in shopping but also restricts personalized services to consumers such as providing healthier alternatives to the products or providing with suggestions based on their past shopping pattern [1]. Keeping these issues in mind the prototype of a VR based game 'Virtual Bazar' is proposed which allows its users to shop in a Virtual Reality supermarket environment. The proposed model keeps a check on the Calorie requirements set by the user, shows Nutritional Information of products and create awareness for Healthier Products. It consists of two runs, in the first run users add items to their cart based on their desires with no warnings and nutritional values being shown. In the second run users are shown Nutritional information regarding products along with warnings on products having high Sugar or Carbohydrate values and with these suggestions the user again adds items to the cart. Based on the items of the two shopping lists, separate scores are calculated and analyzed. 50 different people within the age bracket of 20-35 years have played this game and ANNOVA Test has been performed on the scores obtained by these players. The results suggest that the players were benefited by the game as they learnt to choose healthier products. © 2022 IEEE.

13.
1st International Conference on Informatics, ICI 2022 ; : 98-102, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932109

ABSTRACT

Epidemics can prove to be disastrous, which has been further emphasized by the recent COVID-19 pandemic, and several countries like India lack sufficient resources to meet the population's needs. It is therefore important that the limited testing and protective resources are utilized such that the disease spread is minimized and their reach to the most vulnerable demographic is maximized. This paper studies the scope of intelligent agents in aiding authorities with such policy-making decisions. This is done by exploring the performance of various action selection methods on custom environments dealing with socio-economic groups and Indian states. Experiments using multi-armed bandit techniques provide greater insight into administrative decisions surrounding resource allocation and their future potential for greater use in similar scenarios. © 2022 IEEE.

14.
1st International Conference on Applied Artificial Intelligence and Computing, ICAAIC 2022 ; : 225-231, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932080

ABSTRACT

Preventive medical care relies on vaccinations to provide significant health benefits. Vaccination is an important and effective preventive health measure. There is no better way to reduce the risk of pandemic spread of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 than vaccination. As a preventive measure, the government has begun vaccinating Indians against Corona infection. It is therefore important, in addition to developing and supplying vaccines, that enough people are willing to obtain vaccines. However, of the populations worldwide, there are concerning proportions that are reluctant to get vaccinated. In order to end the pandemic, it is highly essential to deal with another omnipresent issue: outright rejection of vaccinations. To achieve population immunity first we have to find the non-vaccinated population should be detected and to this end, this project proposed an Aadhaar-based facial recognition system is used to find non-vaccinated citizen and alert them using Artificial Intelligence. Deep learning which is in the form of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are used to carry out the face recognition process and it is also proven to be an efficient method to carry out face recognition due to its high fidelity. A CNN is a Deep Neural Network (DNN), which is designed to perform challenging tasks like image processing, which is crucial for facial recognition. The CNN structure is composed of numerous layers of neurons that connect the neurons: an input layer, an output layer, and layers between these two layers. In the midst of the epidemic coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19), a person's current inoculation status will be updated based on face recognition to safeguard him/her from COVID-19 and it may also serve as proof of vaccination for other purposes. Facial recognition technology (FRT) along with the Aadhaar helps to authenticate people before entering into any types of service. This project provides COVID-19 immunization status, which is determined by observing at their face, and certify that they have been vaccinated. © 2022 IEEE.

15.
Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research ; 39(Special Issue (2):48-59, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1929360

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated inflammatory cytokine storm that worsens COVID-19, relies heavily on the inflammatory response. IL-6, a TH1 cytokine, PCT and CRP have been linked to serious illness and a higher mortality rate. We further tried to evaluate the role of these indicators and their association with clinical severity in COVID-19 patients. Material and Methods: Eighty-three consecutive patients with age 18 years with RT-PCR test positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included in the study. Demographic characteristics (age and sex), underlying co-morbidities, symptoms, physical findings, and laboratory tests of the patients were recorded. All patients were categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 disease, according to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The levels of IL-6 and PCT were estimated by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) using Cobas-e411 Immunoassay System, and Quantitative CRP was done by Unicorn-230 automated biochemistry analyzer to find out their correlation with disease severity and outcome. Multiple Regression was performed to find out factors associated with the adverse outcome of the disease. Result: Mean age of patients was 51 years. IL-6, CRP, and PCT levels increased in 73%, 68.0%, and 8.2% patients on admission, respectively. The most common co-morbidity associated with the disease was hypertension (25%), followed by diabetes (24%) and respiratory disease (15%). Increased IL-6, CRP, and PCT levels were found in 77 percent, 79 percent, and 20 percent of patients, respectively. We found that IL-6 (P0.05), CRP (P0.05), and PCT (P0.05) were significantly raised in COVID-19 patients with increasing severity of the disease. The Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of these parameters ranged between 0.65 and 0.8 (IL-6, 0.828;CRP, 0.809;and PCT, 0.658), indicating a reliable biomarker to assess clinical severity.

16.
International Journal of Healthcare Management ; : 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1927237
17.
Human Computer Interaction thematic area of the 24th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2022 ; 13304 LNCS:546-565, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919633

ABSTRACT

Using intelligent virtual assistants for controlling employee population in workspaces is a research area that remains unexplored. This paper presents a novel application of virtual humans to enforce Covid-19 safety measures in a corporate workplace. For this purpose, we develop a virtual assistant platform, Chloe, equipped with automatic temperature sensing, facial recognition, and dedicated chatbots to act as an initial filter for ensuring public health. Whilst providing an engaging user interaction experience, Chloe minimizes human to human contact, thus reducing the spread of infectious diseases. Chloe restricts the employee population within the office to government-approved safety norms. We experimented with Chloe as a virtual safety assistant in a company, where she interacted and screened the employees for Covid-19 symptoms. Participants filled an online survey to quantify Chloe’s performance in terms of interactivity, system latency, engagement, and accuracy, for which we received positive feedback. We performed statistical analysis on the survey results that reveal positive results and show effectiveness of Chloe in such applications. We detail system architecture, results and limitations. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

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20.
5th International Conference on Smart Computing and Informatics, SCI 2021 ; 283:305-311, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899059

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the outburst of the respiratory illness called COVID-19. In this infection, virus enters the cells and makes multiple copies of themselves. Screening of COVID-19 can be done efficiently using CT-scan images. Due to the presence of several anomalous details and undesirable distortions, COVID-19-infected areas overlap. Hence, enhancement becomes a necessity. This paper illustrates an improved unsharp masking (UM) filter with morphological filter (MF) for COVID-19 CT-scan images. Here, two flat disk-shaped structuring element are used with top-hat and bottom-hat operations. This technique improves the contrast and edge sharpening of the images. The quality of the obtained enhanced image is evaluated by average gradient (AG) showing efficient result of the proposed filter with significant enhancement and edge sharpening. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

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