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1.
Annals of Neurosciences ; : 09727531211052971, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1613184

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has given the world a big blow and has forced the entire world to develop a new thought process. To cope with the stress of lockdown, it was important for people to indulge in educational and health activities to save them from the threats being caused by the news and social media. A Facebook page named Yoga scholars Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) was created where three sessions were held per day for 225 days regularly. This activity resulted in people adopting an integrative approach towards alternative medicine. This also made possible a trial of Ashwagandha for COVID-19 treatment by the Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) ministry.

2.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):734-735, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584392

ABSTRACT

Prolonged detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA has been observed in hospitalized congregate care patients following resolution of clinical symptoms. It is unknown whether patients with persistent PCR positivity pose a risk for COVID-19 transmission. The purpose of this study was to examine the results of serial PCR testing, viral load, and viral culture in patients awaiting discharge prior to a negative PCR test. We sampled 14 patients who were admitted from skilled nursing and/or rehabilitation facilities to a large academic medical center, had clinical signs and symptoms of COVID-19, and had multiple PCR-positive tests separated by at least 14 days. PCR-positive nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from each patient for viral load quantification and viral culture. The mean age of patients was 72.5 years (55 – 92), with a mean peak SOFA score of 5.6 (1 – 11). Patients were hospitalized for a mean of 37.0 days (25 – 60). RNA was detected by PCR for a mean of 32.9 days (19 – 47). Mean viral load for the first PCR-positive nasopharyngeal swab collected at our hospital was 5.81 genomic copies/mL (2.12 – 9.72). Viral load decreased significantly with days from clinical symptom onset (R = -0.69, 95% CI, -0.80 – -0.55). Four out of 28 samples grew active virus via culture, with no active virus isolates after 2 days of symptom onset. Our viral culture data suggests that persistent PCR positivity may not correlate with infectivity, which has important implications for COVID-19 infection control precautions among older congregate care patients.

3.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296638

ABSTRACT

To date, more than 263 million people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. In many countries, the global spread came in several pandemic waves characterized by the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we report on a sequence- and structural-bioinformatics analysis by which we estimate the impact of amino acid exchanges on the affinity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) to the human receptor hACE2. This is carried out by qualitative electrostatics and hydrophobicity analysis as well as through molecular dynamics simulations used for the development of a highly accurate linear interaction energy (LIE) binding affinity model that was calibrated on a large set of experimental binding energies. For the newest variant of concern (VOC), B.1.1.529 Omicron, our Halo difference point cloud studies reveal the largest impact on the RBD binding interface compared to any other VOC. Moreover, according to our LIE model, Omicron achieved a substantially higher ACE2 binding affinity than the wild-type and in particular the highest among all VOCs except for Alpha and therefore requires special attention and monitoring. Using this prediction model we provide early structural insight and binding properties before experimentally determined complex structures and binding affinity data become available in the upcoming months.

4.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; PP2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532698

ABSTRACT

Rapid increase in viral outbreaks has resulted in the spread of viral diseases in diverse species and across geographical boundaries. The zoonotic viral diseases have greatly affected the well-being of humans, and the COVID-19 pandemic is a burning example. The existing antivirals have low efficacy, severe side effects, high toxicity, and limited market availability. As a result, natural substances have been tested for antiviral activity. The host defense molecules like antiviral peptides (AVPs) are present in plants and animals and protect them from invading viruses. However, obtaining AVPs from natural sources for preparing synthetic peptide drugs is expensive and time-consuming. As a result, an in-silico model is required for identifying new AVPs. We proposed Deep-AVPpred, a deep learning classifier for discovering AVPs in protein sequences, which utilises the concept of transfer learning with a deep learning algorithm. The proposed classifier outperformed state-of-the-art classifiers and achieved approximately 94% and 93% precision on validation and test sets, respectively. The high precision indicates that Deep-AVPpred can be used to propose new AVPs for synthesis and experimentation. By utilising Deep-AVPpred, we identified novel AVPs in human interferons- family proteins. These AVPs can be chemically synthesised and experimentally verified for their antiviral activity against different viruses. The Deep-AVPpred is deployed as a web server and is made freely available at https://deep-avppred.anvil.app, which can be utilised to predict novel AVPs for developing antiviral compounds for use in human and veterinary medicine.

5.
Adv Integr Med ; 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520635

ABSTRACT

Background: Amidst the adversities of the COVID 19 pandemic, the health care system has seen a new paradigm shift towards e-health services. In the advent of catering to the geometrically increasing health care needs of the patients suffering from various chronic health conditions when in social isolation, the need for the shift seems to be paramount. Patients with Ankylosing spondylitis under immunosuppressants and variable degrees of disabilities are at higher risk. This study aims to assess the efficacy of e-Yoga as a treatment option for these patients in need. Methods: This is a single-center, parallel-group prospective randomized, open-blinded end-point trial. Patients aged between 30 to 50 years will be recruited from the members of Antardhwani: A society of ankylosing spondylitis, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The yoga experts will administer a scientifically developed and validated Yoga module via e-Yoga modalities. A total of 135 patients will be recruited and randomly allocated to Yoga and control groups. Data will be recorded at baseline and three months on disease activity, degree of functional limitations in patients, quality of life, inflammatory biomarkers, depression, and anxiety using Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Functional Index(BASFI), AS Quality of Life index(ASQOL), C reactive protein (CRP), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Physical health questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), respectively. Discussion: The study will report the efficacy of e-Yoga in catering to the physical and mental insufficiencies of inpatients with Ankylosing spondylitis amidst Covid 19 pandemic. The study is prospectively registered in the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI/2020/08/027215).

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051209, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The conceptualisation of healthy ageing phenotype (HAP) and the availability of a tentative panel for HAP biomarkers raise the need to test the efficacy of potential interventions to promote health in older adults. This study protocol reports the methodology for a 24-week programme to explore the holistic influence of the yoga-based intervention on the (bio)markers of HAP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is a two-armed, randomised waitlist controlled trial with blinded outcome assessors and multiple primary outcomes. We aim to recruit 250 subjects, aged 60-80 years from the residential communities and old age clubs in Bangalore city, India, who will undergo randomisation into intervention or control arms (1:1). The intervention will include a yoga-based programme tailored for the older adults, 1 hour per day for 6 days a week, spread for 24 weeks. Data would be collected at the baseline and post-intervention, the 24th week. The multiple primary outcomes of the study are the (bio)markers of HAP: glycated haemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s for physiological and metabolic health; Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Trail Making Tests A and B for cognition; hand grip strength and gait speed for physical capability; loneliness for social well-being and WHO Quality of Life Instrument-Short Form for quality of life. The secondary outcomes include inflammatory markers, tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor II, C reactive protein, interleukin 6 and serum Klotho levels. Analyses will be by intention-to-treat and the holistic impact of yoga on HAP will be assessed using global statistical test. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana University, Bangalore (ID: RES/IEC-SVYASA/143/2019). Written informed consent will be obtained from each participant prior to inclusion. Results will be available through research articles and conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CTRI/2021/02/031373.


Subject(s)
Healthy Aging , Yoga , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hand Strength , Health Promotion , Humans , India , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
SN Compr Clin Med ; : 1-6, 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471852

ABSTRACT

BOAST (British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma & Orthopaedics) guidelines recommended that during the coronavirus pandemic most upper limb fractures should be treated conservatively, and removable casts should be used, where possible. As a result, our district general hospital started using a new soft combination (soft-combi) casting technique for conservative management of distal radius fractures (DRFs) in an attempt to reduce follow-up attendances. To assess if radiological outcomes of soft-combi casts are better or worse than previously used rigid casts for DRFs. Twenty DRFs treated with soft-combi casts were compared with 20 DRFs treated with the old rigid cast types. Radiological parameters were measured pre-manipulation, post-manipulation, at 2-week follow-up, and at final follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to assess for significant differences seen at follow-up between the groups. The mean loss of volar angulation seen at 2-week follow-up was 4.9° for the rigid casts vs. 1.5° for the soft-combi casts (p = 0.158; 95% CI, - 8.17 to 1.38). The mean loss of radial height after 2 weeks was 0.2 mm vs 0.5 mm (p = 0.675; 95% CI, - 1.09 to 1.66), and the mean loss of radial inclination was 2.0° vs 1.0° (p = 0.349; 95% CI, - 2.96 to 1.07), respectively. The soft-combi casts appeared to be equally effective at maintaining the reduction of DRFs compared to their rigid counterparts, as no statistically significant difference was seen in our study. We can be reassured that continued use of these removable casts in the current climate is unlikely to have a detrimental effect on outcomes for DRFs.

8.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-20, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467228

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a member of beta coronaviruses, is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. With global fatalities of the pandemic exceeding 4.57 million, it becomes crucial to identify effective therapeutics against the virus. A protease, 3CLpro, is responsible for the proteolysis of viral polypeptides into functional proteins, which is essential for viral pathogenesis. This indispensable activity of 3CLpro makes it an attractive target for inhibition studies. The current study aimed to identify potential lead molecules against 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2 using a manually curated in-house library of antiviral compounds from mangrove plants. This study employed the structure-based virtual screening technique to evaluate an in-house library of antiviral compounds against 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2. The library was comprised of thirty-three experimentally proven antiviral molecules extracted from different species of tropical mangrove plants. The molecules in the library were virtually screened using AutoDock Vina, and subsequently, the top five promising 3CLpro-ligand complexes along with 3CLpro-N3 (control molecule) complex were subjected to MD simulations to comprehend their dynamic behaviour and structural stabilities. Finally, the MM/PBSA approach was used to calculate the binding free energies of 3CLpro complexes. Among all the studied compounds, Catechin achieved the most significant binding free energy (-40.3 ± 3.1 kcal/mol), and was closest to the control molecule (-42.8 ± 5.1 kcal/mol), and its complex with 3CLpro exhibited the highest structural stability. Through extensive computational investigations, we propose Catechin as a potential therapeutic agent against SARS-CoV-2. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

9.
Current behavioral neuroscience reports ; : 1-7, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1451786

ABSTRACT

<h4>Purpose of Review</h4> To explore the immunological underpinnings of psychosis in the COVID-19 patients. <h4>Recent Findings</h4> COVID-19 pandemic led to a surge in psychiatric morbidities, including psychosis. Various putative biological and psychosocial changes have been implicated in COVID-19-related psychosis. COVID-19 is a proinflammatory state. Alterations in immunological processes both as a direct consequence of infection or secondary to the hyperimmune response heuristically explain the etiopathogenesis of psychosis in the affected individual. The uses of immunosuppressant and immunomodulatory drugs may be the other moderators of a psychotic presentation in COVID-19 patients. Evidence to substantiate this hypothesis is still lacking however, which further studies should address. Because of its management implications, a better understanding of the involved immunological mechanisms becomes extremely important. <h4>Summary</h4> Evidence suggests a putative role of immunological alterations in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related psychosis. The immunological abnormalities are primarily attributed to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection, medications used, and stress.

10.
Ann Neurosci ; 28(1-2): 21-28, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438213

ABSTRACT

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) contributes to high mortality and morbidity because of its major complications related to kidney, heart, brain, and eyes. It also poses a high risk for mortality because of COVID-19. Studies suggest the possible implications of Yoga in delaying or attenuating such complications. Methodology: This was a pan-India multi centered cluster-randomized (4 level) two-armed trial in the rural and urban population of all populous states of India. Data were obtained using mobile app in all adults in the household of the selected clusters. Results: We report the diabetes related complications in 16623 adults (48% males, 52% females) from 65 districts (1 in 10 districts, 2011 census) of 29 (out of 35) states and Union Territories of India; mean age was 48.2 ± 12.46 years. Out of this 40% lived in rural and 62% in urban locations. In high risk diabetes individuals (scored ≥ 60 points on Indian diabetes risk score key), 18.0% had self-reported history of (peripheral neuropathy, 6.1% had h/o major strokes, 5.5% had minor strokes (transient ischemic episodes), 18.1% had lower limb claudication, 20.5% leg ulcers, 4.4% had h/o cardiac surgery, 4.8% angioplasty, and 15.1% had diabetes retinopathy. Complications were higher in rural than in urban areas, higher in people with extended duration of diabetes. Integrated yoga module for three months (one hour daily) showed significantly better reduction in symptoms related to complications as compared to control group (P < .001). Conclusion: The alarming high prevalence of complications in diabetes population calls for urgent action, where yoga may show the benefits in reduction of symptoms of complications.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103525, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While our battle with the COVID-19 pandemic continues, a multitude of Omics data have been generated from patient samples in various studies. Translation of these data into clinical interventions against COVID-19 remains to be accomplished. Exploring host response to COVID-19 in the upper respiratory tract can unveil prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of published transcriptome and proteome profiles of respiratory samples of COVID-19 patients to shortlist high confidence upregulated host factors. Subsequently, mRNA overexpression of selected genes was validated in nasal swabs from a cohort of COVID-19 positive/negative, symptomatic/asymptomatic individuals. Guided by this analysis, we sought to check for potential drug targets. An FDA-approved drug, Auranofin, was tested against SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture and Syrian hamster challenge model. FINDINGS: The meta-analysis and validation in the COVID-19 cohort revealed S100 family genes (S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, and S100P) as prognostic markers of severe COVID-19. Furthermore, Thioredoxin (TXN) was found to be consistently upregulated. Auranofin, which targets Thioredoxin reductase, was found to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Furthermore, oral administration of Auranofin in Syrian hamsters in therapeutic as well as prophylactic regimen reduced viral replication, IL-6 production, and inflammation in the lungs. INTERPRETATION: Elevated mRNA level of S100s in the nasal swabs indicate severe COVID-19 disease, and FDA-approved drug Auranofin mitigated SARS-CoV-2 replication in preclinical hamster model. FUNDING: This study was supported by the DBT-IISc partnership program (DBT (IED/4/2020-MED/DBT)), the Infosys Young Investigator award (YI/2019/1106), DBT-BIRAC grant (BT/CS0007/CS/02/20) and the DBT-Wellcome Trust India Alliance Intermediate Fellowship (IA/I/18/1/503613) to ST lab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Nasopharynx/virology , Proteome/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Adult , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Male , Mesocricetus , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/pathology , Pandemics , Prognosis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Up-Regulation/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics
12.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e13901, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346766

ABSTRACT

HIV-1 infects lymphoid and myeloid cells, which can harbor a latent proviral reservoir responsible for maintaining lifelong infection. Glycolytic metabolism has been identified as a determinant of susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, but its role in the development and maintenance of HIV-1 latency has not been elucidated. By combining transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses, we here show that transition to latent HIV-1 infection downregulates glycolysis, while viral reactivation by conventional stimuli reverts this effect. Decreased glycolytic output in latently infected cells is associated with downregulation of NAD+ /NADH. Consequently, infected cells rely on the parallel pentose phosphate pathway and its main product, NADPH, fueling antioxidant pathways maintaining HIV-1 latency. Of note, blocking NADPH downstream effectors, thioredoxin and glutathione, favors HIV-1 reactivation from latency in lymphoid and myeloid cellular models. This provides a "shock and kill effect" decreasing proviral DNA in cells from people living with HIV/AIDS. Overall, our data show that downmodulation of glycolysis is a metabolic signature of HIV-1 latency that can be exploited to target latently infected cells with eradication strategies.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV-1 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Down-Regulation , Glycolysis , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Proteomics , Virus Activation , Virus Latency
13.
EClinicalMedicine ; 38: 101038, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322078

ABSTRACT

Background: We provide the first post-approval safety analysis of COVISHIELD in health care workers (HCWs) in northern India. Methods: This continuing prospective observational study (February 2021 to May 2022) enrolled participants ≥18 years receiving COVISHIELD vaccination. Primary outcome was safety and reactogenicity. Categories (FDA toxicity grading) and outcomes of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) were recorded, causality assessment performed, and risk factors analysed. Findings: We present the results of an interim analysis of 804 participants. AEFIs following first dose were reported in 321 (40%; systemic involvement in 248). Among 730 participants who completed a 7-day follow-up post second dose, AEFIs occurred in 115 (15.7%; systemic in 99). Majority of AEFIs were mild-moderate and resolved spontaneously. Serious AEFIs, leading to hospitalization was noticed in 1 (0.1%) participant with suspicion of immunization stress related response (ISRR). AEFIs of grade 3 severity (FDA) were recorded in 4 participants (0.5%). No deaths were recorded. Regression analysis showed increased risk of AEFIs in younger individuals, a two times higher odds in females, those with hypertension or with history of allergy; and three times higher odds in individuals with hypothyroidism. Interpretation: COVISHIELD carries an overall favourable safety profile with AEFI rates much less than reported for other adenoviral vaccines. Females, those with hypertension, individuals with history of allergy and hypothyroidism may need watchful vaccine administration. This being an interim analysis and based on healthcare workers who may not reflect the general population demographics, larger inclusive studies are warranted for confirming the findings. Funding: No funding support.

14.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst ; 2021: 9939929, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319414

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the newly born pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is the recently emerged betacoronavirus that crosses the species barrier. It predominantly infects pneumocytes of the respiratory tract, but due to the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) on other cells like surface enterocytes of the upper esophagus and colon, these are also considered as the primary sites of infection. ACE2 receptor served as a cellular entry point for SARS-CoV-2. The expression of the ACE2 receptors is regulated by several factors such as age, tobacco smoking, inflammatory signaling, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis, cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes). Therefore, scientists are trying to explore the in-depth knowledge of ACE2 and considered it as a potential indirect target for COVID-19 therapeutics. In this focused review, we discussed in detail ACE2 expressions and regulation by different factors in the primary or vulnerable sites of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Clinical trials of rhACE2 in COVID-19 patients are ongoing, and if the outcome of the trials proves positive, it will be a breakthrough for the management of COVID-19. Finally, we suggest that targeting the ACE2 (a master regulator) in a balanced way could serve as a potential option against the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Risk Factors , Virus Internalization
15.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(12): 4427-4432, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317840

ABSTRACT

Leucoefdin an important constituent of various fruits such as banana, raspberry, etc. was explored to target MPro protease of SARS Co-V 2. Ligand was found to bind at active site of MPro with large negative binding energies in molecular docking and simulation study. The docking results showed that Leucoefdin interacted with the MPro by forming hydrogen bonds, at Leu 141, His163, His 164, and Glu 166. Other non-bonded interactions were seen at Met49, Pro52, Tyr54, Phe140, Leu141, Cys145 and Met165. Results of Leucoefdin was in coherence with the recently reported MPro protease-inhibitor complex. It even displayed better binding energies (kcal/mol) in HTVS (-6.28), SP (-7.28), XP (-9.29) and MMGBSA (-44.71) as compared to the reference ligand [HTVS (-4.87), SP (-6.79), XP (-5.75) and MMGBSA (-47.76)]. Leucoefdin-MPro complex on molecular dynamic simulation showed initial fluctuations in RMSD plot for a certain period and attained equilibrium which remained stable during entire simulation for 150 ns. RMSF of protein showed less secondary structure fluctuations and a greater number of H-bond formation with Leucoefdin during 150 ns simulation. Post simulation MMGBSA analysis showed binding energy of -45.98 Kcal/mol. These findings indicated the potential of Leucoefdin as lead compound in R&D for drug discovery and development against SARS CoV-2.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Flavonoids , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 613762, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304616

ABSTRACT

Uncertainty about Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and resulting lockdown caused widespread panic, stress, and anxiety. Yoga is a known practice that reduces stress and anxiety and may enhance immunity. This study aimed to (1) investigate that including Yoga in daily routine is beneficial for physical and mental health, and (2) to evaluate lifestyle of Yoga practitioners that may be instrumental in coping with stress associated with lockdown. This is a pan-India cross-sectional survey study, which was conducted during the lockdown. A self-rated scale, COVID Health Assessment Scale (CHAS), was designed by 11 experts in 3 Delphi rounds (Content valid ratio = 0.85) to evaluate the physical health, mental health, lifestyle, and coping skills of the individuals. The survey was made available digitally using Google forms and collected 23,760 CHAS responses. There were 23,290 valid responses (98%). After the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria of yogic practices, the respondents were categorized into the Yoga (n = 9,840) and Non-Yoga (n = 3,377) groups, who actively practiced Yoga during the lockdown in India. The statistical analyses were performed running logistic and multinomial regression and calculating odds ratio estimation using R software version 4.0.0. The non-Yoga group was more likely to use substances and unhealthy food and less likely to have good quality sleep. Yoga practitioners reported good physical ability and endurance. Yoga group also showed less anxiety, stress, fear, and having better coping strategies than the non-Yoga group. The Yoga group displayed striking and superior ability to cope with stress and anxiety associated with lockdown and COVID-19. In the Yoga group, participants performing meditation reportedly had relatively better mental health. Yoga may lead to risk reduction of COVID-19 by decreasing stress and improving immunity if specific yoga protocols are implemented through a global public health initiative.

17.
J Clin Virol ; 141: 104879, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253162

ABSTRACT

Highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) designed to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA are the standard of care for the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, the accuracy of these methods for the quantitation of active virus rather than non-infectious RNA fragments that can persist for extended periods of time has been unclear. This issue is particularly relevant for congregate care patients who are unable to return to their home residence until fully negative by NAATs. We tested paired samples from individual patients for the presence of virus at both early and later stages of disease. Culture of nasopharyngeal swab samples for 10 days in Vero E6 cells revealed active virus in only 4 out of 14 (28.6%) patients. The ability to isolate viral plaque-forming units (PFU) correlated with viral RNA loads of >6.79 log genomic copies/ml and only occurred in samples collected from patients early after symptom onset and before development of antibody. Culture in Vero E6 cells lacking the STAT1-dependent interferon signaling pathway increased the numbers of viral PFU detected but did not affect the incidence of positive cultures. We conclude that culturable virus is correlated with SARS-CoV-2 NAATs detection only during early symptom onset and with high viral titers/low antibody titers in non-immunosuppressed patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Nasopharynx , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics
18.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(9): 5081-5093, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240619

ABSTRACT

Fast and precise diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious animal diseases and their targeted treatments are of utmost importance for their clinical management. The existing biochemical, serological and molecular methods of disease diagnosis need improvement in their specificity, sensitivity and cost and, are generally not amenable for being used as points-of-care (POC) device. Further, with dramatic changes in environment and farm management practices, one should also arm ourselves and prepare for emerging and re-emerging animal diseases such as cancer, prion diseases, COVID-19, influenza etc. Aptamer - oligonucleotide or short peptides that can specifically bind to target molecules - have increasingly become popular in developing biosensors for sensitive detection of analytes, pathogens (bacteria, virus, fungus, prions), drug residues, toxins and, cancerous cells. They have also been proven successful in the cellular delivery of drugs and targeted therapy of infectious diseases and physiological disorders. However, the in vivo application of aptamer-mediated biosensing and therapy in animals has been limited. This paper reviews the existing reports on the application of aptamer-based biosensors and targeted therapy in animals. It also dissects the various modifications to aptamers that were found to be successful in in vivo application of the aptamers in diagnostics and therapeutics. Finally, it also highlights major challenges and future directions in the application of aptamers in the field of veterinary medicine.

19.
Ann Neurosci ; 27(3-4): 193-203, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226813

ABSTRACT

Rationale: India has a high prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which can be lowered by regular physical activity. To understand this association, recent population data is required which is representative of all the states and union territories of the country. Objective: We aimed to investigate the patterns of physical activity in India, stratified by zones, body mass index (BMI), urban, rural areas, and gender. Method: We present the analysis of physical activity status from the data collected during the phase 1 of a pan-India study. This (Niyantrita Madhumeha Bharata 2017) was a multicenter pan-India cluster sampled trial with dual objectives. A survey to identify all individuals at a high risk for diabetes, using a validated instrument called the Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS), was followed by a two-armed randomized yoga-based lifestyle intervention for the primary prevention of diabetes. The physical activity was scored as per IDRS (vigorous exercise or strenuous at work = 0, moderate exercise at home/work = 10, mild exercise at home/work = 20, no exercise = 30). This was done in a selected cluster using a mobile application. A weighted prevalence was calculated based on the nonresponse rate and design weight. Results: We analyzed the data from 2,33,805 individuals; the mean age was 41.4 years (SD 13.4). Of these, 50.6% were females and 49.4% were males; 45.8% were from rural areas and 54% from urban areas. The BMI was 24.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2. Briefly, 20% were physically inactive and 57% of the people were either inactive or mildly active. 21.2% of females were found physically inactive, whereas 19.2% of males were inactive. Individuals living in urban localities were proportionately more inactive (21.7% vs. 18.8%) or mildly active (38.9% vs. 34.8%) than the rural people. Individuals from the central (29.6%) and south zones (28.6%) of the country were also relatively inactive, in contrast to those from the northwest zone (14.2%). The known diabetics were found to be physically inactive (28.3% vs. 19.8%) when compared with those unaware of their diabetic status. Conclusion: 20% and 37% of the population in India are not active or mildly active, respectively, and thus 57% of the surveyed population do not meet the physical activity regimen recommended by the World Health Organization. This puts a large Indian population at risk of developing various NCDs, which are being increasingly reported to be vulnerable to COVID-19 infections. India needs to adopt the four strategic objectives recommended by the World Health Organization for reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity.

20.
EBioMedicine ; 67: 103352, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Precise differential diagnosis between acute viral and bacterial infections is important to enable appropriate therapy, avoid unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and optimize the use of hospital resources. A systems view of host response to infections provides opportunities for discovering sensitive and robust molecular diagnostics. METHODS: We combine blood transcriptomes from six independent datasets (n = 756) with a knowledge-based human protein-protein interaction network, identifies subnetworks capturing host response to each infection class, and derives common response cores separately for viral and bacterial infections. We subject the subnetworks to a series of computational filters to identify a parsimonious gene panel and a standalone diagnostic score that can be applied to individual samples. We rigorously validate the panel and the diagnostic score in a wide range of publicly available datasets and in a newly developed Bangalore-Viral Bacterial (BL-VB) cohort. FINDING: We discover a 10-gene blood-based biomarker panel (Panel-VB) that demonstrates high predictive performance to distinguish viral from bacterial infections, with a weighted mean AUROC of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99) in eleven independent datasets (n = 898). We devise a new stand-alone patient-wise score (VB10) based on the panel, which shows high diagnostic accuracy with a weighted mean AUROC of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.98) in 2996 patient samples from 56 public datasets from 19 different countries. Further, we evaluate VB10 in a newly generated South Indian (BL-VB, n = 56) cohort and find 97% accuracy in the confirmed cases of viral and bacterial infections. We find that VB10 is (a) capable of accurately identifying the infection class in culture-negative indeterminate cases, (b) reflects recovery status, and (c) is applicable across different age groups, covering a wide spectrum of acute bacterial and viral infections, including uncharacterized pathogens. We tested our VB10 score on publicly available COVID-19 data and find that our score detected viral infection in patient samples. INTERPRETATION: Our results point to the promise of VB10 as a diagnostic test for precise diagnosis of acute infections and monitoring recovery status. We expect that it will provide clinical decision support for antibiotic prescriptions and thereby aid in antibiotic stewardship efforts. FUNDING: Grand Challenges India, Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC), Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Computational Biology/methods , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Adult , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/genetics , Databases, Factual , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Predictive Value of Tests , Protein Interaction Maps , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/genetics
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