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1.
Cureus ; 15(2): e35349, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282375

ABSTRACT

AIM: The present study addressed overcoming the lacunae in the literature of psychiatric manifestations associated with rhino-orbital mucormycosis. The current study aimed to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, coping measures, suicidal intent, and visual disability in patients of rhino-orbital mucormycosis (ROM) during the epidemic of the disease at the nodal tertiary care center in North India. METHODS: Fifty-four inpatients of laboratory-proven rhino-orbital mucor-mycosis (ROM) were included for an observational, cross-sectional study at nodal, designated COVID-19, and mucormycosis treating tertiary care hospital. Patients with Hindi Mini-Mental State Examination score <24, prior psychiatric illness, and severely ill requiring ventilator support were excluded. The psychological variables were assessed using Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21), Beck's Suicide intent Scale, Coping Scale Questionnaire, and Visual disability scale (IND-VFQ33). Their socioeconomic status was assessed using the Modified Kuppuswamy Scale. RESULTS: Ninety percent of patients with ROM had diabetes mellitus. The majority (44%) of patients belonged to lower socioeconomic strata. Higher frequencies of severe depression (28%), extremely severe anxiety (26%), and mild stress (17%) were noted in the study participants. On the Tukey test, depression score was higher in patients of ROM compared to COVID (with ROM) (p-value= 0.016). On Tukey analysis, anxiety score was significantly higher in ROM patients compared to COVID (with ROM) patients (p-value = 0.018). Coping scores were significantly higher in COVID (with ROM) patients compared to ROM patients (p value = 0.035). Mild to moderate visual disability was noted in the study participants.  Conclusion: The current study reflects the association of higher depression and anxiety scores in cases with ROM that indicated higher mental health needs. Early assessment, early detection, and early intervention for psychological help, along with the multidisciplinary team, helped to improve the overall psychological outcome of the affected patients.

2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(12)2022 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281595

ABSTRACT

Rhino-orbital cerebral mucor mycosis is a rare disease entity, where retinal involvement is described in the literature mostly as CRAO. However, pathological studies have shown mucor invading the choroid and retina with a neutrophilic reaction. So, it is pertinent that retinal inflammation secondary to invading mucor has some role in microstructural changes seen in the vitreous and retina of these patients. This novel study aims to describe the vitreal and retinal features of patients with vision-threatening rhino-orbital cerebral mucor mycosis and how they evolve on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This study shall also provide insight into the pathophysiology of these vitreoretinal manifestations by in vitro analysis of the exenterated orbital content. Fifteen eyes of fifteen patients with vision-threatening ROCM treated with standard care were enrolled in this study and underwent complete ophthalmic examination, serial colour fundus photography, and SD-OCT for both qualitative and quantitative analysis, at baseline and follow-up visits. SD-OCT on serial follow-up revealed thickening and increased inner-retinal reflectivity at presentation followed by thinning of both, other features such as the loss of the inner-retinal organized layer structure, external limiting membrane (ELM) disruption, necrotic spaces in the outer retina, and hyperreflective foci. Vitreous cells with vitreous haze were also seen. There was a significant reduction in CMT, inner and outer retinal thickness, total retinal thickness (all p < 0.05) with time, the quantum of reduction concentrated primarily to the inner retina. In summary, in vivo and in vitro analysis revealed that early microstructural changes were primarily a result of retinal infarctions secondary to thrombotic angioinvasion. With the late microstructural changes, there was possible sequelae of retinal infarction with some contribution from the inflammation, resulting from mucor invading the choroid and retina.

3.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(4): 494-497, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229280

ABSTRACT

Postsecond wave of COVID-19 pandemic in the year 2021, rhino-orbital mucormycosis (ROM) was seen as an epidemic in the Indian community. Severe ROM disease has poor prognosis and requires a multidisciplinary approach for treatment. Hence, its prevention is better than cure. Studies done during the epidemic assessed predisposing factors, but this was a novel study which focused on assessing risk factors for severe disease of ROM. Ninety-four consecutive patients of ROM admitted at our designated nodal tertiary hospital of North India were enrolled, and data were collected and analyzed. Facial edema was the most common presenting complaint. Subclinical and mild COVID-19 infection was associated with severe ROM. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and prophylactic zinc supplementation were other significant risk factors for severe ROM. Public awareness among the general population for the above risk factors can prevent a debilitating disease like severe ROM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , India/epidemiology , Risk Factors
4.
Virology ; 577: 1-15, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061963

ABSTRACT

The nucleotide-binding pockets (NBPs) in virus-specific proteins have proven to be the most successful antiviral targets for several viral diseases. Functionally important NBPs are found in various structural and non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, the first successful multi-targeting attempt to identify effective antivirals has been made against NBPs in nsp12, nsp13, nsp14, nsp15, nsp16, and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of SARS-CoV-2. A structure-based drug repurposing in silico screening approach with ADME analysis identified small molecules targeting NBPs in SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Further, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments validated the binding of top hit molecules to the purified N-protein. Importantly, cell-based antiviral assays revealed antiviral potency for INCB28060, darglitazone, and columbianadin with EC50 values 15.71 µM, 5.36 µM, and 22.52 µM, respectively. These effective antivirals targeting multiple proteins are envisioned to direct the development of antiviral therapy against SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants.

5.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e055264, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To document socioepidemiological theories used to explain the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and multimorbidity. DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: A search strategy was developed and then applied to multiple electronic databases including Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, Web of Science, Scielo, Applied Social Sciences, ERIC, Humanities Index and Sociological Abstracts. After the selection of studies, data were extracted using a data charting plan. The last search was performed on the 28 September 2021. Extracted data included: study design, country, population subgroups, measures of socioeconomic inequality, assessment of multimorbidity and conclusion on the association between socioeconomic variables and multimorbidity. Included studies were further assessed on their use of theory, type of theories used and context of application. Finally, we conducted a meta-narrative synthesis to summarise the results. RESULTS: A total of 64 studies were included in the review. Of these, 33 papers included theories as explanations for the association between socioeconomic position and multimorbidity. Within this group, 16 explicitly stated those theories and five tested at least one theory. Behavioural theories (health behaviours) were the most frequently used, followed by materialist (access to health resources) and psychosocial (stress pathways) theories. Most studies used theories as post hoc explanations for their findings or for study rationale. Supportive evidence was found for the role of material, behavioural and life course theories in explaining the relationship between social inequalities and multimorbidity. CONCLUSION: Given the widely reported social inequalities in multimorbidity and its increasing public health burden, there is a critical gap in evidence on pathways from socioeconomic disadvantage to multimorbidity. Generating evidence of these pathways will guide the development of intervention and public policies to prevent multimorbidity among people living in social disadvantage. Material, behavioural and life course pathways can be targeted to reduce the negative effect of low socioeconomic position on multimorbidity.


Subject(s)
Multimorbidity , Research Design , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors
6.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(1): 16-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065871

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases, including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that has brought the world to a standstill, are emerging at an unprecedented rate with a substantial impact on public health and global economies. For many life-threatening global infectious diseases, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, malaria and influenza, effective vaccinations are still lacking. There are numerous roadblocks to developing new vaccines, including a limited understanding of immune correlates of protection to these global infections. To induce a reproducible, strong immune response against difficult pathogens, sophisticated nanovaccine technologies are under investigation. In contrast to conventional vaccines, nanovaccines provide improved access to lymph nodes, optimal packing and presentation of antigens, and induction of a persistent immune response. This Review provides a perspective on the global trends in emerging nanoscale vaccines for infectious diseases and describes the biological, experimental and logistical problems associated with their development, and how immunoengineering can be leveraged to overcome these challenges.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , Antigen Presentation , Communicable Diseases/pathology , Humans , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Microbiota/immunology , Mutation , Vaccines/administration & dosage
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