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1.
2022 IEEE Conference on Interdisciplinary Approaches in Technology and Management for Social Innovation, IATMSI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20243011

ABSTRACT

The adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized the way the health care industry works. IoT en-abled smart and connected solutions like smart sensors, wearable devices, and smart health monitoring systems are used to unleash the potential growth of the health care industry. IoT based health care solutions are on greater priority among IoT service providers since the disruptions caused by the COVID-19. According to experts, there still exist white spots in research studies on the Internet of Things (IoT) and health care Systems. The study conducted in this paper aims to explore emerging global research trends and topical focus in the field of IoT in health care System. Bibliometric analysis is used to analyze the research articles on 'Internet of Things' and 'Health care Systems' extracted from SCOPUS and WoS database using VoS Viewer tool;the analysis used to assess the growth and research trends of different research fields over a period of time. The parameters considered during analysis include year-wise citations, year-wise publications, keyword clustering analysis, author-wise analysis, country-wise research trends and publication trend over the years. The results showcased that there has been significant change in utilization of IoT in healthcare systems continuously during the period under study conducted. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
4th International Conference on Communication Systems, Computing and IT Applications, CSCITA 2023 ; : 219-224, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2322768

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted a major flaw in the current medical oxygen supply chain and inventory management system. This shortcoming caused the deaths of several patients which could have been avoided by accurate prediction of the oxygen demand and the distribution of oxygen cylinders. To avoid such calamities in the future, this paper proposes an Internet of Everything (IoE) based solution which forecasts the demand for oxygen with 80-85% accuracy. The predicted variable of expected patients enables the system to calculate the requirement of oxygen up to the next 30 days from the initiation of data collection. The system is scalable and if implemented on a city or district level, will help in the fair distribution of medical oxygen resources and will save human lives during extreme load on the supply chain. © 2023 IEEE.

3.
2023 IEEE International Conference on Innovative Data Communication Technologies and Application, ICIDCA 2023 ; : 968-973, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2326340

ABSTRACT

Data visualization is a very important step in data analysis as it provides insight into the data in a more effective manner that is interesting, simple, and understandable to every-one without any language barrier. It can also represent a huge amount of data in a small space very easily. In the previous two years, the whole world has suffered from a very terrifying nightmare known as COVID-19. Known to be starting from the country of China, the pandemic affected not only the health and well-being of mankind, but also had serious impacts on the economies of various countries. Hence, a visualization of the data set of the pandemic might provide beneficial insights for finding a possible solution and can help in overcoming the impacts of the pandemic. Microsoft Power BI is a very famous tool for analyzing data. Power BI provides a different way to visualize the data. This paper has been analyzed the covid-19 data by using Power BI to understand the trends and patterns of the Pandemic. With the help of visualizing the data, it can be represented in stacked column charts, tables, and maps. These three ways are easy and simple to understand the patterns of the pandemic. It also helps to understand how covid impact the world. This research with power BI dashboard by using a dashboard feature that connects different pieces of visual graphs. © 2023 IEEE.

4.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319356
5.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 81(16 Supplement):S140-S142, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2303854

ABSTRACT

Clinical Information Patient Initials or Identifier Number: SHS Relevant Clinical History and Physical Exam: Mr. SHS was admitted in August 2022 for acute decompensated heart failure secondary to NSTEMI, complicated with ventricular tachycardia (VT). CPR was performed for6 minutes on the day of admission and was subsequently transferred to the Cardiac Care Unit. His hospital stay was complicated with Covid-19 infection(category 2b) which he recovered well from. During admission, he developed recurrent episodes of angina. Physical examination was otherwise unremarkable. His ejection fraction was 45%. Relevant Catheterization Findings: Cardiac catheterization was performed, which revealed significant calcification of left and right coronary arteries. There was a left main stem bifurcation lesion (Medina 0,1,1) with subtotal occlusion over ostial the LAD, receiving collaterals from RCA and 90% stenosis over ostial LCx. RCA was dominant, heavily calcified with no significant stenosis. He was counselled for CABG (Syntex score26) but refused. As he was symptomatic, he was planned for PCI to the left coronary system. [Formula presented] [Formula presented] [Formula presented] Interventional Management Procedural Step: The left main was engaged with a 7F EBU 3.5guiding catheter via transradial approach. Sion Blue wired into LAD and LCx. IVUS catheter couldn't cross the LAD and LCx lesions, hence we decided for up front rotational atherectomy. Sion blue was exchanged to Rotawire with the assistance of Finecross microcatheter. A 1.5mm burr was used at 180000 rpm. After the first run of rotablation, patient developed chest pain and severe hypotension (BP ranging 50/30). 4 inotropes/vasopressors were commenced. The shock was refractory hence an intraarterial balloon pump was inserted. Symptoms and blood pressure improved. Another 2 runs of atherectomy done (patient developed hypotension after each run). IVUS examination then showed calcification of proximal to mid LAD with an IVUS Calcium score of 3. LAD was further predilated with Scoreflex balloon 3.0/20mm at 8-22ATM. LCx was predilated with Scoreflex balloon 2.0/15mm at 12-14ATM. DCB Sequent Please NEO2.0/30mm was deployed at 7ATM at ostial to proximal LCx. Proximal to mid LAD was stented with Promus ELITE 2.5/32mm at 11ATM, which was then post dilated with stent balloon at 11ATM. Ostial LM to proximal LAD (overlap) was stented with Promus ELITE 4.0/28mm at 11ATM. LMS POT was then done with NC Balloon 4.0/15mm at 24ATM. LCx was rewired and kissing balloon technique with NC balloon 4.0/15mm at 14ATM (LAD) and NC balloon 2.0/10mm at 12ATM (LCx) was done, followed by a final POT with NC balloon 4.0/15mm at 14ATM. Final IVUS showed good MSA. [Formula presented] [Formula presented] [Formula presented] Conclusion(s): This patient developed hemodynamic instability with each rotational atherectomy run, hence we decided not to perform rotablation to the circumflex artery. His hemodynamic condition improved with the use of intra aortic balloon pump. IABP use can reduce procedural event rate and potentially reduce long term mortality in appropriately selected patients who are at high risk of adverse events. He was followed up a month following the procedure and remained asymptomatic. For complex, calcified coronary lesions involving the left main stem, coronary artery bypass graft surgery is an alternative option.Copyright © 2023

6.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 20(79): 295-300, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303730

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents clinically a variety of pathological and clinical organ dysfunctions, ranging in severity from asymptomatic to fatal. The care and monitoring of COVID-19 patients may benefit from the use of biochemical and hematological markers. Objective To observe the alteration of serum biochemical and hematological parameters in COVID-19 positive patients, attending a Tertiary Care Hospital. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all COVID-19 positive patients attending Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal from 15th December 2021 to 15th February 2022. The test results of different serum biochemical and hematological parameters done for these patients were recorded in clinical laboratory services and obtained retrospectively for the analysis. The data were entered in MS excel and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Result Out of 1537 COVID-11699 declared positive patients, 712 (46.32%) were male and 825 (53.68%) female. Mean age of COVID positive patients was 40.03±20.08 years. The level of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT was significantly elevated in 39.9%, 42.8%, 32.3% and 47.2% of COVID positive patients respectively. Blood Urea, creatinine, uric acid and sugar level were significantly elevated in 63%, 56.1%, 33.1% and 47.6% patients respectively. The serum level of LDH, D-dimer, CRP and procalcitonin (PCT) were significantly increased in 52.1%, 75.9%, 71.6% and 61.2% of patients respectively. The serum value of total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL were significantly lowered in 52.2%, 43.8%, 70.1% and 60.3% of patients respectively. RBC concentration and level of hemoglobin was reduced in 56.6% and 53.6% of COVID positive patients respectively whereas total leukocyte count was elevated in 80.7% with increase in neutrophil in 87.9% and decrease in lymphocyte in 79.4%. Conclusion A portion of COVID-19 positive patients showed drastically altered test results for various serum biochemical and hematological markers, although many of them had normal findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Kidney International Reports ; 8(3 Supplement):S378, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2273351

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Access to kidney transplantation has always been a problem in the African countries with many patients having to travel to other medically advanced countries in Asia, Europe and America. This involves unnecessary excessive expenditure and the travails of journey and stay in an unknown foreign land. To ease this situation and to provide affordable Renal transplant services in their home land, we have made an effort to start the transplant services at our medical facility and have successfully carried out about 275 transplants over a period starting from Nov 2018 till September 2022. Method(s): All the Kidney transplants done between the period Nov 2018- September 2022 (275 cases) were included in the analysis. All the transplants were performed at a single center and the data were collected progressively during their Pre transplant evaluation, perioperative course and post op follow up. All the laboratory and radiological tests were done locally at the center except the HLA cross matches and tissue typing, which were outsourced to Transplant immunology labs outside the country. All the patients with positive DSA titres [about 70%], underwent Plasmapheresis and received IVIg before the transplantation. immunological assessment was done by NGS high resolution, for A B C DP DQ DR loci and X match was done by SAB analysis for class 1 and Class II antigens. All the patients underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. All Patients received vaccinations for Hepatitis B, Pneumonia, Infuenza & Covid. Result(s): A series of 275 kidney transplants were performed over a period of 42 months [ Nov 2018- September 2022] at a private hospital successfully. All the cases were live donor kidney transplants with majority of the donors being 1st or 2nd degree relatives or spousal donors. About 70% of the patients had some degree of sensitization in the form of weakly positive B cell X match, or positive for DSAs at CL I, CLII with MFIs > 1000. All high-risk patients received induction with rabbit Thymoglobulin, and IV methyl prednisolone. Around 50 patients received Basiliximab. Of all patients, 4were HBsAg positive, and 6 were HIV positive,& HCV 1 patient. 8 patients required pretransplant Parathyroidectomy for refractory hyperparathyroidism, 3 patients required simultaneous native kidney nephrectomy at the time of transplant. 25 patients had multiple renal vessels which were double barreled and anastamosed.4 patients had lower urinary tract abnormalities requiring simultaneous/subsequent repair. Overall, 4 patients underwent 2nd transplant. All the donors underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy. Most of the patients had good immediate graft function except in 40 patients, who had delayed graft function;most of them improving over 2 - 6 weeks. 6 Patients had hyperacute rejection and the graft was lost,.4patients had main renal artery thrombosis, Renal allograft biopsy was done in 20 patients. Overall, the Patient survival was 95 %.at 1 year and graft survival 90%. Conclusion(s): Our experience shows that kidney transplantation is a viable and practical option for End stage kidney disease and can be performed even in resource constrained centers in third world countries and the survival rates of patients and the grafts are comparable to other centers across the world. No conflict of interestCopyright © 2023

8.
Coronaviruses ; 3(1):42-48, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2270332

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 was the most challenging period due to the havoc caused by the outbreak of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Scientists and researchers all around the world have endeav-ored every possible approach to find solutions in context to therapeutics and vaccines to control the spread of this life-threatening virus. The acceleration instigated by the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 and its mutated strains has leveraged the use of numerous platform technologies for the development of vaccines against this unfathomable disease. Vaccines could play an important role in miti-gating the effects of COVID-19 and reducing the ongoing health crisis. Various innovative plat-forms like proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, and viral vectors have been exploited to fabricate vaccines depicting almost 90% of efficacy like BNT162b2, AZD1222, Ad5-nCoV, etc. Some of these vaccines are multipotent and have shown potent activity against newly emerged malicious strains of SARS-CoV-2 like B.1.351 and B.1.1.7. In this review article, we have gathered key findings from various sources of recently popularized vaccine candidates, which will provide an overview of potential vaccine candidates against this virus and will help the researchers to investi-gate possible ways to annihilate this menace and design new moieties.Copyright © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

9.
Coronaviruses ; 2(5) (no pagination), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2265772

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus belongs to the phylum Incertaesedis, Nidovirales order, Or-thocononaviridae subfamily. and spring up from the family of viruses that can cause the common cold, fever, shortness of breath, aches, chills, loss of smell, etc. Objective(s): As we all know;coronavirus has affected the whole world, and many patients died due to it. As the prevalence of this disease has risen, many myths have also originated like the effect of temperature on the virus;is this virus surely killed by the effect of temperature? Is the effect of this virus is more on the old age patients? In the presented compilation, we have tried to expose the actual reality behind these myths and also tried to find the morphological alteration of coronavirus from the other viruses. Method(s): The recent updates on this virus have been obtained from search engines like Pub med and Google scholar, by using COVID-19, coronavirus, Pandemic corona keywords. Result(s): After a huge search on the temperature effect on this disease, it was evident that there is no effect of temperature on the coronavirus. Due to the immunity factor, it showed its worst effect on old age people in many countries. Conclusion(s): The structure, symptoms and incubation period of coronavirus have been described in this review article. We have summarized how the coronavirus is different from others, and the effects of temperature and old age have also been discussed.Copyright © 2021 Bentham Science Publishers.

10.
2021 Indo-European Conference on Sustainable Materials, Environment and Construction, COSMEC 2021 ; 2558, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2282451

ABSTRACT

In the current situation, modern technologies are one of the pillars not only in education but in the whole education process also. Tendencies to include modern technologies in education have significantly supported the pandemic COVID-19 and the transfer of education to the virtual environment. The pedagogues at all levels of education provide students with material for home studying, hand out homework and share links for more supportive materials. Thanks to possibilities of internet and software are possible to teach online, organize classes, have consultation, parents meeting etc. This article aims to investigate in perspectives of primary schools' teachers and their approach to modern technologies as educating tools. What are their experiences and what technologies (software and hardware) they have to work with? © 2023 American Institute of Physics Inc.. All rights reserved.

11.
Thunderbird International Business Review ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2281004

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed to propose a quantitatively supported framework regarding different types of risks involved in BRI and strategic solutions to neutralize the risks. The conceptual model and related propositions are advanced, based on bibliometric and science mapping analysis of 367 articles published over 6 years about risk, success, failure and dissent about the projects, and strategies to mitigate these risks. The descriptive statistics and science mapping approaches using co-citation analysis were performed with VOSviewer software. A co-citation analysis, coupled with content analysis of most co-cited articles, uncovered four underlying research streams, including "Infrastructural expansion and political & economical risks,” "Investment choice through impact assessment and cultural risks,” "Environmental risks,” and "Real outcomes of BRI projects and viewpoint of host countries.” Among the four strategies identified, developing trust in the Chinese system can be created through National Branding by Chinese MNEs to mitigate the geo-political risks. Second, Guanxi neutralizes the reputation risks and cultural friction in collaborative projects and positively affects BRI project implementation. Third, the localization of management and processes can also help in offsetting the environmental risks in post COVID scenario. Lastly, increasing multilateral funding for sustainable infrastructure can be used to boost financial capacity building and mitigate financial risk to a certain extent. The present study has been a novel attempt to relate current research themes to emerging areas under BRI. This study is one of its kind which focuses on reshaping the views of practitioners, researchers, and policymakers on the multifaceted areas and themes in the BRI research field, to examine the risks and a roadmap for future research. © 2023 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

12.
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research ; 27(12):1318-1335, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2280951

ABSTRACT

This study examines six antecedent constructs affecting potential Australian tourists' destination image of Fiji. Data were collected from 416 respondents and analysed using covariance-based structural equation modelling. Results revealed that five constructs–impressions of Fiji, trust in the Fijian government, crisis management, solidarity, and COVID-19 mitigation practices–were positively associated with respondents' cognitive and affective destination image formation. Xenophobia also moderates the positive association between cognitive and conative images. These findings contribute theoretically to understanding salient constructs contributing to destination image formation amidst the pandemic. Study insights will be useful to practitioners in developing effective marketing strategies and tourism recovery. © 2023 Asia Pacific Tourism Association.

13.
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research ; 27(12):1304-1317, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2280950

ABSTRACT

This study examines the impact of tourists' perceived COVID-19-induced discrimination on negative emotional responses and identity management strategies. Data were collected from 431 Fijians who had recently travelled internationally. Covariance-based structural equation modelling analysis revealed that perceived COVID-19-induced discrimination significantly explained two negative emotional responses—anger and disappointment. Anger positively affected identity management strategies, revealing and avoidance, while disappointment positively affected passing and avoidance. The model explained the following variances: revealing (51%);passing (48%);and avoidance (42%). This study contributes to understanding post-pandemic travel behaviour related to COVID-19-induced discrimination against tourists and better management in response to the pandemic. © 2023 Asia Pacific Tourism Association.

14.
Indian Journal of Urology ; 39(5 Supplement 1):S18, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2261062

ABSTRACT

Introduction and Objective: Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (iBCG) therapy for urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is associated with poor compliance due to various psycho-social issues unique to its treatment. The objective of this study was to identify and analyse the patient's perception and the factors that affected its adherence. Method(s): This mixed-method study was conducted on UBC patients who received/received iBCG. Following purposive sampling, patients who received at least one induction and one maintenance dose were assigned to a compliant group, and who did not were assigned to the non-compliant group. The patient's quality of life was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL-BREF). Semi-structured, in-depth interviews (IDI) of 35-40 minutes were conducted. The transcribed verbatim was analysed by deductive coding and content analysis. The appropriate codes, domains and themes were identified and analysed. Result(s): Demographic and socio-economic characteristics were comparable in both groups. The mean treatment expenditure was higher in the non-compliant group (1.87+/-0.75 vs 3.87+/-1.31;p=0.04). The quality of life measured was similar in both groups. IDI analysis noted that the primary reasons for non-compliance were frequent hospital commute, COVID travel restrictions, lack of knowledge, loss of daily wage, paucity at various levels in government hospitals and expensive corporate healthcare. Treatment-related severe frequency and dysuria also significantly contributed to non-compliance. Conclusion(s): Compliance can be achieved if the patients cope with the initial phase of treatment with positivity and optimism. Good symptomatic relief with proper knowledge and guidance could address the non-compliance.

15.
European Respiratory Journal Conference: European Respiratory Society International Congress, ERS ; 60(Supplement 66), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2277913

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 causes morbid pathological changes in different organs including lungs, kidney, liver,etc especially in those who succumb. Though clinical outcomes in those with comorbidities are known to be different from those without - not much is known about the differences at histopathological level. Aim(s): It was to compare the morbid histopathological changes in COVID-19 patients between those who were immunocompromised(Gr 1), malignancy(Gr 2) or had cardiometabolic conditions (hypertension, diabetes or coronary artery disease)(Gr 3). Method(s): Post-mortem tissue sampling (MITS) was done from the lungs, kidney, heart, and liver using biopsy gun within two hours of death. Routine (H & E stain) and special stains (AFB, SM, PAS) were done besides immunohistochemistry. Result(s): A total of 100 patients underwent MITS and data of 92 were included (immunocompromised: 27, maligancy:18, cardiometabolic conditions:71). Within lung histopathology, capillary congestion was more in those with malignancy while others like diffuse alveolar damage, microthrombi, pneumocyte hyperplasia etc was equally distributed. Within liver, architecture distortion was significantly different in immunocompromised while steatosis, portal inflammation, Kupffer cell hypertrophy, confluent necrosis were equally distributed. There was a trend towards higher acute tubular injury in those with cardiometabolic conditions as compared to the other groups. No significant histopathological differences in heart was discerned. Conclusion(s): Certain histopathological features are markedly different in different groups (Gr 1,2 and3)of COVID-19 patients with fatal outcome.

16.
Mymensingh Med J ; 32(2): 556-566, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270541

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, elderly people have been more prone to depression, anxiety and stress. During these trying times, they require more attention and support for their mental health. This cross-sectional study was performed with the duration of 06 months from March 2021 to August 2021 in AIIMS, Bhopal in the state of Madhya Pradesh, in central India. And the participants recruited by systematic random sampling from a population aged more than 60 years, those who were able to read and write Hindi or English and having at least one family member; who reported to AIIMS, Bhopal during the second wave of COVID-19 in India. Those who were confirmed COVID-19 cases and undergoing treatment for the same, with diagnosed mental health disorders and who didn't give consent were excluded. A Google form based online semi-structured questionnaire along with DASS-21 scale was completed by participants. Elderly (>=60 years) will be selected. Of the 690 participants 7.25% reported mild to moderate depression, whereas 0.58 percent had severe or extremely severe depression. Mild to moderate anxiety were found in 9.56% of people, while 2.46% had severe or extremely severe anxiety. Mildly or moderately were stressed 4.78%, while 0.42% was severely or extremely anxious. Alcoholism and depression were found to have a statistically significant relationship (p=0.028). During the COVID-19 pandemic, elderly subjects who napped during the day were substantially less depressed (p=0.033). The older the respondents were, the more nervous they were during the pandemic (p=0.042). There is a link between alcohol consumption and stress (p=0.043) and it was seen that females were more stressed as compared to males (p=0.045). There was a strong correlation between participants' alcohol addiction and depressive symptoms. Psychological therapies for the elderly are thought to be necessary to enhance their psychological resilience and mental health. We need to tackle the stigma related to the COVID-19 and mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Aged , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/psychology
17.
3rd International Conference on Computation, Automation and Knowledge Management, ICCAKM 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2213218

ABSTRACT

Advancement in technology in the digital era is changing the way businesses used to work. Technology is bringing new opportunities on one hand for the companies and challenges on the other hand that should be carefully delt with. Expectations of the customers are changing with the advancement of technology. Today the customer is becoming more tech oriented and prefers product that are tech savvy too. The distribution of the products has also changed drastically. Many digital channels have emerged in the past few years that aims to provide faster services to the customers and helps in saving cost.The challenges get further compounded with the happening of the COVID-19 Pandemic. The operations of the organizations are getting digitalized and the speed with which these are getting transformed is phenomenal. Emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), Internet of Things (IoT), Robotic Process Automation (RPA) and Block chain are playing a bigger role in these transformations. Insurance industry is also leveraging the benefits of these technologies especially in improving the value chain of insurance. The objectives of the study were to highlight the process of Digitalization in Insurance;to identify the Disruptive and emerging technologies used by the insurer;and to highlight the role of disruptive technologies in improving the value chain of insurers. This paper highlights the way insurance industry is getting digitalized and how these technologies can improve the value chain of insurance. The paper will help understand the various issues in the value chain of insurance and how the emerging technologies can help the insurers in improving their processes leading to the improvements in their value chain. © 2022 IEEE.

18.
3rd International Conference on Computation, Automation and Knowledge Management, ICCAKM 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2213217

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI), deep learning (DL), and neural networks (NN), though these words sound flashy and may leave you perplexed, represent powerful technologies that have the capabilities to transform the world. It is just now emerging how valuable these machine learning-based techniques are and how they can solve many real-world problems ranging from fraud detection, resource management to driver-less cars.One such field where the application of AI systems is progressively growing is in medical diagnosis. A lot of research is going on to enhance computer-Aided diagnosis and detection of diseases. Recent world events have tested the healthcare systems all around the world. Suppose we have sophisticated deep learning systems (DLS) that could help in faster and efficient disease detection and diagnosis;how beneficial it would be to assist both medical professionals and patients.This study explores how AI and machine learning techniques could be used for disease detection, giving COVID-19 and Diabetic Retinopathy detection examples. We present two deep learning (DL) models, one to detect COVID-19 from chest x-ray image scans and the other to detect Diabetic Retinopathy at various stages of the disease from retinal fundus images. With reasonably high accuracy, >95% for the COVID-19 detection model and >80% for the Diabetic Retinopathy detection model, these results highlight AI and deep learning potential to assist general practitioners. © 2022 IEEE.

19.
Critical Care Medicine ; 51(1 Supplement):180, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190524

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: New onset hyperglycemia is common in patients with severe Covid-19 infection. Cytokine storm due to Covid-19 infection is an important etiology for new-onset hyperglycemia, but factors like direct SARS-CoV-2 induced pancreatic beta-cell failure have also been postulated to play a role. We assessed the validity of the cytokine-induced hyperglycemia hypothesis by evaluating the association between inflammatory markers and new onset hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients with Covid-19 infection. METHOD(S): We conducted a retrospective case-control study on adults without diabetes mellitus hospitalized for Covid-19 infection. The serum levels of glucose and inflammatory markers at presentation before initiation of corticosteroid were collected. Hyperglycemia was defined as glucose levels >=140mg/dL. CRP >=100mg/L, ferritin >=530ng/ mL, LDH>=590U/L, and D-dimer >=0.5mg/L were considered elevated. We used Chi-square test for categorical variables, Mann Whitney U test for continuous variables, and calculated the logistic regression for hyperglycemia. RESULT(S): Of the 520 patients screened, 248 met the inclusion criteria. Baseline demographics were equally distributed between the two groups. There were no statistically significant differences between serum inflammatory markers except LDH in patients with or without new-onset hyperglycemia [CRP(58.1%vs.65.6%,p-0.29), ferritin (48.4%vs.34.9%, p-0.14),D-dimer (37.1%vs.37.1%,p-0.76) & LDH (19.4%vs11.8%,p-0.02)]. However, Logistic regression analysis showed no difference in LDH levels between the two groups (OR-1.623,p-0.256). Additional analysis showed significantly higher mortality (24.2%vs.9.1%,p-0.001;OR-2.528,p-0.024) and length of stay(8.89 vs 6.69,p-0.026) in patients with hyperglycemia. CONCLUSION(S): Our pilot study showed no association between inflammatory marker levels and new-onset hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients with Covid-19 infection, thus questioning the validity of the Covid-19 cytokine storm-induced stress hyperglycemia hypothesis. Our study also showed that new-onset hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for higher mortality and length of stay. In light of the findings of our small single-center study, it becomes imperative to undertake a larger prospective study to understand the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infectioninduced hyperglycemia.

20.
Medical Mycology ; 60(Supplement 1):234-235, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189372

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Mucormycosis is an aggressive, life-threatening infection caused by fungi in the order Mucorales. There was an explosion of new cases of rhino-sino-orbital mucormycosis following the COVID pandemic in India, and the need for easy and rapid diagnostics was felt. The current diagnosis of mucormycosis relies on mycological cultures, radiology, and histopathology. These methods lack sensitivity and are most definitive later in the course of infection, resulting in the failure of timely intervention. A real-time multiplex PCR platform is commercially available for the detection of Rhizopus spp., Mucor spp.Rhizomucor spp., Lichtheimia spp., and Cunninghamella spp. (PN-700, MucorGenius , PathoNostics , Maastricht, The Netherlands) This real-time PCR has been validated to identify these fungal pathogens from bronchoalveolar lavage, tissue, and serum samples. This study aimed to validate this PCR-based system to detect Mucorales from nasal swab samples and evaluate its utility in the detection of Mucorales from nasal cavities of high-risk patients developing signs and symptoms of mucormycosis. Method(s): A single-center cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 50 hospitalized adult patients with signs and symptoms of mucormycosis. Nasal swabs were taken for PCR analysis once there was a clinical suspicion and were com-pared with the results of the gold standard.The gold standard for the diagnosis of mucormycosis was the conventional method (KOHmountedmicroscopy/HPE).Demographicdetails andrisk factorsfor thesepatients wererecorded, andthe RTPCR-based test was run on the nasal swab samples of all these 50 patients. The workflow is depicted graphically in Fig. 1 (Created with BioRender.com). Result(s): The study population mean (SD) age was 50 (16) years and consisted of 32 (64%) males. A total of 39 (78%) patients were known cases of diabetes mellitus, 48 (96%) patients had amphotericin B intake, and 20 (40%) had posaconazole intake. In all, 21 (42%) patients had a past history of COVID-19 infection;14 patients had received steroids and 10 patients received oxygen support. PCR for Mucorales was positive in 15 (30%) patients while the KOH mount was positive in 4 (8%) patients. Conclusion(s): These results are not encouraging for the use of nasal swabs as the sample for diagnosis of mucormyco-sis. Though the PCR performed better on the swab samples than KOH preparation and culture techniques, it highlights the importance of using standard sampling methods.

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