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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334183

ABSTRACT

Two messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines are widely used globally to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Both vaccine formulations contain PEGylated lipids in their composition, in the form of polyethylene glycol [PEG] 2000 dimyristoyl glycerol for mRNA-1273, and 2 [(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide for BNT162b2. It is known that some PEGylated drugs and products for human use that contain PEG, are capable of eliciting immune responses, leading to detectable PEG-specific antibodies in serum. In this study, we determined if any of the components of mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 formulations elicited PEG-specific antibody responses in serum by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We detected an increase in the reactivity to mRNA vaccine formulations in mRNA-1273 but not BNT162b2 vaccinees sera in a prime-boost dependent manner. Furthermore, we observed the same pattern of reactivity against irrelevant lipid nanoparticles from an influenza virus mRNA formulation and found that the reactivity of such antibodies correlated well with antibody levels against high and low molecular weight PEG. Using sera from participants selected based on the vaccine-associated side effects experienced after vaccination, including delayed onset, injection site or severe allergic reactions, we found no obvious association between PEG antibodies and adverse reactions. Overall, our data shows a differential induction of anti-PEG antibodies by mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2. The clinical relevance of PEG reactive antibodies induced by administration of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and the potential interaction of these antibodies with other PEGylated drugs remains to be explored.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333127

ABSTRACT

Background The influence of pre-existing humoral immunity, inter-individual demographic factors, and vaccine-associated reactogenicity on immunogenicity following COVID vaccination remains poorly understood. Methods Ten-fold cross-validated least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate symptoms experienced during natural infection and following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination along with demographics as predictors for antibody (AB) responses in COVID+ participants in a longitudinal cohort study. Results In previously infected individuals, AB were more durable and robust following vaccination when compared to natural infection alone. Higher AB were associated with experiencing dyspnea during natural infection, as was the total number of symptoms reported during the COVID-19 disease course. Both local and systemic symptoms following 1 st and 2 nd dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines were predictive of higher AB after vaccination, as were the demographic factors of age and Hispanic ethnicity. Lastly, there was a significant temporal relationship between AB and days since infection or vaccination. Conclusion Vaccination in COVID+ individuals ensures a more robust immune response. Experiencing systemic and local symptoms post-vaccine is suggestive of higher AB, which may confer greater protection. Age and Hispanic ethnicity are predictive of higher AB.

4.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 60-67, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726286

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study impact of COVID-19 pandemic on frequency, clinical/electrophysiological profile and treatment outcomes in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Background: GBS is the most frequent cause of pediatric acute flaccid paralysis. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric GBS is unclear in the literature. Methods: We conducted an ambispective, multicentric, cohort study involving 12 of 27 centres in GBS Consortium, during two periods: pre-COVID-19 (March-August 2019) and during COVID-19 (March-August 2020). Children ≤12 years who satisfied National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke criteria for GBS/variants were enrolled. Details pertaining to clinical/laboratory parameters, treatment and outcomes (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge, GBS Disability score at discharge and 3 months) were analysed. Results: We enrolled 33 children in 2019 and 10 in 2020. Children in 2020 were older (median 10.4 [interquartile range 6.75-11.25] years versus 5 (2.5-8.4) years; P = 0.022) and had more sensory symptoms (50% versus 18.2%; P = 0.043). The 2020 group had relatively favourable mRS at discharge (median 1 (1-3.5) versus 3 (2-4); P = 0.042) and GBS disability score at 3 months (median 0 (0-0.75) versus 2 (0-3); P = 0.009) compared to 2019. Multivariate analysis revealed bowel involvement (P = 0.000) and ventilatory support (P = 0.001) as independent predictors of disability. No child in 2020 had preceding/concurrent SARS-CoV2 infection. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a marked decline in pediatric GBS presenting to hospitals. Antecedent illnesses, clinical and electrophysiological profile of GBS remained largely unchanged from the pre-pandemic era.

5.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(630): eabm3302, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691437

ABSTRACT

Although mRNA vaccines encoding the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prevent COVID-19, the emergence of new viral variants jeopardizes their efficacy. Here, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective activity of historical (mRNA-1273, designed for Wuhan-1 spike protein) or modified (mRNA-1273.351, designed for B.1.351 spike protein) Moderna mRNA vaccines in 129S2 and K18-hACE2 mice. Mice were immunized with either high-dose or low-dose formulations of the mRNA vaccines, where low-dose vaccination modeled suboptimal immune responses. Immunization with formulations at either dose induced neutralizing antibodies in serum against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 WA1/2020 and several virus variants, although serum titers were lower against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) virus. Protection against weight loss and lung pathology was observed with all high-dose vaccines against all viruses. However, low-dose formulations of the vaccines, which produced lower magnitude antibody and T cell responses, showed breakthrough lung infections with B.1.617.2 and development of pneumonia in K18-hACE2 mice. Thus, in individuals with reduced immunity after mRNA vaccination, breakthrough infection and disease may occur with some SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327146

ABSTRACT

NDV-HXP-S is a recombinant Newcastle disease virus based-vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which expresses an optimized (HexaPro) spike protein on its surface. The vaccine can be produced in embryonated chicken eggs using the same process as that employed for the production of influenza virus vaccines. Here we performed a secondary analysis of the antibody responses after vaccination with inactivated NDV-HXP-S in a Phase I clinical study in Thailand. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing and spike binding activity of NDV-HXP-S post-vaccination serum samples was compared to that of matched samples from mRNA BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccinees. Neutralizing activity of sera from NDV-HXP-S vaccinees was comparable to that of individuals vaccinated with BNT162b2. Interstingly, the spike binding activity of the NDV-HXP-S vaccinee samples was lower than that of sera obtained from individuals vaccinated with the mRNA vaccine. This let us to calculate ratios between binding and neutralizing antibody titers. Samples from NDV-HXP-S vaccinees had binding to neutralizing activity ratios similar to those of convalescent sera suggesting a very high proportion of neutralizing antibodies and low non-neutralizing antibody titers. Further analysis showed that, in contrast to mRNA vaccination, which induces strong antibody titers to the receptor binding domain (RBD), the N-terminal domain, and the S2 domain, NDV-HXP-S vaccination induces a very RBD focused response with little reactivity to S2. This explains the high proportion of neutralizing antibodies since most neutralizing epitopes are located in the RBD. In conclusion, vaccination with inactivated NDV-HXP-S induces a high proportion of neutralizing antibodies and absolute neutralizing antibody titers comparable to those after mRNA vaccination.

7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326551

ABSTRACT

Well-labeled datasets of chest radiographs (CXRs) are difficult to acquire due to the high cost of annotation. Thus, it is desirable to learn a robust and transferable representation in an unsupervised manner to benefit tasks that lack labeled data. Unlike natural images, medical images have their own domain prior;e.g., we observe that many pulmonary diseases, such as the COVID-19, manifest as changes in the lung tissue texture rather than the anatomical structure. Therefore, we hypothesize that studying only the texture without the influence of structure variations would be advantageous for downstream prognostic and predictive modeling tasks. In this paper, we propose a generative framework, the Lung Swapping Autoencoder (LSAE), that learns factorized representations of a CXR to disentangle the texture factor from the structure factor. Specifically, by adversarial training, the LSAE is optimized to generate a hybrid image that preserves the lung shape in one image but inherits the lung texture of another. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the disentangled texture representation, we evaluate the texture encoder $Enc

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321637

ABSTRACT

In lack of vaccination and therapeutic drugs, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic affected millions of people, causing 1,018,957 deaths worldwide (World health organization;1st October 2020). The conventional drug design pipeline for effective and safer drug development is a costly and time-intensive affair. It takes around ten years in general from identifying a clinical candidate to get the approvals for actual applications. An effective way to cut short drug design pipeline in such emergency cases could be the repurposing of already approved drugs against novel targets. Here in this work, we explored the structure-based drug screening approach to find potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV2 main protease (Mpro) from the library of already FDA approved commercially available drugs. The site-specific and blind docking studies, in combination, suggest three potential inhibitors of Mpro, Ergotamine (ZINC000052955754), Nilotinib (ZINC000006716957) and Naldemedine (ZINC000100378061). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculations using the MMPBSA method further reinforced the efficiency of the screened Mpro inhibitor candidates. The work yields enough evidence to conduct rigorous experimental validation of these drugs before utilizing them for the therapeutic management of SARS-CoV2 infection.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318838

ABSTRACT

Background: - The sharp uptick in the cases of mucormycosis in the background of the COVID19 pandemic is a cause of concern and the reasons and it’s impact remains to be seen. We studied the clinical characteristics in patients with mucormycosis and COVID19 co-infection and performed a literature review. Methods: - This retrospective study was conducted at tertiary centre in India. All patients admitted with COVID19 and mucormycosis were included, clinical details were obtained from hospital records. We did review of literatures using the terms “SARS-CoV2” OR “COVID19” AND “Mucormycosis” AND “co-infection” on Pubmed published before February 20, 2021. Results: - Sixteen cases (M:F–13:3), mean age 46·5 years (24-75years), were included. Fourteen had known risk factors for mucormycosis, the most common being diabetes mellitus. Most patients (n=14) were symptomatic with mucormycosis before diagnosis of COVID19. There was delay in surgery by 22.5 days (IQR–>17.75–29.5), pending SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negativity. There were six deaths in this cohort, unrelated to the COVID19 severity. The literature review revealed eleven case reports on co-infection. Patients who had developed mucormycosis were found to have history of mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: - The apparent increase in the incidence of mucormycosis may be due to decompensation of underlying comorbidities (decreased access to healthcare), and increased use of immunosuppressants in COVID19. Patients with co-infection were noted to have poorer outcomes.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306115

ABSTRACT

We predict mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality using computational modeling of chest radiographs (CXRs) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This two-center, retrospective study analyzed 530 deidentified CXRs from 515 COVID-19 patients treated at Stony Brook University Hospital and Newark Beth Israel Medical Center between March and August 2020. DL and machine learning classifiers to predict mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality were trained and evaluated using patient CXRs. A novel radiomic embedding framework was also explored for outcome prediction. All results are compared against radiologist grading of CXRs (zone-wise expert severity scores). Radiomic and DL classification models had mAUCs of 0.78+/-0.02 and 0.81+/-0.04, compared with expert scores mAUCs of 0.75+/-0.02 and 0.79+/-0.05 for mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality prediction, respectively. Combined classifiers using both radiomics and expert severity scores resulted in mAUCs of 0.79+/-0.04 and 0.83+/-0.04 for each prediction task, demonstrating improvement over either artificial intelligence or radiologist interpretation alone. Our results also suggest instances where inclusion of radiomic features in DL improves model predictions, something that might be explored in other pathologies. The models proposed in this study and the prognostic information they provide might aid physician decision making and resource allocation during the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314424

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 image analysis has mostly focused on diagnostic tasks using single timepoint scans acquired upon disease presentation or admission. We present a deep learning-based approach to predict lung infiltrate progression from serial chest radiographs (CXRs) of COVID-19 patients. Our method first utilizes convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for feature extraction from patches within the concerned lung zone, and also from neighboring and remote boundary regions. The framework further incorporates a multi-scale Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) with a correlation module for effective predictions. The GRU accepts CNN feature vectors from three different areas as input and generates a fused representation. The correlation module attempts to minimize the correlation loss between hidden representations of concerned and neighboring area feature vectors, while maximizing the loss between the same from concerned and remote regions. Further, we employ an attention module over the output hidden states of each encoder timepoint to generate a context vector. This vector is used as an input to a decoder module to predict patch severity grades at a future timepoint. Finally, we ensemble the patch classification scores to calculate patient-wise grades. Specifically, our framework predicts zone-wise disease severity for a patient on a given day by learning representations from the previous temporal CXRs. Our novel multi-institutional dataset comprises sequential CXR scans from N=93 patients. Our approach outperforms transfer learning and radiomic feature-based baseline approaches on this dataset.

12.
Nature ; 603(7902): 687-692, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641974

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of B.1.1.529, the Omicron variant1,2, has raised concerns of escape from protection by vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. A key test for potential countermeasures against B.1.1.529 is their activity in preclinical rodent models of respiratory tract disease. Here, using the collaborative network of the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) programme of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), we evaluated the ability of several B.1.1.529 isolates to cause infection and disease in immunocompetent and human ACE2 (hACE2)-expressing mice and hamsters. Despite modelling data indicating that B.1.1.529 spike can bind more avidly to mouse ACE2 (refs. 3,4), we observed less infection by B.1.1.529 in 129, C57BL/6, BALB/c and K18-hACE2 transgenic mice than by previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, with limited weight loss and lower viral burden in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. In wild-type and hACE2 transgenic hamsters, lung infection, clinical disease and pathology with B.1.1.529 were also milder than with historical isolates or other SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Overall, experiments from the SAVE/NIAID network with several B.1.1.529 isolates demonstrate attenuated lung disease in rodents, which parallels preliminary human clinical data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Viral Load
13.
J Infect ; 84(3): 383-390, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the Coronavirus-disease associated mucormycosis (CAM) syndemic is poorly elucidated. We aimed to identify risk factors that may explain the burden of cases and help develop preventive strategies. METHODS: We performed a case-control study comparing cases diagnosed with CAM and taking controls as recovered COVID 19 patients who did not develop mucormycosis. Information on comorbidities, glycemic control, and practices related to COVID-19 prevention and treatment was recorded. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: A total of 352 patients (152 cases and 200 controls) diagnosed with COVID-19 during April-May 2021 were included. In the CAM group, symptoms of mucormycosis began a mean of 18.9 (SD 9.1) days after onset of COVID-19, and predominantly rhino-sinus and orbital involvement was present. All, but one, CAM cases had conventional risk factors of diabetes and steroid use. On multivariable regression, increased odds of CAM were associated with the presence of diabetes (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.1-11), use of systemic steroids (aOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.4-24.7), prolonged use of cloth and surgical masks (vs. no mask, aOR 6.9, 95%CI 1.5-33.1), and repeated nasopharyngeal swab testing during the COVID-19 illness (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2). Zinc therapy was found to be protective (aOR 0.05, 95%CI 0.01-0.19). Notably, the requirement of oxygen supplementation or hospitalization did not affect the risk of CAM. CONCLUSION: Judicious use of steroids and stringent glycemic control are vital to preventing mucormycosis. Use of clean masks, preference for N95 masks if available, and minimizing swab testing after the diagnosis of COVID-19 may further reduce the incidence of CAM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nature ; 602(7898): 682-688, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616995

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was initially identified in November 2021 in South Africa and Botswana, as well as in a sample from a traveller from South Africa in Hong Kong1,2. Since then, Omicron has been detected globally. This variant appears to be at least as infectious as Delta (B.1.617.2), has already caused superspreader events3, and has outcompeted Delta within weeks in several countries and metropolitan areas. Omicron hosts an unprecedented number of mutations in its spike gene and early reports have provided evidence for extensive immune escape and reduced vaccine effectiveness2,4-6. Here we investigated the virus-neutralizing and spike protein-binding activity of sera from convalescent, double mRNA-vaccinated, mRNA-boosted, convalescent double-vaccinated and convalescent boosted individuals against wild-type, Beta (B.1.351) and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 isolates and spike proteins. Neutralizing activity of sera from convalescent and double-vaccinated participants was undetectable or very low against Omicron compared with the wild-type virus, whereas neutralizing activity of sera from individuals who had been exposed to spike three or four times through infection and vaccination was maintained, although at significantly reduced levels. Binding to the receptor-binding and N-terminal domains of the Omicron spike protein was reduced compared with binding to the wild type in convalescent unvaccinated individuals, but was mostly retained in vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immune Sera/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Infez Med ; 29(4): 557-561, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579083

ABSTRACT

Risk factors which led to the outbreak of COVID-19 associated Mucormycosis still remains elusive. Face masks can become contaminated by fungal spores that are present ubiquitously in the environment. However the exact burden of such contamination is not known. Fifty masks of patients who attended the Employees Health Scheme COVID-19 facility of a tertiary healthcare centre in India were sampled by direct impression smears on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Agar plates were screened for any growth within five days after incubation. Growth was identified by microscopy on the Lactophenol Cotton Blue mount. Mask hygiene practices of participants was assessed using a pre-designed proforma. Out of 50 masks, fungal contamination was seen in 35/50 (70%) masks, with Aspergillus sp. being isolated from 26/50 (52%) masks and Mucorales being isolated from 9/50 (18%) of the masks. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus a rrhizus and Syncephalastrum sp. were the most common species isolated. Same mask was worn for a median duration of 8 days (2-30 days) at a stretch with or without washing. Thirty one patients washed and re-wore their masks, with median time duration since last wash being 12 hours (4-72 hours). None of the factors assessed for mask hygiene were associated with fungal contamination. High rates of fungal contamination observed in our study emphasizes the need for better mask hygiene in the COVID-19 era.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296962

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immune responses are critical to prevent respiratory infections but it is unclear to what extent antigen specific mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies are induced by mRNA vaccination in humans. We analyzed, therefore, paired serum and saliva samples from study participants with and without COVID-19 at multiple timepoints before and after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccination. Our results suggest that the level of mucosal SIgA responses induced by mRNA vaccination depend on pre-existing immunity. Indeed, vaccination induced only a weak mucosal SIgA response in individuals without pre-existing mucosal antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 while SIgA induction after vaccination was efficient in COVID-19 survivors. Our data indicate that vaccinated seropositive individuals were able to swiftly induce relatively high anti-spike SIgA responses by boosting pre-existing mucosal immunity. In contrast, seronegative individuals did not have pre-existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 or cross-reacting anti-HCoV SIgA antibodies prior to vaccination, and, thus, little or no anti-SARS-CoV-2 SIgA antibodies were induced by vaccination in these individuals.

17.
Mycoses ; 65(1): 57-64, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Though invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a well known complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, indolent forms of aspergillosis have been rarely described. METHODS: We prospectively collected the clinico-radio-microbiological data of 10 patients of subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (SAIA), who presented to our hospital with recent history of COVID-19 pneumonia along with cavitary lung disease, positive IgG (against Aspergillus) with or without positive respiratory samples for Aspergillus spp. RESULT: The mean age of presentation of SAIA was 50.7 ± 11.8 years. All the patients had recently recovered from severe COVID-19 illness with a mean duration of 29.2 ± 12 days from COVID-19 positivity. Cough was the predominant symptom seen in 8/10 (80%) patients followed by haemoptysis. 7/10 (70%) patients were known diabetic. While serum galactomannan was positive in 5/9 patients (55.5%), fungal culture was positive in 2/7 patients (28.5%) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Aspergillus was positive in three patients. Eight (80%) patients presented with a single cavitary lesion; pseudoaneurysm of pulmonary artery was seen in two patients and post-COVID-19 changes were seen in all patients. All patients were treated with voriconazole, out of which four (40%) patients died during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: SAIA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cavitating lung lesions in patients with recent history of COVID-19 in the background of steroid use with or without pre-existing diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Antibodies, Fungal/blood , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Voriconazole
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 791764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556181

ABSTRACT

Despite global vaccination efforts, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve and spread globally. Relatively high vaccination rates have been achieved in most regions of the United States and several countries worldwide. However, access to vaccines in low- and mid-income countries (LMICs) is still suboptimal. Second generation vaccines that are universally affordable and induce systemic and mucosal immunity are needed. Here we performed an extended safety and immunogenicity analysis of a second-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccine consisting of a live Newcastle disease virus vector expressing a pre-fusion stabilized version of the spike protein (NDV-HXP-S) administered intranasally (IN), intramuscularly (IM), or IN followed by IM in Sprague Dawley rats. Local reactogenicity, systemic toxicity, and post-mortem histopathology were assessed after the vaccine administration, with no indication of severe local or systemic reactions. Immunogenicity studies showed that the three vaccination regimens tested elicited high antibody titers against the wild type SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the NDV vector. Moreover, high antibody titers were induced against the spike of B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta) and B.1.617.2 (delta) variants of concern (VOCs). Importantly, robust levels of serum antibodies with neutralizing activity against the authentic SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 isolate were detected after the boost. Overall, our study expands the pre-clinical safety and immunogenicity characterization of NDV-HXP-S and reinforces previous findings in other animal models about its high immunogenicity. Clinical testing of this vaccination approach is ongoing in different countries including Thailand, Vietnam, Brazil and Mexico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Newcastle disease virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Injections, Intramuscular , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Safety , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
19.
EBioMedicine ; 73: 103626, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Highly efficacious vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been developed. However, the emergence of viral variants that are more infectious than the earlier SARS-CoV-2 strains is concerning. Several of these viral variants have the potential to partially escape neutralizing antibody responses, warranting continued immune-monitoring. METHODS: We used a panel of 30 post-mRNA vaccination sera to determine neutralization and RBD and spike binding activity against a number of emerging viral variants. The virus neutralization was determined using authentic SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates in an assay format that mimics physiological conditions. FINDINGS: We tested seven currently circulating viral variants of concern/interest, including the three Iota sublineages, Alpha (E484K), Beta, Delta and Lambda in neutralization assays. We found only small decreases in neutralization against Iota and Delta. The reduction was stronger against a sub-variant of Lambda, followed by Beta and Alpha (E484K). Lambda is currently circulating in parts of Latin America and was detected in Germany, the US and Israel. Of note, reduction in a receptor binding domain and spike binding assay that also included Gamma, Kappa and A.23.1 was negligible. INTERPRETATION: Taken together, these findings suggest that mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines may remain effective against these viral variants of concern/interest and that spike binding antibody tests likely retain specificity in the face of evolving SARS-CoV-2 diversity. FUNDING: This work is part of the PARIS/SPARTA studies funded by the NIAID Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Centers (CIVIC) contract 75N93019C00051. In addition, this work was also partially funded by the Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS, contract # HHSN272201400008C), the JPB Foundation, the Open Philanthropy Project (research grant 2020-215611 (5384), by anonymous donors and by the Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) in part with Federal funds from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, under Contract No. 75N91019D00024, Task Order No. 75N91020F00003.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Phylogeny , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
20.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463718

ABSTRACT

Patients receiving mechanical ventilation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related, moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) have mortality rates between 76-98%. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to identify differences in prone ventilation effects on oxygenation, pulmonary infiltrates (as observed on chest X-ray (CXR)), and systemic inflammation in CARDS patients by survivorship and to identify baseline characteristics associated with survival after prone ventilation. The study cohort included 23 patients with moderate-to-severe CARDS who received prone ventilation for ≥16 h/day and was segmented by living status: living (n = 6) and deceased (n = 17). Immediately after prone ventilation, PaO2/FiO2 improved by 108% (p < 0.03) for the living and 150% (p < 3 × 10-4) for the deceased. However, the 48 h change in lung infiltrate severity in gravity-dependent lung zones was significantly better for the living than for the deceased (p < 0.02). In CXRs of the lower lungs before prone ventilation, we observed 5 patients with confluent infiltrates bilaterally, 12 patients with ground-glass opacities (GGOs) bilaterally, and 6 patients with mixed infiltrate patterns; 80% of patients with confluent infiltrates were alive vs. 8% of patients with GGOs. In conclusion, our small study indicates that CXRs may offer clinical utility in selecting patients with moderate-to-severe CARDS who will benefit from prone ventilation. Additionally, our study suggests that lung infiltrate severity may be a better indicator of patient disposition after prone ventilation than PaO2/FiO2.

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