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1.
Molecules ; 27(17):5620, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2006141

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D's role in combating the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the virus causing COVID-19, has been established in unveiling viable inhibitors of COVID-19. The current study investigated the role of pre and pro-vitamin D bioactives from edible mushrooms against Mpro and PLpro proteases of SARS-CoV-2 by computational experiments. The bioactives of mushrooms, specifically ergosterol (provitamin D2), 7-dehydrocholesterol (provitamin-D3), 22,23-dihydroergocalciferol (provitamin-D4), cholecalciferol (vitamin-D3), and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) were screened against Mpro and PLpro. Molecular docking analyses of the generated bioactive protease complexes unravelled the differential docking energies, which ranged from −7.5 kcal/mol to −4.5 kcal/mol. Ergosterol exhibited the lowest binding energy (−7.5 kcal/mol) against Mpro and PLpro (−5.9 kcal/mol). The Molecular Mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann Surface Area (MMPBSA) and MD simulation analyses indicated that the generated complexes were stable, thus affirming the putative binding of the bioactives to viral proteases. Considering the pivotal role of vitamin D bioactives, their direct interactions against SARS-CoV-2 proteases highlight the promising role of bioactives present in mushrooms as potent nutraceuticals against COVID-19.

2.
Tran, Khanh Bao, Lang, Justin J.; Compton, Kelly, Xu, Rixing, Acheson, Alistair R.; Henrikson, Hannah Jacqueline, Kocarnik, Jonathan M.; Penberthy, Louise, Aali, Amirali, Abbas, Qamar, Abbasi, Behzad, Abbasi-Kangevari, Mohsen, Abbasi-Kangevari, Zeinab, Abbastabar, Hedayat, Abdelmasseh, Michael, Abd-Elsalam, Sherief, Abdelwahab, Ahmed Abdelwahab, Abdoli, Gholamreza, Abdulkadir, Hanan Abdulkadir, Abedi, Aidin, Abegaz, Kedir Hussein, Abidi, Hassan, Aboagye, Richard Gyan, Abolhassani, Hassan, Absalan, Abdorrahim, Abtew, Yonas Derso, Abubaker Ali, Hiwa, Abu-Gharbieh, Eman, Achappa, Basavaprabhu, Acuna, Juan Manuel, Addison, Daniel, Addo, Isaac Yeboah, Adegboye, Oyelola A.; Adesina, Miracle Ayomikun, Adnan, Mohammad, Adnani, Qorinah Estiningtyas Sakilah, Advani, Shailesh M.; Afrin, Sumia, Afzal, Muhammad Sohail, Aggarwal, Manik, Ahinkorah, Bright Opoku, Ahmad, Araz Ramazan, Ahmad, Rizwan, Ahmad, Sajjad, Ahmad, Sohail, Ahmadi, Sepideh, Ahmed, Haroon, Ahmed, Luai A.; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir, Ahmed Rashid, Tarik, Aiman, Wajeeha, Ajami, Marjan, Akalu, Gizachew Taddesse, Akbarzadeh-Khiavi, Mostafa, Aklilu, Addis, Akonde, Maxwell, Akunna, Chisom Joyqueenet, Al Hamad, Hanadi, Alahdab, Fares, Alanezi, Fahad Mashhour, Alanzi, Turki M.; Alessy, Saleh Ali, Algammal, Abdelazeem M.; Al-Hanawi, Mohammed Khaled, Alhassan, Robert Kaba, Ali, Beriwan Abdulqadir, Ali, Liaqat, Ali, Syed Shujait, Alimohamadi, Yousef, Alipour, Vahid, Aljunid, Syed Mohamed, Alkhayyat, Motasem, Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali Ali, Almustanyir, Sami, Alonso, Nivaldo, Alqalyoobi, Shehabaldin, Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Al-Rifai, Rami H. 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N.; Rezaei, Maryam, Rezaei, Nazila, Rezaei, Negar, Rezaei, Nima, Rezaei, Saeid, Rezaeian, Mohsen, Rezapour, Aziz, Riad, Abanoub, Rikhtegar, Reza, Rios-Blancas, Maria, Roberts, Thomas J.; Rohloff, Peter, Romero-Rodríguez, Esperanza, Roshandel, Gholamreza, Rwegerera, Godfrey M.; S, Manjula, Saber-Ayad, Maha Mohamed, Saberzadeh-Ardestani, Bahar, Sabour, Siamak, Saddik, Basema, Sadeghi, Erfan, Saeb, Mohammad Reza, Saeed, Umar, Safaei, Mohsen, Safary, Azam, Sahebazzamani, Maryam, Sahebkar, Amirhossein, Sahoo, Harihar, Sajid, Mirza Rizwan, Salari, Hedayat, Salehi, Sana, Salem, Marwa Rashad, Salimzadeh, Hamideh, Samodra, Yoseph Leonardo, Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan, Sankararaman, Senthilkumar, Sanmarchi, Francesco, Santric-Milicevic, Milena M.; Saqib, Muhammad Arif Nadeem, Sarveazad, Arash, Sarvi, Fatemeh, Sathian, Brijesh, Satpathy, Maheswar, Sayegh, Nicolas, Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola, Schwarzinger, Michaël, Šekerija, Mario, Senthilkumaran, Subramanian, Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Seylani, Allen, Seyoum, Kenbon, Sha, Feng, Shafaat, Omid, Shah, Pritik A.; Shahabi, Saeed, Shahid, Izza, Shahrbaf, Mohammad Amin, Shahsavari, Hamid R.; Shaikh, Masood Ali, Shaka, Mohammed Feyisso, Shaker, Elaheh, Shannawaz, Mohammed, Sharew, Mequannent Melaku Sharew, Sharifi, Azam, Sharifi-Rad, Javad, Sharma, Purva, Shashamo, Bereket Beyene, Sheikh, Aziz, Sheikh, Mahdi, Sheikhbahaei, Sara, Sheikhi, Rahim Ali, Sheikhy, Ali, Shepherd, Peter Robin, Shetty, Adithi, Shetty, Jeevan K.; Shetty, Ranjitha S.; Shibuya, Kenji, Shirkoohi, Reza, Shirzad-Aski, Hesamaddin, Shivakumar, K. M.; Shivalli, Siddharudha, Shivarov, Velizar, Shobeiri, Parnian, Shokri Varniab, Zahra, Shorofi, Seyed Afshin, Shrestha, Sunil, Sibhat, Migbar Mekonnen, Siddappa Malleshappa, Sudeep K.; Sidemo, Negussie Boti, Silva, Diego Augusto Santos, Silva, Luís Manuel Lopes Rodrigues, Silva Julian, Guilherme, Silvestris, Nicola, Simegn, Wudneh, Singh, Achintya Dinesh, Singh, Ambrish, Singh, Garima, Singh, Harpreet, Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Jitendra Kumar, Singh, Paramdeep, Singh, Surjit, Sinha, Dhirendra Narain, Sinke, Abiy H.; Siraj, Md Shahjahan, Sitas, Freddy, Siwal, Samarjeet Singh, Skryabin, Valentin Yurievich, Skryabina, Anna Aleksandrovna, Socea, Bogdan, Soeberg, Matthew J.; Sofi-Mahmudi, Ahmad, Solomon, Yonatan, Soltani-Zangbar, Mohammad Sadegh, Song, Suhang, Song, Yimeng, Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Soshnikov, Sergey, Sotoudeh, Houman, Sowe, Alieu, Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale, Suk, Ryan, Suleman, Muhammad, Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Rizwan, Sultana, Saima, Sur, Daniel, Szócska, Miklós, Tabaeian, Seidamir Pasha, Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael, Tabatabaei, Seyyed Mohammad, Tabuchi, Takahiro, Tadbiri, Hooman, Taheri, Ensiyeh, Taheri, Majid, Taheri Soodejani, Moslem, Takahashi, Ken, Talaat, Iman M.; Tampa, Mircea, Tan, Ker-Kan, Tat, Nathan Y.; Tat, Vivian Y.; Tavakoli, Ahmad, Tavakoli, Arash, Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash, Tekalegn, Yohannes, Tesfay, Fisaha Haile, Thapar, Rekha, Thavamani, Aravind, Thoguluva Chandrasekar, Viveksandeep, Thomas, Nihal, Thomas, Nikhil Kenny, Ticoalu, Jansje Henny Vera, Tiyuri, Amir, Tollosa, Daniel Nigusse, Topor-Madry, Roman, Touvier, Mathilde, Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto, Traini, Eugenio, Tran, Mai Thi Ngoc, Tripathy, Jaya Prasad, Ukke, Gebresilasea Gendisha, Ullah, Irfan, Ullah, Saif, Ullah, Sana, Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran, Vacante, Marco, Vaezi, Maryam, Valadan Tahbaz, Sahel, Valdez, Pascual R.; Vardavas, Constantine, Varthya, Shoban Babu, Vaziri, Siavash, Velazquez, Diana Zuleika, Veroux, Massimiliano, Villeneuve, Paul J.; Violante, Francesco S.; Vladimirov, Sergey Konstantinovitch, Vlassov, Vasily, Vo, Bay, Vu, Linh Gia, Wadood, Abdul Wadood, Waheed, Yasir, Walde, Mandaras Tariku, Wamai, Richard G.; Wang, Cong, Wang, Fang, Wang, Ning, Wang, Yu, Ward, Paul, Waris, Abdul, Westerman, Ronny, Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana, Woldemariam, Melat, Woldu, Berhanu, Xiao, Hong, Xu, Suowen, Xu, Xiaoyue, Yadav, Lalit, Yahyazadeh Jabbari, Seyed Hossein, Yang, Lin, Yazdanpanah, Fereshteh, Yeshaw, Yigizie, Yismaw, Yazachew, Yonemoto, Naohiro, Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yousefi, Zabihollah, Yousefian, Fatemeh, Yu, Chuanhua, Yu, Yong, Yunusa, Ismaeel, Zahir, Mazyar, Zaki, Nazar, Zaman, Burhan Abdullah, Zangiabadian, Moein, Zare, Fariba, Zare, Iman, Zareshahrabadi, Zahra, Zarrintan, Armin, Zastrozhin, Mikhail Sergeevich, Zeineddine, Mohammad A.; Zhang, Dongyu, Zhang, Jianrong, Zhang, Yunquan, Zhang, Zhi-Jiang, Zhou, Linghui, Zodpey, Sanjay, Zoladl, Mohammad, Vos, Theo, Hay, Simon I.; Force, Lisa M.; Murray, Christopher J. L..
The Lancet ; 400(10352):563-591, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1991370

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk–outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4·45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4·01–4·94) deaths and 105 million (95·0–116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44·4% (41·3–48·4) of all cancer deaths and 42·0% (39·1–45·6) of all DALYs. There were 2·88 million (2·60–3·18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50·6% [47·8–54·1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1·58 million (1·36–1·84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36·3% [32·5–41·3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20·4% (12·6–28·4) and DALYs by 16·8% (8·8–25·0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34·7% [27·9–42·8] and 33·3% [25·8–42·0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

3.
Cureus ; 14(7): e26519, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934586

ABSTRACT

While severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is the most common presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, several short- and long-term complications from COVID-19 infection are also being recognized. One such complication with life-threatening consequences is known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). While the phenomenon of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is more recognized, the pathophysiology of both presentations remains a mystery currently. Several theories have been put forward however no consensus has been established yet. We present the case of a 20-year-old male who was admitted to the intensive care unit for a multisystem illness characterized by severe biventricular failure, profound shock, and acute liver and kidney injuries. The severity of illness necessitated the treatment with mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), vasopressors, and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH). The patient was treated with one dose of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG). In association with the foregoing treatment, the patient made dramatic recovery and came off pulmonary, hemodynamic, and renal support within a week and made remarkably quick and full recovery. This case highlights a rare presentation of a COVID-19 complication that requires prompt recognition, supportive care, and empiric treatment that led to a favorable outcome in this case.

4.
Saudi J Anaesth ; 16(1): 127-128, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614108
5.
International Journal of Food Science & Technology ; : 1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1494720

ABSTRACT

The present review attempts to critically examine and evaluate research findings on mushrooms as sources of vitamin D and other nutraceuticals. Recently, there is a growing concern about diseases associated with the deficiency of vitamin D in humans. As people tend to stay indoors, in present times, due to the COVID‐19 pandemic, vitamin D levels are further affected. Research indicates vitamin D as a promising defensive or therapeutic agent against COVID, making this review more crucial. Mushrooms, as a rich source of vitamin D along with various bioactive compounds, perform a significant role in resolving health issues. Robust analyses of various strategies for enhancing vitamin D content in mushrooms holds significance in this study;moreover, this will help stakeholders of the mushroom industry in enriching the overall mushroom quality and human health. Mushroom‐based medicinal formulations and functional foods serve to deliver vitamins and nutrients to humans, thus helping to combat malnutrition and other health problems, especially in developing countries. Evidence from pre‐clinical and clinical analyses suggests that vitamin D2 bioavailability in mushrooms is comparable with vitamin D from other sources. The review also emphasises molecular findings from mushrooms related to genes responsible for morphology and metabolic production of pro‐vitamin‐D2. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Food Science & Technology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

6.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 92(1)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413211

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to millions of deaths worldwide. Old age, immunocompromised state and multiple comorbidities are described as risk factors. Kyphoscoliosis (KS) is the most common spine abnormality and a risk factor of respiratory failure. Management of pneumonia in a patient with severe kyphoscoliosis is challenging to the intensivist. We report successful management of two patients with severe kyphoscoliosis who developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kyphosis , Scoliosis , Humans , Kyphosis/complications , Kyphosis/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Scoliosis/complications , Scoliosis/diagnostic imaging
7.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(7): 2661-2667, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362679

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: After almost two months of reporting the first case of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the country, the nationwide lockdown in India was initiated on 24th of March 2020, to curtail the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the country. While this lockdown had been in place for almost 3 months, the people of the nation have experienced changes in their routine lives in a wide range of activities, including personal behaviours. This study was conducted to identify the impacts that the lockdown had on the lifestyle and behavioural aspects of Indians during the lockdown. METHODS: It was a cross sectional study, conducted by online survey. Data collection was done for the period of 3 months. RESULTS: The study found that a huge number of participants had significant changes in their diet, sleep, bowel habits and also their personal traits. Also, the lockdown had improved interpersonal relationships and helped people explore their hobbies or even acquire a new skill (about 25% of the participants). More than 90% of the participants perceived decrease in air pollution and a majority reported increase in personal hygiene (74.2%), perceived decrease in crime rates (67.3%) as benefits of lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: It would be recommended to include variables to screen for mental health issues among the general population.

8.
J Educ Health Promot ; 10: 232, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the wake of the novel coronavirus pandemic, the closure of educational institutions has imposed a situation of potential gap in learning. Since training of medical and paramedical students is vital in creation of our army of these frontline health-care workers, this study was aimed at comparing the asynchronous and synchronous methods of online teaching for imparting training to students of medical laboratory technology (MLT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 33 students of the 1st-year batch of MLT course at a tertiary level hospital. Ten lectures each from the subject of biomedical statistics were delivered through asynchronous (lecture shared on WhatsApp group) and synchronous (online live lecture) methods followed by a brief examination for each topic. A short survey was designed to assess the students' perception of clarity of concepts, confidence of solving the examination, and their preference for one of these methods. Appropriate statistical tests were applied to the data. RESULTS: Synchronous method of online teaching was preferred by majority of the students (P < 0.001). Students' clarity in understanding of the concepts (P < 0.001) and confidence of the ability to solve examination questions (P < 0.05) was higher after synchronous teaching. The examination scores after synchronous online teaching were significantly higher (P = 0.0156) than those for topics covered through asynchronous method. CONCLUSION: Online teaching, especially the synchronous method, offers an opportunity of continuum of training during crisis situations such as the ongoing novel coronavirus pandemic. The wide availability of internet services and the ever-changing global situation mandates readiness for this modality of teaching, both for the teachers and the students.

9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The recent Covid-19 pandemic has burdened the healthcare facilities, especially in the presence of limited infrastructure. We aimed at applying a queuing model to the Covid-19 screening area so as to optimize the screening services and ensuring that no patient is refused the service. METHODS: The mean arrival time of patients, number of physicians, mean screening time and queue characteristics were observed and entered in the M/M/c/K queuing model using R programming to optimize the number of physicians required in the screening area. RESULTS: Considering the mean arrival of 7 patients in 10 minutes and screening of 3 patients in 10 minutes by 1 physician, 2 physicians were assigned. At this capacity, the probability of saturation of the system was 15% with patient loss rate of 1.05 per 10 minutes. Queuing simulation with 3 physicians reduced the patient loss rate to 0.013 per 10 minutes and a saturation probability of 0.2%. However, an increase of arrival rate from 10 to 20 led to an early saturation of the system. CONCLUSION: Queuing models offer an opportunity for the healthcare providers and hospital administrators to optimize patient care services, especially in critical areas with an ever-changing situation such as the current pandemic.

10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(4): 985-986, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138826

ABSTRACT

A 32-year-old man with a clear and compact graft following a penetrating keratoplasty 6 years back, developed an episode of acute graft rejection, coinciding with the COVID-19 disease. Subsequent to the infection with the novel coronavirus, he developed symptoms of acute graft rejection concurrent with the development of respiratory distress and peak systemic symptoms. This was the phase of cytokine storm as evidenced by the raised inflammatory markers in his blood tests. Such a case of acute corneal graft rejection coinciding with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported only once in the literature and this unique association needs to be researched further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Corneal Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cataract Extraction , Corneal Diseases/drug therapy , Corneal Diseases/virology , Cytokines/blood , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/virology , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity
11.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1320

ABSTRACT

The worldwide Pandemic caused due to Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is posing a drastic effect on individual’s mental as well as physical health. The transmiss

12.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1319

ABSTRACT

The nationwide Lockdown imposed in India in response to the containment of Novel Coronavirus Disease, COVID-19, has led to the inexplicit situation of people's

14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 158: 159-179, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141701

ABSTRACT

Human malaria is a pathogenic disease mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which was responsible for about 405,000 deaths globally in the year 2018. To date, several vaccine candidates have been evaluated for prevention, which failed to produce optimal output at various preclinical/clinical stages. This study is based on designing of polypeptide vaccines (PVs) against human malaria that cover almost all stages of life-cycle of Plasmodium and for the same 5 genome derived predicted antigenic proteins (GDPAP) have been used. For the development of a multi-immune inducer, 15 PVs were initially designed using T-cell epitope ensemble, which covered >99% human population as well as linear B-cell epitopes with or without adjuvants. The immune simulation of PVs showed higher levels of T-cell and B-cell activities compared to positive and negative vaccine controls. Furthermore, in silico cloning of PVs and codon optimization followed by enhanced expression within Lactococcus lactis host system was also explored. Although, the study has sound theoretical and in silico findings, the in vitro/in vivo evaluation seems imperative to warrant the immunogenicity and safety of PVs towards management of P. falciparum infection in the future.


Subject(s)
Epitopes/chemistry , Malaria Vaccines/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Administration, Oral , Antibody Affinity , Binding Sites, Antibody , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Malaria Vaccines/administration & dosage , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
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