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1.
Indian Journal of Medical Specialities ; 13(2):113-118, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1786171

ABSTRACT

Background: Sudden surge of mucormycosis cases in India needs an urgent attention as multiple factors have been implicated. However, diabetes mellitus remains to be one of the most important and modifiable factors. Methodology: We prospectively followed 11 patients with mucormycosis in May 2021 and June 2021, admitted to our hospital to study the possible etiologies. Results: Out of the 11 patients, six were males and five were females, with an average age of 52.45 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the ubiquitous comorbidity, and every patient presented with uncontrolled hyperglycemia (six out of them were in diabetic ketoacidosis). Glycated hemoglobin levels ranged from 10.2% to 15.1%. Out of 11 patients, four patients were non-COVID, whereas five patients had a history of COVID-19 infection. All these five post COVID-19 patients presented approximately 20 days after recovery, out of which one patient had severe infection who was hospitalized. The remaining two patients were COVID-19-positive. Out of 11 patients, 10 patients had rhino-orbital mucormycosis at presentation, among which four patients had cerebral involvement, and one out of them later developed invasive disease. However, one patient had only pulmonary mucormycosis at presentation. Serum ferritin was raised in all the patients, and six had serum zinc levels below the reference range. Serum flow cytometry showed leukopenia with normal CD4:CD8 ratio in seven patients. In the clinical outcome, six patients expired, whereas five patients responded to the treatment and were discharged on oral posaconazole therapy. Conclusion: From our study, it is quite evident that uncontrolled diabetes and its complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis were an important risk factor for the occurrence of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients as well as non-COVID-19 patients, even without exposure to steroids or oxygen. Thus, blood glucose levels should be kept at optimum level during the management of COVID-19 patients. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Indian Journal of Medical Specialities is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 672629, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389198

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection across the world has led to immense turbulence in the treatment modality, thus demanding a swift drug discovery process. Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to ACE2 receptor of human to initiate host invasion. Plethora of studies demonstrate the inhibition of Spike-ACE2 interactions to impair infection. The ancient Indian traditional medicine has been of great interest of Virologists worldwide to decipher potential antivirals. Hence, in this study, phytochemicals (1,952 compounds) from eight potential medicinal plants used in Indian traditional medicine were meticulously collated, based on their usage in respiratory disorders, along with immunomodulatory and anti-viral potential from contemporary literature. Further, these compounds were virtually screened against Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of Spike protein. The potential compounds from each plant were prioritized based on the binding affinity, key hotspot interactions at ACE2 binding region and glycosylation sites. Finally, the potential hits in complex with spike protein were subjected to Molecular Dynamics simulation (450 ns), to infer the stability of complex formation. Among the compounds screened, Tellimagrandin-II (binding energy of -8.2 kcal/mol and binding free energy of -32.08 kcal/mol) from Syzygium aromaticum L. and O-Demethyl-demethoxy-curcumin (binding energy of -8.0 kcal/mol and binding free energy of -12.48 kcal/mol) from Curcuma longa L. were found to be highly potential due to their higher binding affinity and significant binding free energy (MM-PBSA), along with favorable ADMET properties and stable intermolecular interactions with hotspots (including the ASN343 glycosylation site). The proposed hits are highly promising, as these are resultant of stringent in silico checkpoints, traditionally used, and are documented through contemporary literature. Hence, could serve as promising leads for subsequent experimental validations.

4.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 10(6)2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083983

ABSTRACT

We announce the coding-complete genome sequences of two isolates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive samples (RNA isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs) from Belagavi District, Karnataka State, India. Mutational analysis revealed the presence of the D614G substitution in both the isolates.

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