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1.
Biological Rhythm Research ; 53(3):351-357, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1886303

ABSTRACT

An epidemiological study was conducted for investigation of bovine coronavirus by antigen Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit in dairy calves from Central India (Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh states) and North India (Uttar Pradesh state). Different epidemiological parameters like age, parity, colour and consistency of faecal materials and seasonal changes in a year were recorded. A total of 816 faecal samples were screened and out of which 7 (0.85%) animals were found to be positive for bovine coronavirus. The higher prevalence was recorded in north India followed by central India. Age wise higher prevalence was recorded below 2 month calves. Seasonally, the prevalence of coronavirus infection was higher in monsoon season and in first parity of calves as compared to other season and parity. Prevalence of coronavirus infection was higher in watery diarrhoea faecal materials than pasty yellow colour diarrhoea. The observations of the present study would provide the basis for further an effective explorative surveillance and epidemiological studies to know the real impact of coronavirus infection with associated risk factors in dairy calves of India.

2.
Lecture Notes in Educational Technology ; : 43-61, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1400998

ABSTRACT

Online education is not new to the twenty-first century, especially to higher education. It is known since early 2000 and continues. Traditional education is offered in all government institutions in India. However, in March 2020, Education turned 360° immediately after the COVID-19 pandemic, which allegedly originated in Wuhan city of China in late December 2019. Since then, all the Educational Institutions including schools, colleges, universities, coaching centers insisted to shut down for an unknown time by the government to maintain social distancing and mitigating COVID-19 spread. Due to this, the traditional system was bound to shift to Online Education (OE). In this chapter, challenges that occurred due to the immediate shift to the online education system are discussed. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360535

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has underlined the importance of emerging diseases of zoonotic importance. Along with human beings, several species of wild and pet animals have been demonstrated to be infected by SARS-CoV-2, both naturally and experimentally. In addition, with constant emergence of new variants, the species susceptibility might further change which warrants intensified screening efforts. India is a vast and second most populated country, with a habitat of a very diverse range of animal species. In this study we place on record of SARS-CoV-2 infections in three captive Asiatic lions. Detailed genomic characterization revealed involvement of Delta mutant (Pango lineage B.1.617.2) of SARS-CoV-2 at two different locations. Interestingly, no other feline species enclosed in the zoo/park were found infected. The epidemiological and molecular analysis will contribute to the understanding of the emerging mutants of SARS-CoV-2 in wild and domestic animals.

4.
Microbiology Australia ; 42(1):46-46, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1243344
6.
Proc. - IEEE Int. Conf. Multimed. Big Data, BigMM ; : 351-355, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-972165

ABSTRACT

Privacy of the individual data, especially in the Health data, is very sensitive and important. Privacy preserving Machine learning is emerging as one of the solutions for the security of data with the utility to create knowledge. In this paper, we have proposed a differential private artificial neural network (DP-ANN) and shows its application to predict the spread and the peak number of COVID-19 cases. We proposed a differential private artificial neural network (DP-ANN) in which laplacian noise has been introduced at activation function level and it has been compared with existing privacy ideas at error function and weights level of ANN. Results show that DP-ANN model with the private activation function produces the result similar to the base ANN model. © 2020 IEEE.

7.
Microbiology Australia ; 41(4):217-223, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-947593

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first recognised in late 2019, with over 30 000 000 cases and over 1 000 000 deaths reported by the end of September 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infection is usually associated with fever, cough, coryza, dyspnoea, anosmia, headache and fatigue and may cause pneumonia and hypoxemia. An excessive/dysregulated inflammatory response may lead to lung damage including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), coagulopathy and other complications. Mortality amongst hospitalised patients is higher in those needing intensive care. In Australia over 27 000 cases with 882 deaths had been reported by 30 September, most in Victoria. Two therapies have proven beneficial in treatment of hospitalised patients in expedited randomised placebo-controlled trials and are now in widespread use. Dexamethasone improved survival of those requiring respiratory support and the antiviral agent remdesivir decreased time to recovery in mild-moderate disease. Remdesivir was authorised by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration in July 2020. Over 200 other therapeutics are being tested for COVID-19 in more than 2000 clinical trials, and many more agents are in preclinical development. We review the evidence for some of the candidates for therapy in COVID-19. © 2020 CSIRO. All rights reserved.

8.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103814, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124709

ABSTRACT

Bovine rotavirus (BRoV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are major enteric viral pathogens responsible for calve diarrhoea. They are widespread both in dairy and beef cattle throughout the world and causing huge economic losses. The diagnosis of these agents is very difficult due to non-specific nature of lesions and the involvement of some intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. We performed postmortem of 45 calves, which was below three months of age. Out of 45 necropscid calves, three (6.66%) cases were positive for BRoV and four (8.88%) cases were found positive for BCoV, screened by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Further RT-PCR positive cases were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in paraffin-embedded intestinal tissue sections. Three cases of enteritis caused by BRoV showed the hallmark lesions of the shortening and fusion of villi, denudation and infiltration of mononuclear cells in the lamina propria. The BRoV antigen distribution was prominent within the lining epithelium of the villi, peyer's patches in the ileum and strong immunoreactions in the lymphocytes and some macrophages of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Four cases in which BCoV was detected, grossly lesions characterized by colonic mucosa covered with thick, fibrinous and diphtheritic membrane. Histopathologically, jejunum showed skipping lesion of micro-abscesses in crypts. The BCoV antigen distribution was prominent within the necrotic crypts in the jejunum and cryptic micro-abscesses in the colon and ileum. It is the first report of BRoV and BCoV antigen demonstration in the jejunum, colon, ileum, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of naturally infected calves from India by using IHC.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/physiology , Enteritis/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus/physiology , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Enteritis/pathology , Enteritis/virology , Feces/virology , Immunohistochemistry , Intestines/pathology , Intestines/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus Infections/pathology , Rotavirus Infections/virology
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