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1.
International Journal of Academic Medicine and Pharmacy ; 4(4):544-549, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164781

ABSTRACT

Background: To control the COVID-19 pandemic, the only measure could be vaccination drive among country individuals. Pathetically, immunization refusal has been a common story in the media for well longer than 10 years. The study aimed to enlist the reasons for COVID-19 vaccine refusal among health workers of L3 level hospital and also to study the reasons for COVID-19 vaccination refusal by health care workers of L3 level hospital. To carry out this present study research question, the objectives were to prepare a detail list comprising of refusal reasons and also to find out correlations between refusal reasons and selected demographical variables like age/sex. Material(s) and Method(s): The present study consisted of 192 subjects from the Out-Patient Department at the Department of Medicine of Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, U.P. conducted between late December 2020 and March 2021. Informed written consent were obtained from all the study group subjects. A Questionnaire based research design was adopted for this study to assess the reasons for COVID -19 vaccination refusal by Health care workers of L3 level hospital. Result(s): The total study subjects involved in the present project were 192 with the mean age of the study population being 26.33 +/- 5.31 years. Majority of the hesitant respondents were females (56.8%). Out of all the 192 healthcare workers involved in the study, maximum (n=75) were from the allied courses followed by paramedical staff (n=61) and clinical doctors (n=56). Out of all the reasons enlisted for refusal of vaccination, sickness (n=51, 26.6%) was the single most dominant reason followed by drug allergy (n=23;12%), pregnancy (n=18;9.4%), food allergy (n=12;6.2%) and lactation (n=8;4.2%), with 79 respondents giving various other reasons for refusal like parents' denial (n=26), followed by presence of a medical condition (n=18), travel and scheduled appointments for personal/official tasks (n=4 each). A total of 27 respondents had failed to cite any specific reason for refusal. Reasons for refusal showed a significant variation for different age groups, sexes and professional categories (p<0.001). In effect, there was a statistically significant difference among different professional categories with respect to reasons for vaccine hesitancy (p=0.001). Conclusion(s): Improving intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in India is influenced by the effectiveness of the vaccine. To retard the progress of the pandemic, it will require acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine along with targeted health communication strategies that effectively reach the populace. Copyright © 2022 Necati Ozpinar. All right reserved.

2.
Earth Sciences Research Journal ; 26(3):239-254, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2164328

ABSTRACT

Geological education plays a major role in the social, economic, and cultural growth and development of any coun-try. India is a vast diversified country with wide-ranging geological features, consisting of rocks of all geological ages with well-developed physiographic divisions. The Indian lithospheric plate is a storehouse of vast georesources and also serves as a natural field laboratory for developing and testing numerous geological principles. The exploration of Indian georesources began in the past;with the organized exploration began way back in the 1830s. The number of institutions offering geological education is, however, comparatively low. Thus, Geology as a science discipline is less popular in comparison with other science subjects such as Physics, Chemistry, Zoology, Botany, and Environmental science, based on enrolment data of the learners enrolled in academic sessions from 2011-2012 to 2018-2019 of the Master's degree programs. Analysis indicates that teaching-learning resources of foreign origin are dominantly being adopted as learning resources in the teaching-learning pedagogy of degree programs in Geology, and are over-riding those of Indian origin. The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting geological education in two ways namely, the disruption of conventional (face-to-face) teaching together with not allowing learners of Geology programs to complete their compulsory out-door geological fieldwork assignments. The analysis of data gathered by an online questionnaire survey shows that the use of indigenous open educational resources in Geology appears as a plausible solution to overcome the learning barriers created by the COVID-19 pandemic, and also to enrich teaching-learning resources of Indian origin. This article provides an up-to-date detailed account of the necessity and evolution of geological education, the current popularity of Geology as a science discipline, the nature of available geological teaching-learning resources, the impact of the COVID-19 on geological education, and the role of open educational resources in providing quality and equita-ble geological education, whilst removing educational barriers created by COVID-19 in India. © 2022, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved.

3.
Journal of Information & Optimization Sciences ; 43(6):1419-1429, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2160515

ABSTRACT

Amid Covid crisis and other market trends, the texture of the market is such that even a whiff of adverse news gets distended. In such a situation, an organization can outperform only when employees contribute to its success story. The rapid advancement in the current scenario has resulted in substantial changes in all dimensions and fields of human life. This situation drives businesses to keep up with and develop in response to these changes and innovations. It has become imperative for organisations to stimulate organisational paradigm adjustments, particularly in terms of boosting quality, effectiveness and efficiency in order to improve their performance. This calls for employees' belief that organisations deeply care about their well-being and value their work. Such a perception is known as Perceived Organisational Support (PUS). This paper seeks to understand the concept of optimizing POS to improve the job performance of employees. 'Ibis research is designed by using a quantitative approach with data from 380 IT employees working in India.

4.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology ; 110(1):7, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158014

ABSTRACT

Presence of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a waterbody or a river can be caused by multiple parameters such as other pollutants by the discharge of poorly maintained sewage, siltation, sedimentation, flood and even bacteria. In this study, remote sensing techniques were used to understand the effects of pandemic-induced lockdown on the SPM concentration in the lower Tapi reservoir or Ukai reservoir. The estimation was done using Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) having radiometric resolution (12-bit) and a spatial resolution of 30 m. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud computing platform was used in this study to generate the products. The GEE is a semi-automated workflow system using a robust approach designed for scientific analysis and visualization of geospatial datasets. An algorithm was deployed, and a time-series (2013-2020) analysis was done for the study area. It was found that the average mean value of SPM in Tapi River during 2020 is lowest than the last seven years at the same time.

5.
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology ; 8(2):228-232, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145770

ABSTRACT

Aim: To know the awareness and knowledge of ocular manifestation in COVID-19 patients among health care workers (HCWs) in central India Materials and Methods: A web-based survey, cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain responses from health care workers (HCWs) in central India from the month of May – July 2020 to access the awareness and knowledge of ocular manifestation in COVID 19 patients among HCWs in central India. This survey was divided into three parts: (i) Participant characteristics (ii) awareness / knowledge of COVID-19 disease (iii) awareness / knowledge regarding ocular manifestation of COVID 19 patients and their source of information. Knowledge regarding ocular manifestation of the disease was assessed by questions focusing on COVID-19 signs / symptoms and risk in eyes, its transmission, and prevention. Ethical clearance was taken and electronic informed consent was taken and confidentiality of each person was maintained throughout the study. Results: A total of 408 healthcare workers participated in the study, in which approximately 59.06% (n = 241) of males and 40.94% (n= 167) females, majority of them belong to urban area 74% (n= 302). Most of the HCWs 39.9% were between 35-44 years of age, in which 51.71% (n = 211) were Doctors, 35.04% (n =143) were nursing staff and 6.61%, 1.47% were hospital attendant and sanitary workers respectively. Almost all participants (n=408) had heard about COVID-19, out of which 92.15% agreed that corona patients can recover completely. The study reviled that most of HCWs had good knowledge about the disease and its transmission. However, 336 (82.35%) HCWs were aware that the disease can also affect the eye and 278 (68.13%) accepted that it can cause conjunctivitis. The study revealed that 193 doctors (91.46%), 120 (83.91%) nursing staff and only 23 allied health workers (42.59%) thought that COVID-19 can affect eyes. In which (n=119) 56.39% doctors, (n=61) 42.65% nursing staff, and only (n=19) 35.18% allied health care workers believed that corona can spread through tears. Most doctors (n=165, 78.19%) agreed that COVID 19 can cause conjunctivitis, Which was not same in the case of nursing staffs and other allied Health care workers. Hence, there was a knowledge gap between doctors and other HCWs regarding ocular manifestation of COVID-19 disease. Conclusion: The study concluded that most of the HCWs were aware about the disease (COVID-19) and had good knowledge about the general condition of the disease but participant’s knowledge regarding ocular manifestation of the disease was comparatively less, though most of the HCWs agreed that COVID-19 could also affect the eyes. © 2022 Innovative Publication, All rights reserved.

6.
Data Science Applications of Post-COVID-19 Psychological Disorders ; : 63-83, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2125989

ABSTRACT

COVID pandemic and the subsequent recent emergence of its different variants have posed significant challenges for continuing everyday lifestyle, including any educational institute's campus life. In contrast, educational institutes conduct classes, exams, placement, and other co-curricular activities online, offline, and hybrid modes. Because of this, we have achieved a web-based survey on students about their mental health and other related issues such as anxiety, worry, disturbance, fear of infection, and mental anguish caused by COVID-19 in university undergraduates. 1100 pupils completed a digital survey in this crosssectional study. All these are college graduates from various universities in Bhubaneswar, India, and other universities in Odisha. COVID-19 awareness, nervousness, tension, panic, and mental illness in the past were used to screen the psychological distress. This paper reviews the current scenario of COVID-19 concerning psychological distress and related issues. Students' mental health can be affected by using the development of RST (rough set theory) principles. © 2022 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

7.
Ieee Access ; 10:115351-115371, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121720

ABSTRACT

Social media networks have become a prime source for sharing news, opinions, and research accomplishments in various domains, and hundreds of millions of posts are announced daily. Given this wealth of information in social media, finding related announcements has become a relevant task, particularly in trending news (e.g., COVID-19 or lung cancer). To facilitate the search of connected posts, social networks enable users to annotate their posts, e.g., with hashtags in tweets. Albeit effective, an annotation-based search is limited because results will only include the posts that share the same annotations. This paper focuses on retrieving context-related posts based on a specific topic, and presents PINYON, a knowledge-driven framework, that retrieves associated posts effectively. PINYON implements a two-fold pipeline. First, it encodes, in a graph, a CORPUS of posts and an input post;posts are annotated with entities for existing knowledge graphs and connected based on the similarity of their entities. In a decoding phase, the encoded graph is used to discover communities of related posts. We cast this problem into the Vertex Coloring Problem, where communities of similar posts include the posts annotated with entities colored with the same colors. Built on results reported in the graph theory, PINYON implements the decoding phase guided by a heuristic-based method that determines relatedness among posts based on contextual knowledge, and efficiently groups the most similar posts in the same communities. PINYON is empirically evaluated on various datasets and compared with state-of-the-art implementations of the decoding phase. The quality of the generated communities is also analyzed based on multiple metrics. The observed outcomes indicate that PINYON accurately identifies semantically related posts in different contexts. Moreover, the reported results put in perspective the impact of known properties about the optimality of existing heuristics for vertex graph coloring and their implications on PINYON scalability.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 43(Suppl 2), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2107422

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is a respiratory tract infection caused by the Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and its main clinical manifestations are respiratory. The cardiovascular system can also be affected, especially in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome [1].On the other hand, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors have been shown to be predictors of poor outcomes in COVID-19 [2]. Diverse electrocardiographic abnormalities can be found in this condition [3], although their value as a prognostic predictor have not been properly established due to heterogeneity in abnormalities evaluation and small sample sizes in related studies [4]. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association of electrocardiogram (ECG) findings to poor COVID-19 outcomes Methods: This is a multicentric cohort study that followed hospitalized adults due to COVID-19, from low-middle and high-income countries as part of the World Heart Federation (WHF) Global Study on CVD and COVID-19 initiative [5]. Participants were followed up from hospital admission until 30 days post discharge. For the present study, participants with a valid ECG were included. ECG findings were described according to standardized measurements [heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration and axis, corrected QT interval (QTc)] and abnormalities (according to the Minnesota code system). Abnormalities utilized were grouped into ischemic abnormalities (q waves and ST-T abnormalities), atrial fibrillation (AF), prolonged QTc, sinus tachycardia (defined for the study as above 120 bpm), right and left bundle branch block and presence of any major abnormality. The primary outcome was defined as death from any cause. The secondary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) admission and cardiovascular events (myocarditis, pericarditis, myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke). Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of ECG abnormalities to the outcomes of interest. Adjustments were made in a step by step fashion including gender, age, country of residence, cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, tobacco use) and presence of comorbidities (CVD, asthma, cancer, immunosuppression and chronic kidney disease). Results: The clinical characteristics of the cohort are described in table 1. Figure 1 represents the odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval of having the defined outcomes when presenting a ECG abnormality for the final regression model. Conclusion: ECG abnormalities were independently related to poor outcomes in COVID-19 after accounting for multiple confounders. Significant associations were more frequently found for ischemic abnormalities, heart rate above 120 bpm, atrial fibrillation and having at least one major electrocardiographic abnormality. Funding Acknowledgement: Type of funding sources: Other. Main funding source(s): Pfizer and Sanofi PasteurWorld Heart FederationFigure 1. Odds ratios for ECG abnormalities

9.
Medical Journal of Malaysia ; 77(Supplement 3):4, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2093022

ABSTRACT

Patient healthcare and management has taken leaps and bounds in advancement with the myriad technological innovations available to us now. The COVID-19 pandemic, while initially a setback, proved to be a springboard for the adoption and adaptation of cutting-edge technology that is crucial to our survival as a species. Examples of such are MySejahtera, vaccine production, genomic studies, contact tracing devices, alternative and green modes of transportation, increasing use of contactless food delivery services, and many more. The main challenges to hospital service providers are to integrate digital healthcare technologies into traditional hospital services with the aim to create a transparent and highly efficient healthcare system without walls or barriers. Hospital executives should be planning on how to integrate technology into newly built facilities and retrofit older facilities to enable a seamless integration between all components in healthcare services. As a healthcare administrator, minimization of patient safety-related risks is my foremost priority. While the benefits of health information technology are legion and can be used to enhance patient safety to an unprecedented level, I believe we should proceed with caution to ensure that patient welfare is our utmost priority, whilst also upgrading our services alongside our healthcare technology. The spread of COVID-19 stretched healthcare operational systems to their limits not only in Malaysia, but worldwide as well. Shortages and shortfalls had to be swiftly addressed, and as the director of the main COVID-19 hospital, the speaker has had a wealth of experience optimizing and modernizing response mechanisms. The speaker will share examples of improvements made for crisis response during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, for example, centralized clinical command centers, hospital dashboards, virtual conferences, virtual learning, and many more. The speaker will also share some of the roles that a healthcare leader must focus on to prepare an organization for the adoption and use of future technology as well as readiness of organizational capabilities for long-term success. Technology for healthcare must be balanced by an appropriate level of human clinical expertise for final decision-making to ensure that patients receive high quality and safe care.

10.
National Journal of Community Medicine ; 13(9):651-654, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2091798

ABSTRACT

Disruption during Covid-19 pandemic highlighted the need of healthcare supply chain management in order to achieve effective delivery of health services. Though, considerable efforts have been undertaken on managing the healthcare supply chain disruptions in India but there is paucity of literature which documented the effect of supply chain disruptions in dental practices during covid-19 pandemic. During pandemic, the disruptions in production and distribution of dental products were seen in India. Indian dental market is largely dependent on imports and there is scarcity of local production units. The main dental companies reported significant decline in production during the first wave of Covid-19. The increase in demand for dental supplies was seen with shutdown, shortage of labour and scarcity of raw materials. Disruption rippled through the supply chain and this was caused by large distortion in demand. This phenomenon led to bullwhip effect. This bullwhip effect crisis led to increased cost in dental practices. Covid19 has shown significant lack of resilience in Indian dental healthcare supply chain. This study identified few loopholes in dental supply chain and suggested the way forward for managing the supply chain disruptions. It seems that there is need of more comprehensive research on dental supply chain resilience from Indian perspective to prevent disruptions particularly in emergent situations. © 2022, MedSci Publications. All rights reserved.

11.
West Indian Medical Journal ; 70(Supplement 1):47, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2084160

ABSTRACT

Objective: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and eating behaviors of university students in Barbados was investigated. Design and Methods: Students completed an online survey between June and July 2021 including the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4), SCOFF Questionnaire, and Salzburg Stress Eating Scale. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with eating behaviour and eating disorders. Result(s): Of 506 respondents (mean age 26 years, 81.4% female, 85.2% undergraduates), 7.23% were underweight, 52.34% normal weight, 20.85% overweight, and 19.57% obese. PHQ-4 screening suggested anxiety prevalence of 46% (95% CI 42% to 51%) with 22% (95% CI 17% to 25%) severe anxiety, and 43% (95% CI 39% to 47%) depression prevalence. 22.5 % of students screened positive for eating disorders on the SCOFF;positive screen for eating disorder was more likely positive in obese (36%) vs underweight (15%) students (p Conclusion(s): The screening instruments indicated concerning levels of anxiety, depression, and eating disorders associated with the COVID-19 pandemic among university students in Barbados. These conditions may remain undetected unless students seek help or are referred. Proactive health services and educational outreach are needed. Prevalence estimates should be viewed with caution until cut-off scores are empirically established for students in Barbados.

12.
West Indian Medical Journal ; 70(Supplement 1):44-45, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2083884

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate self-reported post-vaccination adverse events for COVID-19 vaccines among medical students in Bangladesh. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire for Bangladeshi medical students (n = 3,545). Students who received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine were included. The study was carried out from October 2021 to January 2022 in 75 public and private medical colleges. Result(s): The majority of respondents were female (60.6%) and third-year (26.5%) students. >11% had tested positive for COVID-19 infection, and 97.6% of respondents (n = 3,461) received both first and second doses of COVID-19 vaccination. Most students (79.1%) received Sinopharm and 11.2% got AstraZeneca. More than two-thirds (67.9%) indicated that COVID-19 vaccines are safe in the long term. 54.8% of respondents (n = 1,842) reported one or more adverse events. Pain at injection site (78.2%), fever (49.3%), tiredness and fatigue (46.8%), headache (41.1%), generalized body ache (21.4%), over sleepiness/laziness (18.4%) and myalgia (17.5%) were the most commonly reported adverse events. 47.4% of respondents characterised adverse events as "mild". Majorities experienced symptoms within 12 hours of vaccination (68%) and for 1-3 days (56.8%). More than two-thirds (66.2%) of respondents had rest at home, and almost one-third (31.8%) took painkillers. Thirty-nine respondents visited physicians, mainly due to high fever, severe body ache, and severe headache, but there was no need for hospitalization. Conclusion(s): The majority of students reported adverse events, but symptoms were mild and of short duration. Further multi-centre studies with larger cohorts are required to monitor vaccine safety and strengthen public confidence in vaccines.

13.
WOMEN AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA: Governance, Sustainability and Policy ; : 97-107, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068383
14.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(4):161-164, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066827

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The impact of COVID-19 in patients with autoimmune liver disease treated with immunosuppressive therapy has not been described so far. This case report describes the clinical course of a patient with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) who developed COVID-19 and the features of cytokine syndrome leading to its deterioration in our intensive care unit. Patient's Concern: A 28-year-old male presented with generalized anasarca for two weeks and chronic liver disease for 8 months. Diagnosis: AIH and Covid-19 with features of cytokine storm syndrome. Interventions: Intravenous furosemide, mannitol, syrup lactulose, steroids (prednisolone 40 mg), azathioprine 1 mg/kg body weight, rifaximin, vitamin K, and blood products. Outcomes: The patient had hepatic encephalopathy and AIH and died on the 10th day after admission despite ventilatory support, sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis, and resuscition. Lessons: The dramatic release of cytokines and the inflammatory-immune responses not only alter the pathophysiology but also affects the onset and severity of disease progression in patients with AIH.

15.
CMAJ. Canadian Medical Association Journal ; 64(5 Supplement 1):S56, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065170

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially affected medical school curriculum, limiting access to simulationbased trauma education and core surgical clerkship rotations. Virtual learning has been integrated into medical education as an alternative to live synchronous sessions. However, its effectiveness for teaching critical concepts in trauma resuscitation has not been validated. Moreover, while small-group sessions are an effective pedagogical model in-person, less is known about how they translate to online learning in clerkship. Method(s): Medical students were invited to attend a 2-day virtual trauma conference organized by student interest groups at McMaster University and promoted on social media. The event included 9 interactive presentations by physicians and residents in 5 specialties, followed by virtual small-group case discussions. A best-match algorithm assigned students to their preferred small-group sessions. Participants completed anonymous pre- and post-conference trauma knowledge tests and feedback questionnaires. Results were analyzed using paired t tests and descriptive content analysis. Result(s): A total of 360 students from over 17 medical schools in 5 countries registered to attend the conference. There was a peak of 167 simultaneous connections during presentations and 68 participants during small-group discussions. A total of 131 students (36%) completed the pretest, with a mean baseline score of 3.4 out of 10 (standard deviation [SD] 2.04). Eighty-six students (24%) completed the posttest, with a mean score of 6.3 out of 10 (SD 2.3, p < 0.001). Among students who completed both preand post-tests (20%, n = 73), paired t test analysis reveals a substantial improvement of the mean score of 2.7 out of 10 (SD 2.3, 95% confidence interval 2.17-3.23, p < 0.001). There were no significant correlations between years of education and school attended with pretest performance. Social media enhanced group engagement, resulting in a total of 147 posts, whereby 37.4% were participant generated. Live polling and a moderated chat box improved participation during presentations, with 74% of participants agreeing that the didactic sessions were interactive. The conference was well received. Overall, 95.2% of participants agreed that the online platform was effective and 78.3% agreed that the conference was helpful preparation for clerkship. The response rate for feedback forms for the small group sessions was 58.8% (40/68). Preliminary descriptive analysis revealed 42.5% (17/40) of participants reflected favourably on group interaction during small-group sessions. Overall, 92.7% of the participants rated the small-group discussions as effective. Conclusion(s): With high participant satisfaction and significantly improved posttest results, this virtual model for trauma education at the medical student level is an effective adjunct to the clerkship curriculum. Virtual small-group case-based discussions and social media were beneficial in enhancing participant engagement. This study has important implications for the future design and implementation of international virtual conferences..

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A2242, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060917

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Post-COVID-19 Outcomes SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: Obesity, a risk factor for severe COVID-19 disease, multiplies the risk of hospitalization and mortality. Its impact in lung disease is mediated by altered inflammatory responses and respiratory mechanics. Studies of lung function among COVID-19 disease survivors have identified reduced TLC and DLCO as prominent changes in this population. Obesity, however, is associated with elevated DLCO in otherwise healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether this relationship was preserved among COVID-19 disease survivors. Additionally, we sought to analyze whether maximum FiO2, peak neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), diabetes or smoking status had any effect in DLCO. METHODS: The charts of adult patients hospitalized with confirmed SaRS-CoV-2 infection between 3/20/2020 and 12/31/2021 were reviewed. Those who survived and later had a PFT were selected, and 73 patients met these criteria. Eighteen were excluded due to radiographic or prior PFT findings of emphysema (COPD or AATD) or ILD, and missing diffusion study data. Patients were stratified by BMI class. Patient characteristics were compared using ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Other outcomes were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients were included. Average age was 55.6 years. Average BMI and DLCO were distributed as follows: healthy (23.76;16.94), overweight (28.3;17.50), obesity classes I (32.3;18.86), II (37.8;17.68), and III (48.2;24.56). ANOVA shows a significant effect of BMI class on DLCO (F4,50=4.067, p=0.006). A significant positive correlation between BMI and DLCO was observed (r=0.392, p=0.003). When comparing BMI classes, Tukey’s HSD test shows that there was a significant difference only when patients classified as overweight (-22.9, p=0.01), or with obesity classes I (-20.2, p=0.02) or II (-24.0, p=0.005), were individually compared to obesity class 3. Regression analysis showed no significant effect of peak FiO2 (-0.056, p=0.07), NLR (-0.051, p=0.60), diabetes (-0.932, p=0.50), or smoking status (0.764, p=0.505). Overall regression between dependent and independent variables is not significant (F4,50=2.21, p=0.082). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that higher obesity is associated with higher DLCO. This is consistent with the known effect of obesity on diffusion capacity, resulting from increased blood volume in the pulmonary circulation. The relationship was preserved even though most patients had DLCO below the percent predicted, as observed in studies of lung function among COVID-19 survivors. Notably, FiO2 and NLR did not have a significant effect on DLCO. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Though patients surviving a COVID-19 hospitalization may have a reduced DLCO, the positive relationship between BMI and DLCO is similar to that observed in otherwise healthy obese individuals. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mohammad Arabiat No relevant relationships by Justin Horner No relevant relationships by Harold Matos Casano No relevant relationships by Doug McElroy No relevant relationships by Karan Singh No relevant relationships by Michael Smith

17.
Stakeholder Strategies for Reducing the Impact of Global Health Crises ; : 239-255, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055586

ABSTRACT

The Indian government imposed a countrywide lockdown on 25 March 2020 to contain the COVID-19 virus. The lockdown has led to a tremendous economic loss because of the closing of all industries and other activities. However, it has brought a brighter side to environmental quality improvement. This study assesses the influence of lockdown on Delhi-NCR's air and water quality. The earth system rejuvenated during the lockdown. An effort is made to understand the water quality of the Yamuna River in Delhi and the air quality of the Delhi-National Capital Region (Delhi NCR) during the lockdown. In the Yamuna River surrounding Delhi, a reduction of 1-10%, 33-66%, 51%, 45-90%, and 33-82%, respectively, in pH, EC, DO, BOD, and COD has been observed compared to the pre-lockdown. Similarly, the particulate matter concentration reduced by 31-53% in PM10 and 22-48% in PM2.5 during the lockdown of2020 in comparison to the earlier years (2018 and 2019). Hence, the periodic lockdown has positively impacted the air and water quality in Delhi NCR. © 2021, IGI Global.

18.
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering ; 19(12):12518-12531, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055533

ABSTRACT

The world is facing the pandemic situation due to a beta corona virus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease caused by this virus known as Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the entire world. The current diagnosis methods are laboratory based and require specialized testing kits for performing the test. Therefore, to overcome the limitations of testing kits a diagnosis method from chest X-ray images is proposed in this paper. Chest X-ray images can be easily obtained by X-ray machines that are readily available at medical centres. The radiological examinations augmented with chest X-ray images is an effective way of disease diagnosis. The automated analysis of the chest X-ray images requires a highly efficient method for identifying COVID-19 from these images. Thus, a novel deep convolution neural network (CNN) optimized using Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm (GOA) is proposed. The deep learning model comprises depth wise separable convolutions that independently look at cross channel and spatial correlations. The optimization of deep learning models is a complex task due the multiple layers and their non-linearities. In image classification problems optimizers like Adam, SGD etc. get stuck in local minima. Thus, in this paper a metaheuristic optimization algorithm is used to optimize the network. Grasshoper Optimization Algorithm (GOA) is a metaheuristic algorithm that mimics the behaviour of grasshoppers for food search. This algorithm is a fast converging and is capable of exploration and exploitation of large search spaces. Maximum Probability Based Cross Entropy Loss (MPCE) loss function is used as it minimizes the back propogation error of cross entropy and improves the training. The experimental results show that the proposed method gives high classification accuracy. The interpretation of results is augmented with class activation maps. Grad-CAM visualization algorithm is used for class activation maps. © 2022 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences. All rights reserved.

19.
Med Mycol ; 60(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2042622

ABSTRACT

 : Poster session 3, September 23, 2022, 12:30 PM - 1:30 PMObjective: Vaginal candidiasis is a frequent infection afflicting the female population. Candida co-infections are reported in escalating frequency and can be associated with severe health hazards or even death. People with severe COVID-19, malignancies, AIDS, and organ transplants are particularly vulnerable to invasive vaginal candidiasis. Due to the high frequency of infections associated with recurrence, vaginal candidiasis poses a significant medical problem worldwide. Treatments of vaginal candidiasis are limited due to drug resistance, side effects, and toxicity. CIN is a natural compound and its antifungal activity is widely reported. The introduction of cinnamaldehyde (CIN) as the anti-Candidal agent will revolutionize the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.In this study, we investigated the anti-Candida activity of CIN against vaginal candidiasis in Swiss albino mice (C3HHC-Strain). Methods: Vaginal candidiasis in mice (Swiss albino) was induced under conditions of pseudo-estrus. Persistent vaginal infection was found in estrogenized mice after vaginal challenge with C. albicans. The mice were treated orally after confirmation of infection in mice. The efficacy of CIN treatment was investigated phenotypically by colony-forming unit (CFU) counts in the vaginal smear, fungal load determination in the blood, the ovarian and vaginal tissues and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining of histopathological sections of the vaginal tissues. The hematological parameters of the experimental mice were also evaluated. Results: The pseudohyphae and spores of C. albicans were present in the vaginal smear of experimentally infected mice. After treatment, no C. albicans colonies were found in the vaginal lavage of infected mice. The fungal burden was significantly higher in the vagina and the ovaries of infected mice. However, a dose of 262.5 mg/kg BW of CIN reduced the number of CFU in the vagina and ovaries in treated mice. The histopathology revealed the absence of C. albicans in the vaginal tissue of the treated mice. Nonetheless, the vaginal sections of infected mice exhibited pathological changes. The hematological parameters such as RBC count, WBC count, and percentage of hemoglobin showed significant differences in the treatment groups compared to the infected group. Conclusion: Cinnamaldehyde showed good in vivo antifungal potential against vaginal candidiasis. However, evaluation of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters and complete elucidation of its mode of action are desirous.

20.
Swiss Medical Weekly ; 152:34S-35S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2040973

ABSTRACT

Background & aims: COVID19 disproportionately affects the immunosuppressed, but its epidemiology over time is incompletely characterised. We describe Australian experiences of COVID19 in a national observational study of patients with malignancy. Methods: An ongoing multisite prospective cohort study of adult COVID19 patients with active cancer was conducted. Clinical and laboratory data over 28 months (1/3/20-22/7/22) was collated from 15 hospitals. Results: There were 491 patients included. Patients were a median of 63(IQR:50-71) years with majority male (254,52%). Solid organ malignancy was most common (296,60%), followed by haematological malignancy (180,37%), then both (15,4%). Most common solid tumour was breast cancer (74/296,25%);most common haematological cancer was lymphoma (102/180,57%). Majority (275,56%) were undergoing cancer treatment at COVID19 diagnosis. From 2020-2022, patients presented less with lower respiratory tract infections (57%,36%,5%) with increasing outpatient management (26%,50%,67%). Improved mortality was seen (27%,19%,11%). Median inpatient length of stay was 8(4-11) days. Intensive care admission was low (21,4%). For patients who had repeated respiratory PCR testing, median time from first to last positive test was 17(7-25, n = 123) days. Cancer treatment modification occurred in 18(4%) and delay in 74(15%). Conclusion: Despite improvements in outcomes, COVID19 still results in morbidity with impacts on cancer treatment. This preliminary data shows that cancer patients remain a vulnerable group and should be prioritised for public health interventions.

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