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1.
Phytomedicine plus : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology ; 3(2):100446-100446, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2252076

ABSTRACT

Background A global pandemic owing to COVID-19 infection has created havoc in the entire world. The etiological agent responsible for this viral outbreak is classified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Still, there's no specific drug or preventive medication to treat SARS-CoV-2. This study was designed to demonstrate the efficacy of some anti-viral peptides obtained from a plant database i.e., PlantPepDB as potential ACE-2-Spike (S) protein complex neutralizers using a structure-based drug designing approach. Method A total of 83 anti-viral plant peptides were screened from a peptide database i.e. PlantPepDB based on their reported anti-viral activities against various viral strains. In order to screen peptides that may potentially interfere with ACE-2 and S complex formation, molecular docking studies were conducted using the flare module of Cresset software and subsequently, analysed the crucial interactions between the peptides and S complexes and ACE-2/S complex. Herein, the interactions and docking scores obtained for ACE-2/S complex were considered as references. The S-peptides complexes which displayed superior interactions and docking scores than reference complex i.e., ACE2-S were considered as final hits. The Molecular dynamics studies were conducted for a period of 30 ns for each of the final hit/S complex to understand the interaction stability and binding mechanism of designed peptides. Results The molecular docking results revealed that five peptides including Cycloviolacin Y3, Cycloviolacin Y1, White cloud bean defensin, Putative defensin 3.1, and Defensin D1 showed superior docking scores (i.e. -1372.5 kJ/mol to -1232.6 kJ/mol) when docked at the ACE2 binding site of S-protein than score obtained for the complex of ACE-2 and S protein i.e. -1183.4 kJ/mol. Moreover, these top five peptides manifested key interactions required to prevent the binding of S protein with ACE2. The molecular dynamics simulation study revealed that two of these five peptides i.e. Cycloviolacin Y3 and Cycloviolacin Y1 displayed minimal RMSD fluctuations. Conclusions The current structure-based drug-designing approach shows the possible role of anti-viral plant peptides as potential molecules to be explored at the initial stage of viral pathogenesis. Graphical Image, graphical

2.
Am J Pathol ; 2023 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274189

ABSTRACT

Ophthalmic manifestations and tissue tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the pathology and cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 are not well characterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic changes and investigate cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 across ocular tissues at autopsy. Ocular tissues were obtained from 25 patients with COVID-19 at autopsy. SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid gene RNA was previously quantified by droplet digital PCR from one eye. Herein, contralateral eyes from 21 patients were fixed in formalin and subject to histopathologic examination. Sections of the droplet digital PCR-positive eyes from four other patients were evaluated by in situ hybridization to determine the cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 spike gene RNA. Histopathologic abnormalities, including cytoid bodies, vascular changes, and retinal edema, with minimal or no inflammation in ocular tissues were observed in all 21 cases evaluated. In situ hybridization localized SARS-CoV-2 RNA to neuronal cells of the retinal inner and outer layers, ganglion cells, corneal epithelia, scleral fibroblasts, and oligodendrocytes of the optic nerve. In conclusion, a range of common histopathologic alterations were identified within ocular tissue, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized to multiple cell types. Further studies will be required to determine whether the alterations observed were caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, the host immune response, and/or preexisting comorbidities.

3.
J Mol Struct ; : 134128, 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245264

ABSTRACT

During the ongoing pandemic, there have been increasing reports of invasive fungal disease (IFD), particularly among immunocompromised populations. Candida albicans is one of the most common clinical pathogenic microorganisms which have become a serious health threat to population either infected with Covid-19 or on treatment with immunosuppressant's/broad-range antibiotics. Currently, benzothiazole is a well explored scaffold for anti-fungal activity, especially mercapto substituted benzothiazoles. It is reported that exploring the 2nd position of benzothiazoles yield improved anti-fungal molecules. Therefore, in the current study, lead optimization approach using bioisosteric replacement protocol was followed to improve the anti-fungal activity of an already reported benzothiazole derivative, N-(1,3-benzothiazole-2-yl)-2-(pyridine-3-ylformohydrazido) acetamide. To rationally identify the putative anti-candida targets of this derivative, network analysis was carried out. Complexes of designed compounds and identified putative targets were further analyzed for the docking interactions and their consequent retention after the completion of exhaustive MD simulations. Top seven designed compounds were synthesized and evaluated for in-vitro anti-fungal property against Candida, which indicated that compounds 1.2c and 1.2f possess improved and comparable anti-fungal activity to N-(1,3-benzothiazole-2-yl)-2-(pyridine-3-ylformohydrazido) acetamide and Nystatin, respectively.

4.
American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons ; 23(1):101-107, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2169601

ABSTRACT

Although the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through lung transplantation from acutely infected donors is high, the risks of virus transmission and long-term lung allograft outcomes are not as well described when using pulmonary organs from COVID-19–recovered donors. We describe successful lung transplantation for a COVID-19–related lung injury using lungs from a COVID-19–recovered donor who was retrospectively found to have detectable genomic SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the lung tissue by multiple highly sensitive assays. However, SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNA (sgRNA), a marker of viral replication, was not detectable in the donor respiratory tissues. One year after lung transplantation, the recipient has a good functional status, walking 1 mile several times per week without the need for supplemental oxygen and without any evidence of donor-derived SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Our findings highlight the limitations of current clinical laboratory diagnostic assays in detecting the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the lung tissue. The persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the donor tissue did not appear to represent active viral replication via sgRNA testing and, most importantly, did not negatively impact the allograft outcome in the first year after lung transplantation. sgRNA is easily performed and may be a useful assay for assessing viral infectivity in organs from donors with a recent infection.

5.
Nature ; 612(7941): 758-763, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160240

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to cause multi-organ dysfunction1-3 during acute infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with some patients experiencing prolonged symptoms, termed post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (refs. 4,5). However, the burden of infection outside the respiratory tract and time to viral clearance are not well characterized, particularly in the brain3,6-14. Here we carried out complete autopsies on 44 patients who died with COVID-19, with extensive sampling of the central nervous system in 11 of these patients, to map and quantify the distribution, replication and cell-type specificity of SARS-CoV-2 across the human body, including the brain, from acute infection to more than seven months following symptom onset. We show that SARS-CoV-2 is widely distributed, predominantly among patients who died with severe COVID-19, and that virus replication is present in multiple respiratory and non-respiratory tissues, including the brain, early in infection. Further, we detected persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA in multiple anatomic sites, including throughout the brain, as late as 230 days following symptom onset in one case. Despite extensive distribution of SARS-CoV-2 RNA throughout the body, we observed little evidence of inflammation or direct viral cytopathology outside the respiratory tract. Our data indicate that in some patients SARS-CoV-2 can cause systemic infection and persist in the body for months.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Brain , COVID-19 , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Time Factors , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology
6.
Sci Adv ; 8(46): eade1860, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137356

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, five different variants of concern (VOCs) have been identified: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. Because of confounding factors in the human population, such as preexisting immunity, comparing severity of disease caused by different VOCs is challenging. Here, we investigate disease progression in the rhesus macaque model upon inoculation with the Delta, Omicron BA.1, and Omicron BA.2 VOCs. Disease severity in rhesus macaques inoculated with Omicron BA.1 or BA.2 was lower than those inoculated with Delta and resulted in significantly lower viral loads in nasal swabs, bronchial cytology brush samples, and lung tissue in rhesus macaques. Cytokines and chemokines were up-regulated in nasosorption samples of Delta animals compared to Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 animals. Overall, these data suggest that, in rhesus macaques, Omicron replicates to lower levels than the Delta VOC, resulting in reduced clinical disease.

7.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792411

ABSTRACT

Combined in silico, in vitro, and in vivo comparative studies between isogenic-recombinant Mouse-Hepatitis-Virus-RSA59 and its proline deletion mutant, revealed a remarkable contribution of centrally located two consecutive prolines (PP) from Spike protein fusion peptide (FP) in enhancing virus fusogenic and hepato-neuropathogenic potential. To deepen our understanding of the underlying factors, we extend our studies to a non-fusogenic parental virus strain RSMHV2 (P) with a single proline in the FP and its proline inserted mutant, RSMHV2 (PP). Comparative in vitro and in vivo studies between virus strains RSA59(PP), RSMHV2 (P), and RSMHV2 (PP) in the FP demonstrate that the insertion of one proline significantly resulted in enhancing the virus fusogenicity, spread, and consecutive neuropathogenesis. Computational studies suggest that the central PP in Spike FP induces a locally ordered, compact, and rigid structure of the Spike protein in RSMHV2 (PP) compared to RSMHV2 (P), but globally the Spike S2-domain is akin to the parental strain RSA59(PP), the latter being the most flexible showing two potential wells in the energy landscape as observed from the molecular dynamics studies. The critical location of two central prolines of the FP is essential for fusogenicity and pathogenesis making it a potential site for designing antiviral.


Subject(s)
Demyelinating Diseases , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Mice , Peptides/metabolism , Proline , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
8.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100549, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677212

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has seen clinical development and use of antiviral therapies at an unprecedented speed. Antiviral therapies have greatly improved the clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients, especially when administered early after diagnosis. Here, we discuss the successes and challenges of COVID-19 antiviral therapies and lessons for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Influenza, Human , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Forecasting , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Pandemics
9.
Antiviral Res ; 198: 105246, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639070

ABSTRACT

The utility of remdesivir treatment in COVID-19 patients is currently limited by the necessity to administer this antiviral intravenously, which has generally limited its use to hospitalized patients. Here, we tested a novel, subcutaneous formulation of remdesivir in the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that was previously used to establish the efficacy of remdesivir against this virus in vivo. Compared to vehicle-treated animals, macaques treated with subcutaneous remdesivir from 12 h through 6 days post inoculation showed reduced signs of respiratory disease, a reduction of virus replication in the lower respiratory tract, and an absence of interstitial pneumonia. Thus, early subcutaneous administration of remdesivir can protect from lower respiratory tract disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Cutaneous , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637974

ABSTRACT

Advanced age is a key predictor of severe COVID-19. To gain insight into this relationship, we used the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Eight older and eight younger macaques were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Animals were evaluated using viral RNA quantification, clinical observations, thoracic radiographs, single-cell transcriptomics, multiparameter flow cytometry, multiplex immunohistochemistry, cytokine detection, and lipidomics analysis at predefined time points in various tissues. Differences in clinical signs, pulmonary infiltrates, and virus replication were limited. Transcriptional signatures of inflammation-associated genes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 3 dpi revealed efficient mounting of innate immune defenses in both cohorts. However, age-specific divergence of immune responses emerged during the post-acute phase. Older animals exhibited sustained local inflammatory innate responses, whereas local effector T-cell responses were induced earlier in the younger animals. Circulating lipid mediator and cytokine levels highlighted increased repair-associated signals in the younger animals, and persistent pro-inflammatory responses in the older animals. In summary, despite similar disease outcomes, multi-omics profiling suggests that age may delay or impair antiviral cellular immune responses and delay efficient return to immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute Disease , Animals , Antibody Formation/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genomics , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunomodulation , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Models, Biological , Single-Cell Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transcription, Genetic
11.
Sci Adv ; 7(43): eabj3627, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483968

ABSTRACT

The emergence of several SARS-CoV-2 variants has caused global concerns about increased transmissibility, increased pathogenicity, and decreased efficacy of medical countermeasures. Animal models can be used to assess phenotypical changes in the absence of confounding factors. Here, we compared variants of concern (VOC) B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 to a recent B.1 SARS-CoV-2 isolate containing the D614G spike substitution in the rhesus macaque model. B.1.1.7 behaved similarly to D614G with respect to clinical disease and replication in the respiratory tract. Inoculation with B.1.351 resulted in lower clinical scores, lower lung virus titers, and less severe lung lesions. In bronchoalveolar lavages, cytokines and chemokines were up-regulated on day 4 in animals inoculated with D614G and B.1.1.7 but not with B.1.351. In nasal samples, cytokines and chemokines were up-regulated only in the B.1.1.7-inoculated animals. Together, our study suggests that circulation under diverse evolutionary pressures favors transmissibility and immune evasion rather than increased pathogenicity.

12.
Remote Sens Appl ; 22: 100489, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164395

ABSTRACT

Global lockdowns in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have led to changes in the anthropogenic activities resulting in perceivable air quality improvements. Although several recent studies have analyzed these changes over different regions of the globe, these analyses have been constrained due to the usage of station based data which is mostly limited up to the metropolitan cities. Also the quantifiable changes have been reported only for the developed and developing regions leaving the poor economies (e.g. Africa) due to the shortage of in-situ data. Using a comprehensive set of high spatiotemporal resolution satellites and merged products of air pollutants, we analyze the air quality across the globe and quantify the improvement resulting from the suppressed anthropogenic activity during the lockdowns. In particular, we focus on megacities, capitals and cities with high standards of living to make the quantitative assessment. Our results offer valuable insights into the spatial distribution of changes in the air pollutants due to COVID-19 enforced lockdowns. Statistically significant reductions are observed over megacities with mean reduction by 19.74%, 7.38% and 49.9% in nitrogen dioxide (NO2), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM2.5 concentrations. Google Earth Engine empowered cloud computing based remote sensing is used and the results provide a testbed for climate sensitivity experiments and validation of chemistry-climate models. Additionally, Google Earth Engine based apps have been developed to visualize the changes in a real-time fashion.

13.
J Biol Chem ; 295(20): 6926-6935, 2020 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830746

ABSTRACT

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV; murine coronavirus) causes meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and optic neuritis followed by axonal loss and demyelination. This murine virus is used as a common model to study acute and chronic virus-induced demyelination in the central nervous system. Studies with recombinant MHV strains that differ in the gene encoding the spike protein have demonstrated that the spike has a role in MHV pathogenesis and retrograde axonal transport. Fusion peptides (FPs) in the spike protein play a key role in MHV pathogenesis. In a previous study of the effect of deleting a single proline residue in the FP of a demyelinating MHV strain, we found that two central, consecutive prolines are important for cell-cell fusion and pathogenesis. The dihedral fluctuation of the FP was shown to be repressed whenever two consecutive prolines were present, in contrast to the presence of a single proline in the chain. Using this proline-deleted MHV strain, here we investigated whether intracranial injection of this strain can induce optic neuritis by retrograde axonal transport from the brain to the retina through the optic nerve. We observed that the proline-deleted recombinant MHV strain is restricted to the optic nerve, is unable to translocate to the retina, and causes only minimal demyelination and no neuronal death. We conclude that an intact proline dyad in the FP of the recombinant demyelinating MHV strain plays a crucial role in translocation of the virus through axons and subsequent neurodegeneration.


Subject(s)
Axonal Transport/genetics , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Axonal Transport/physiology , Axons/metabolism , Axons/virology , Brain/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Demyelinating Diseases/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Murine hepatitis virus/metabolism , Optic Nerve/metabolism , Optic Nerve/virology , Peptides/metabolism , Proline/metabolism , Sequence Deletion/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
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