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Front Microbiol ; 13: 888195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911066

ABSTRACT

Background: During the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, outbreaks of Zika were reported from Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra, India in 2021. The Dengue and Chikungunya negative samples were retrospectively screened to determine the presence of the Zika virus from different geographical regions of India. Methods: During May to October 2021, the clinical samples of 1475 patients, across 13 states and a union territory of India were screened and re-tested for Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika by CDC Trioplex Real time RT-PCR. The Zika rRTPCR positive samples were further screened with anti-Zika IgM and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Next generation sequencing was used for further molecular characterization. Results: The positivity was observed for Zika (67), Dengue (121), and Chikungunya (10) amongst screened cases. The co-infections of Dengue/Chikungunya, Dengue/Zika, and Dengue/Chikungunya/Zika were also observed. All Zika cases were symptomatic with fever (84%) and rash (78%) as major presenting symptoms. Of them, four patients had respiratory distress, one presented with seizures, and one with suspected microcephaly at birth. The Asian Lineage of Zika and all four serotypes of Dengue were found in circulation. Conclusion: Our study indicates the spread of the Zika virus to several states of India and an urgent need to strengthen its surveillance.

2.
Building and Environment ; : 107874, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1184862

ABSTRACT

Providing a comfortable thermal environment to workers for better health and productivity is one of the necessary conditions for sustainable industrial development. However, there is a dearth of field studies on the thermal comfort status and adaptation of workers in naturally ventilated industrial buildings across the world. Therefore, an adaptive thermal comfort field study in a mini-industrial unit factory, located in the composite climate of India, was conducted in the warm summer and cold winter seasons. Overall, 1276 valid subjective responses were collected from 325 factory workers during the field measurements and survey. We found a seasonal comfort temperature variation of more than 9.5 °C with a mean comfort temperature of 32.2 °C. The mean preferred temperature was observed about 3.5 °C lower than their mean comfort temperature. The adaptive comfort relation suggested that surveyed factory workers had a high thermal adaptation owing to the combined effect of behavioural adjustments and elevated airspeed. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to predict the fan use behavior during the hot summer season. Since the study duration also lies in the COVID-19 pandemic period, an effort has been made to quantify the psychological and behavioural changes of workers due to the COVID-19 pandemic situation at their workplace through a questionnaire-based study.

3.
Comput Biol Med ; 130: 104219, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032696

ABSTRACT

Comorbidities in COVID-19 patients often lead to more severe outcomes. The disease-specific molecular events, which may induce susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, are being investigated. To assess this, we retrieved array-based gene expression datasets from patients of 30 frequently occurring acute, chronic, or infectious diseases. Comparative analyses of the datasets were performed after quantile normalization and log2 transformation. Among the 78 host genes prominently implicated in COVID-19 infection, ACE2 (receptor for SARS-CoV-2) was positively regulated in several cases, namely, leukemia, psoriasis, lung cancer, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), breast cancer, and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). FURIN was positively regulated in some cases, such as leukemia, psoriasis, NAFLD, lung cancer, and type II diabetes (T2D), while TMPRSS2 was positively regulated in only 3 cases, namely, leukemia, lung cancer, and T2D. Genes encoding various interferons, cytokines, chemokines, and mediators of JAK-STAT pathway were positively regulated in leukemia, NAFLD, and T2D cases. Among the 161 genes that are positively regulated in the lungs of COVID-19 patients, 99-111 genes in leukemia (including various studied subtypes), 77 genes in NAFLD, and 48 genes in psoriasis were also positively regulated. Because of the high similarity in gene expression patterns, the patients of leukemia, NAFLD, T2D, psoriasis, and PAH may need additional preventive care against acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infections. Further, two genes CARBONIC ANHYDRASE 11 (CA11) and CLUSTERIN (CLU) were positively regulated in the lungs of patients infected with either SARS-CoV-2, or SARS-CoV or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Psoriasis/metabolism , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Humans , Neoplasms/mortality , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/mortality , Psoriasis/mortality , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/mortality , Signal Transduction
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