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Eur J Radiol ; 152: 110341, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821220


In the wake of the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a new epidemic of COVID associated mucormycosis (CAM) emerged in India. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this deadly disease are of paramount importance in improving patient survival. MRI is the cornerstone of diagnosis of early extrasinus disease, particularly intracranial complications which have traditionally been associated with a high mortality rate. In this review, we depict the sinonasal, perisinus, orbital and intracranial involvement in CAM. Special emphasis is laid on intracranial disease which is categorized into vascular, parenchymal, meningeal, bony involvement and perineural spread. Vascular complications are the most common form of intracranial involvement. Some unusual yet interesting imaging findings such as nerve abscesses involving the optic, trigeminal and mandibular nerves and long segment vasculitis of the internal carotid artery extending till its cervical segment are also illustrated. In our experience, patient outcome in CAM (survival rate of 88.5%) was better compared to the pre-pandemic era. Presence of intracranial disease also did not affect prognosis as poorly as traditionally expected (survival rate of 82.8%). Involvement of brain parenchyma was the only subset of intracranial involvement that was associated with higher mortality (p value 0.016). The aim of this review is to familiarise the reader with the MR imaging spectrum of CAM with special focus on intracranial complications and a brief account of their impact on patient prognosis in our experience.

COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
Cytopathology ; 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794719


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a wide range of disease patterns, ranging from mild to life-threatening pneumonia. COVID-19 can be associated with a suppressed immune response and/or hyperinflammatory state due to cytokine storm. Reduced immunity, combined with steroid usage to prevent cytokine storm along with various pre-existing co morbidities can prove to be a fertile ground for various secondary bacterial and fungal infection, including mucormycosis. Diagnosis of mucor is a challenging task given high negativity rate of various detection methods. While histopathology is considered the gold standard, the acquisition of necessary tissue biopsy specimens requires invasive procedures and is time consuming. METHOD: In this study various methods of mucor detection, like conventional cytopathology (CCP), liquid-based cytology (LBC, BD SurepathTM ), potassium hydroxide mount (KOH) preparation, culture and histopathology were analysed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for various methods. RESULTS: This study showed that LBC has sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 72.4%,100%,100% and 38.4% respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed that, liquid-based cytology (LBC) can be a rapid and effective alternative to histopathology in mucor diagnosis.

Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401162


BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.

COVID-19/immunology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2