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1.
ACR Open Rheumatology ; 4(5):385-394, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837870

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThe study objective was to assess sociodemographic disparities in telehealth use among patients in an urban adult rheumatology clinic during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic.MethodsIn this retrospective cohort study, patient‐level sociodemographic data associated with all rheumatology visits in the following two periods were reviewed: pre‐COVID‐19 (March 1, 2019 to February 28, 2020) and COVID‐19 (April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021). Data were extracted from the electronic health record. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine sociodemographic factors associated with video visits during the COVID‐19 period.ResultsIn the pre‐COVID‐19 period, 1503 patients completed 3837 visits (100% in person). In the COVID‐19 period, 1442 patients completed 3406 visits: 41% in person, 30% video, and 29% telephone only. Several factors were associated with decreased video use: preference for Spanish language (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15‐0.47) or other non‐English languages (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21‐0.55), Black or African American race/ethnicity (aOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.35‐0.73), Medicaid payer, and increasing age.ConclusionDecreased video visit use among rheumatology patients was associated with non‐English language preference, minority race/ethnicity, increasing age, and indicators of low income. Rapid deployment and expansion of telehealth during the COVID‐19 pandemic likely has improved access for some but widened preexisting disparities for others. As medical care evolves toward ongoing digital care delivery, clarifying and addressing causes of telehealth disparities is essential for delivering equitable health care.

2.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795958
3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(5): 766-775, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The relative risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease severity among people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) compared to those without RMDs is unclear. This study was undertaken to quantify the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in those with RMDs and describe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in these patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review using 14 databases from January 1, 2019 to February 13, 2021. We included observational studies and experimental trials in RMD patients that described comparative rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, oxygen supplementation/intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation, or death attributed to COVID-19. Methodologic quality was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools or the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated, as applicable for each outcome, using the Mantel-Haenszel formula with random effects models. RESULTS: Of the 5,799 abstracts screened, 100 studies met the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review, and 54 of 100 had a low risk of bias. Among the studies included in the meta-analyses, we identified an increased prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with an RMD (RR 1.53 [95% CI 1.16-2.01]) compared to the general population. The odds of hospitalization, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation were similar in patients with and those without an RMD, whereas the mortality rate was increased in patients with RMDs (OR 1.74 [95% CI 1.08-2.80]). In a smaller number of studies, the adjusted risk of outcomes related to COVID-19 was assessed, and the results varied; some studies demonstrated an increased risk while other studies showed no difference in risk in patients with an RMD compared to those without an RMD. CONCLUSION: Patients with RMDs have higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and an increased mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Hospitalization , Humans , Muscular Diseases , Respiration, Artificial , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 4(5): 385-394, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653147

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to assess sociodemographic disparities in telehealth use among patients in an urban adult rheumatology clinic during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patient-level sociodemographic data associated with all rheumatology visits in the following two periods were reviewed: pre-COVID-19 (March 1, 2019 to February 28, 2020) and COVID-19 (April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021). Data were extracted from the electronic health record. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine sociodemographic factors associated with video visits during the COVID-19 period. RESULTS: In the pre-COVID-19 period, 1503 patients completed 3837 visits (100% in person). In the COVID-19 period, 1442 patients completed 3406 visits: 41% in person, 30% video, and 29% telephone only. Several factors were associated with decreased video use: preference for Spanish language (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.47) or other non-English languages (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.55), Black or African American race/ethnicity (aOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.35-0.73), Medicaid payer, and increasing age. CONCLUSION: Decreased video visit use among rheumatology patients was associated with non-English language preference, minority race/ethnicity, increasing age, and indicators of low income. Rapid deployment and expansion of telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic likely has improved access for some but widened preexisting disparities for others. As medical care evolves toward ongoing digital care delivery, clarifying and addressing causes of telehealth disparities is essential for delivering equitable health care.

6.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(2): 153-162, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598451

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persons with immune dysfunction have a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes. However, these patients were largely excluded from SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinical trials, creating a large evidence gap. Objective: To identify the incidence rate and incidence rate ratio (IRR) for COVID-19 breakthrough infection after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among persons with or without immune dysfunction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed data from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), a partnership that developed a secure, centralized electronic medical record-based repository of COVID-19 clinical data from academic medical centers across the US. Persons who received at least 1 dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine between December 10, 2020, and September 16, 2021, were included in the sample. Main Outcomes and Measures: Vaccination, COVID-19 diagnosis, immune dysfunction diagnoses (ie, HIV infection, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, solid organ transplant, and bone marrow transplantation), other comorbid conditions, and demographic data were accessed through the N3C Data Enclave. Breakthrough infection was defined as a COVID-19 infection that was contracted on or after the 14th day of vaccination, and the risk after full or partial vaccination was assessed for patients with or without immune dysfunction using Poisson regression with robust SEs. Poisson regression models were controlled for a study period (before or after [pre- or post-Delta variant] June 20, 2021), full vaccination status, COVID-19 infection before vaccination, demographic characteristics, geographic location, and comorbidity burden. Results: A total of 664 722 patients in the N3C sample were included. These patients had a median (IQR) age of 51 (34-66) years and were predominantly women (n = 378 307 [56.9%]). Overall, the incidence rate for COVID-19 breakthrough infection was 5.0 per 1000 person-months among fully vaccinated persons but was higher after the Delta variant became the dominant SARS-CoV-2 strain (incidence rate before vs after June 20, 2021, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.2-2.2] vs 7.3 [95% CI, 7.3-7.4] per 1000 person-months). Compared with partial vaccination, full vaccination was associated with a 28% reduced risk for breakthrough infection (adjusted IRR [AIRR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.68-0.76). People with a breakthrough infection after full vaccination were more likely to be older and women. People with HIV infection (AIRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.18-1.49), rheumatoid arthritis (AIRR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.32), and solid organ transplant (AIRR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.96-2.38) had a higher rate of breakthrough infection. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that full vaccination was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19 breakthrough infection, regardless of the immune status of patients. Despite full vaccination, persons with immune dysfunction had substantially higher risk for COVID-19 breakthrough infection than those without such a condition. For persons with immune dysfunction, continued use of nonpharmaceutical interventions (eg, mask wearing) and alternative vaccine strategies (eg, additional doses or immunogenicity testing) are recommended even after full vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Distribution
7.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(6): 613-620, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560550

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Lockdown and restricted mobility due to the pandemic of corona virus disease  2019 (COVID-19) has severely affected the continuity of healthcare of patients with acute and chronic diseases. We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on the adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD), symptom control, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with celiac disease (CeD). METHODS: A questionnaire, consisting of both ad-hoc and validated questions, was created after review of literature, group discussions, and expert meetings. Standardized questionnaires namely CeD adherence test (CDAT), celiac symptom index score, and CeD-related QOL were used. The web-based questionnaire was sent to 3130 patients via social media and 452 responses (14.4%) were received. Also, additional 68 patients (not available on any social media application) were interviewed telephonically by a trained dietitian. RESULTS: Overall, 505 patients (females: 318; mean age: 24.1±14.2 years) were included. While only 6.7% (n = 34) had poor compliance to GFD (CDAT > 17) before COVID-19 pandemic, it almost doubled to 12.6% (n = 64) during the COVID-19 pandemic times (p = 0.02). Furthermore, 4.9% (n = 25) of patients were diagnosed contacting  COVID-19. Interestingly, 73.2% (n = 370) patients preferred online appointment than physical appointment. Most common difficulties faced during lockdown period were high delivery charges for getting gluten-free (GF) food at home (54.4%), increased prices of regular GF food (43.1%), and travelling long distance to arrange GF food (44.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially affected the adherence, symptom control, and QOL in patients with CeD, attributable to unavailability, shortage of money, and heightened cost of GF food. The pandemic has offered an opportunity to practice teleconsultation approach for patients with CeD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Celiac Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diet, Gluten-Free , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Compliance , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(23)2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542715

ABSTRACT

Selective, sensitive and affordable techniques to detect disease and underlying health issues have been developed recently. Biosensors as nanoanalytical tools have taken a front seat in this context. Nanotechnology-enabled progress in the health sector has aided in disease and pandemic management at a very early stage efficiently. This report reflects the state-of-the-art of nanobiosensor-based virus detection technology in terms of their detection methods, targets, limits of detection, range, sensitivity, assay time, etc. The article effectively summarizes the challenges with traditional technologies and newly emerging biosensors, including the nanotechnology-based detection kit for COVID-19; optically enhanced technology; and electrochemical, smart and wearable enabled nanobiosensors. The less explored but crucial piezoelectric nanobiosensor and the reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP)-based biosensor are also discussed here. The article could be of significance to researchers and doctors dedicated to developing potent, versatile biosensors for the rapid identification of COVID-19. This kind of report is needed for selecting suitable treatments and to avert epidemics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , Nanotechnology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe the early experiences of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received the COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: From 2 April to 30 April 2021, we conducted an online, international survey of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received COVID-19 vaccination. We collected patient-reported data on clinician communication, beliefs and intent about discontinuing disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) around the time of vaccination, and patient-reported adverse events after vaccination. RESULTS: We analysed 2860 adults with systemic rheumatic diseases who received COVID-19 vaccination (mean age 55.3 years, 86.7% female, 86.3% white). Types of COVID-19 vaccines were Pfizer-BioNTech (53.2%), Oxford/AstraZeneca (22.6%), Moderna (21.3%), Janssen/Johnson & Johnson (1.7%) and others (1.2%). The most common rheumatic disease was rheumatoid arthritis (42.3%), and 81.2% of respondents were on a DMARD. The majority (81.9%) reported communicating with clinicians about vaccination. Most (66.9%) were willing to temporarily discontinue DMARDs to improve vaccine efficacy, although many (44.3%) were concerned about rheumatic disease flares. After vaccination, the most reported patient-reported adverse events were fatigue/somnolence (33.4%), headache (27.7%), muscle/joint pains (22.8%) and fever/chills (19.9%). Rheumatic disease flares that required medication changes occurred in 4.6%. CONCLUSION: Among adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received COVID-19 vaccination, patient-reported adverse events were typical of those reported in the general population. Most patients were willing to temporarily discontinue DMARDs to improve vaccine efficacy. The relatively low frequency of rheumatic disease flare requiring medications was reassuring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(9): 1137-1146, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate baseline use of biologic or targeted synthetic (b/ts) disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and COVID-19 outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We analysed the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance physician registry (from 24 March 2020 to 12 April 2021). We investigated b/tsDMARD use for RA at the clinical onset of COVID-19 (baseline): abatacept (ABA), rituximab (RTX), Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKi), interleukin 6 inhibitors (IL-6i) or tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi, reference group). The ordinal COVID-19 severity outcome was (1) no hospitalisation, (2) hospitalisation without oxygen, (3) hospitalisation with oxygen/ventilation or (4) death. We used ordinal logistic regression to estimate the OR (odds of being one level higher on the ordinal outcome) for each drug class compared with TNFi, adjusting for potential baseline confounders. RESULTS: Of 2869 people with RA (mean age 56.7 years, 80.8% female) on b/tsDMARD at the onset of COVID-19, there were 237 on ABA, 364 on RTX, 317 on IL-6i, 563 on JAKi and 1388 on TNFi. Overall, 613 (21%) were hospitalised and 157 (5.5%) died. RTX (OR 4.15, 95% CI 3.16 to 5.44) and JAKi (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.60 to 2.65) were each associated with worse COVID-19 severity compared with TNFi. There were no associations between ABA or IL6i and COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: People with RA treated with RTX or JAKi had worse COVID-19 severity than those on TNFi. The strong association of RTX and JAKi use with poor COVID-19 outcomes highlights prioritisation of risk mitigation strategies for these people.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(5): 1191-1201, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664226

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is an acute respiratory viral infection that threatens people worldwide, including people with rheumatic disease, although it remains unclear to what extent various antirheumatic disease therapies increase susceptibility to complications of viral respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: The present study undertakes a scoping review of available evidence regarding the frequency and severity of acute respiratory viral adverse events related to antirheumatic disease therapies. METHODS: Online databases were used to identify, since database inception, studies reporting primary data on acute respiratory viral infections in patients utilizing antirheumatic disease therapies. Independent reviewer pairs charted data from eligible studies using a standardized data abstraction tool. RESULTS: A total of 180 studies were eligible for qualitative analysis. While acknowledging that the extant literature has a lack of specificity in reporting of acute viral infections or complications thereof, the data suggest that use of glucocorticoids, JAK inhibitors (especially high-dose), TNF inhibitors, and anti-IL-17 agents may be associated with an increased frequency of respiratory viral events. Available data suggest no increased frequency or risk of respiratory viral events with NSAIDs, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, or apremilast. One large cohort study demonstrated an association with leflunomide use and increased risk of acute viral respiratory events compared to non-use. CONCLUSION: This scoping review identified that some medication classes may confer increased risk of acute respiratory viral infections. However, definitive data are lacking and future studies should address this knowledge gap.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Rheumatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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