Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
World Neurosurg ; 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare their outcome with case matched controls from the pre-pandemic phase. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study in which all TBI patients admitted during COVID-19 pandemic phase (Arm-A) from 24th March, 2020 till 30th November, 2020 were matched with age and Glasgow Coma Scale score matched controls from the patients admitted prior to March 2020 (Arm-B). RESULTS: The total number of patients matched in each arm was 118. The length of hospital stay (8 days versus 5 days, p<0.001), transit time from emergency room to operation room (150 minutes versus 97 minutes, p=0.271), anesthesia induction time (75 minutes versus 45 minutes, p=0.002) and operative duration (275 minutes versus 180 minutes, p=0.002) were longer in Arm-A. Although the incidence of fever and pneumonia were significantly higher in Arm-A than Arm-B (50% versus 26.3%, p<0.001 and 27.1% versus 1.7%, p<0.001, respectively), outcome (GOS-E) and mortality rates (18.6% versus 14.4% respectively, p=0.42) were similar in both the groups. CONCLUSION: The outcome of the patients managed for TBI during the COVID-19 pandemic was similar to matched patients with TBI managed at our center before the onset of COVID-19 pandemic. This suggests that the guidelines followed during the COVID-19 pandemic were effective in dealing with TBI patients. This model can serve as a guide for any future pandemic waves for effective management of TBI patients without compromising their outcome.

2.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: External ventricular drain (EVD)-associated cerebrospinal fluid infection (EACI) remains a major complication associated with EVD. Length of EVD tunnel, an overlooked but modifiable factor, can be associated with increased risk of EACI. The aim of this study is to find the tunnel length associated with least chances of EACI by performing a network meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive search of different databases was performed to retrieve studies that studied the rates of EACI with different EVD tunnel lengths and a Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the network meta-analysis. With 0 cm tunnel length as reference, the odds ratio (OR) for developing EACI was minimum for tunnel length 5-10 cm (OR, 0.027). It was followed by tunnel length of 5 cm (OR, 0.060) and 10 cm (OR, 0.075). The surface under the cumulative ranking curve plot showed that the probability of the tunnel length 5-10 cm (ranked first), 5 cm (ranked second), and 10 cm (ranked third) for being the best EVD tunnel length was found to be 86%, 64%, and 61%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The length for which an EVD is tunneled may have an impact on the rate of EACI. Our network meta-analyses showed that the tunnel length of 5-10 cm was associated with the lowest rates of EACI, with 86% probability of being the best EVD tunnel length. The probability of a patient with 5-10 cm EVD length developing EACI was 2.7% compared with zero tunnel length.

3.
Benchmarking ; 29(3):1027-1045, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1730793

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The use of electric vehicles has received popularity as alternative fuel vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy cost, which are expected to perform a crucial role in the near future of emerging mobility markets. The purpose of this empirical study is to analyse the role of electric vehicle knowledge in predicting consumer adoption intention directly and indirectly in the backdrop of an emerging market.Design/methodology/approach>The study approached an extended version of “Technology acceptance model” (TAM) based on the integrated framework of “knowledge-beliefs-intention”. The model was tested via direct and indirect path analyses with the data collected from Indian respondents using an online survey.Findings>The results indicate the robustness of the present research model, which shows that consumer adoption is significantly driven by electric vehicle knowledge, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived risk. Electric vehicle knowledge has emerged as the most powerful cognitive measure, which directly affects the adoption intention along with the measures of “TAM”. Additionally, this also poses a higher indirect effect on adoption intention in the integrated model.Research limitations/implications>The study has focused on potential young and educated consumers, which may not be warranted to generalise the research findings, while youth or millennials are more receptive to adopt innovative and clean technology products like electric vehicle. Based on the findings, implications are offered for encouraging electric vehicles in the backdrop of emerging automobile markets.Originality/value>Concerning this cognitive phenomenon of knowledge, scant literature has been explored the role of subjective knowledge in consumer adoption for electric vehicles, particularly in the emerging markets like India. Thus, the present study analyses how consumers' knowledge about electric vehicle affects their decision to adopt this in the near future of Indian zero-emission mobility market.

4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 351: 109706, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464614

ABSTRACT

The challenges and difficulties associated with conventional drug delivery systems have led to the emergence of novel, advanced targeted drug delivery systems. Therapeutic drug delivery of proteins and peptides to the lungs is complicated owing to the large size and polar characteristics of the latter. Nevertheless, the pulmonary route has attracted great interest today among formulation scientists, as it has evolved into one of the important targeted drug delivery platforms for the delivery of peptides, and related compounds effectively to the lungs, primarily for the management and treatment of chronic lung diseases. In this review, we have discussed and summarized the current scenario and recent developments in targeted delivery of proteins and peptide-based drugs to the lungs. Moreover, we have also highlighted the advantages of pulmonary drug delivery over conventional drug delivery approaches for peptide-based drugs, in terms of efficacy, retention time and other important pharmacokinetic parameters. The review also highlights the future perspectives and the impact of targeted drug delivery on peptide-based drugs in the coming decade.


Subject(s)
Drug Carriers/chemistry , Lung/metabolism , Peptides/administration & dosage , Proteins/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Drug Carriers/administration & dosage , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Peptides/therapeutic use , Proteins/therapeutic use
5.
J Mol Struct ; 1250: 131756, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466798

ABSTRACT

With the arrival of the Covid-19 pandemic, anti-viral agents have regained center stage in the arena of medicine. Out of the various drug targets involved in managing RNA-viral infections, the one that dominates almost all RNA viruses is RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase). RdRp are proteins that are involved in the replication of RNA-based viruses. Inhibition of RdRps has been an integral approach for managing various viral infections such as dengue, influenza, HCV (Hepatitis), BVDV, etc. Inhibition of the coronavirus RdRp is currently rigorously explored for the treatment of Covid-19 related complications. So, keeping in view the importance and current relevance of this drug target, we have discussed the importance of RdRp in developing anti-viral agents against various viral diseases. Different reported inhibitors have also been discussed, and emphasis has been laid on highlighting the inhibitor's pharmacophoric features and SAR profile.

6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 348: 109657, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401276

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an ongoing public health emergency that has affected millions of people worldwide and is still a threat to many more. One of the pathophysiological features of COVID-19 is associated with the activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) leading to the disruption of vascular integrity, coagulation and inflammation. An interlink mechanism between coagulation and inflammatory pathways has been reported in COVID-19. Multiple components are involved in these pathological pathways. Out of all, Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is one of the primary components of coagulation pathway and also a mediator of vascular inflammation that plays an important role in thrombo-inflammation that further leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The thrombo-inflammatory co-morbidities such as hyper-coagulation, thrombosis, ARDS etc. have become the major cause of mortality in the patients of COVID-19 admitted to the ICU. Thus, VWF can be explored as a potential target to manage COVID-19 associated co-morbidities. Supporting this hypothesis, there are literature reports which disclose previous attempts to target VWF for the management of thrombo-inflammation in other pathological conditions. The current report summarizes emerging insights into the pathophysiology, mechanism(s), diagnosis, management and foundations for research on this less explored clinically relevant glycoprotein as coagulation biomarker in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/complications , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/complications
7.
Front Oncol ; 10: 572329, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264350

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, which spread to the rest of the world, led the World Health Organization to classify it as a global pandemic. COVID-19 belongs to the Bettacoronavirus genus of the Coronaviridae family, and it mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Studies have now confirmed a human-to-human transmission as the primary pathway of spread. COVID-19 patients with a history of diseases such as respiratory system diseases, immune deficiency, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer are prone to adverse events (admission to the intensive care unit requiring invasive ventilation or even death). The current focus has been on the development of novel therapeutics, including antivirals, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines. However, although there is undoubtedly an urgent need to identify effective treatment options against infection with COVID-19, it is equally important to clarify management protocols for the other significant diseases from which these patients may suffer, including cancer. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of patients with COVID-19. It also aims to provide the reader with insights into COVID-19 in pregnant patients and those with cancer, outlining necessary precautions relevant to cancer patients. Finally, we provide the available evidence on the latest potent antiviral drugs and vaccines of COVID-19 and the ongoing drug trials.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 179: 33-44, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085549

ABSTRACT

Chitosan is a deacetylated polycationic polysaccharide derived from chitin. It is structurally constituted of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and ß-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine where acetyl groups are randomly distributed across the polymer. The parameters of deacetylation and depolymerization process greatly influence various physico-chemical properties of chitosan and thus, offer a great degree of manipulation to synthesize chitosan of interest for various industrial and biomedical applications. Chitosan and its various derivatives have been a potential molecule of investigation in the area of anti-microbials especially anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and antiviral. The current review predominantly highlights and discusses about the antiviral activities of chitosan and its various substituted derivatives against a wide spectrum of human, animal, plants and bacteriophage viruses. The extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect antiviral efficacy of chitosan have also been talked about. With the rapid unfolding of COVID-19 pandemic across the globe, we look for chitosan as a plausible potent antiviral molecule for fighting this disease. Through this review, we present enough literature data supporting role of chitosan against different strains of SARS viruses and also chitosan targeting CD147 receptors, a novel route for invasion of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. We speculate the possibility of using chitosan as potential molecule against SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chitosan/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Chitin/chemistry , Chitin/pharmacology , Chitosan/chemistry , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL