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1.
Journal of Neonatology ; 36(4):298-301, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2162195

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate clinical profiles of COVID-19 neonates and compare early onset (<7 days) vs late onset (>=7 days) COVID. Method(s): Prospective observational study conducted among the neonates who were at risk or COVID-19 positive and who were admitted consecutively in one year (from June 2020 to May 2021) to evaluate their clinical status. At risk neonates underwent RT-PCR for oropharyngeal swab within 24 to 48 hours of life (inborn) or after admission (outborn). Result(s): Out of 351 at risk neonates, 106 babies came positive (early = 35.4% and late = 64.6%). Twelve (11.3%) cases were positive within 24 to 48 hours of life, indicating perinatal transmission. A total of 62 (58.4%) positive newborns were symptomatic. In their clinical course, there was Respiratory distress in 33(31.1%), diarrhoea in 7 (6.6%), poor feeding or lethargy in 24 (23.1%), fever in 19 (17.9 %) neonates. One baby developed COVID MIS-N. Early onset group was more symptomatic (P value <.05) but late onset group had a longer hospital stay (Spearman's rho <0.5) and increased duration of oxygen requirement (t-test sig. [2-tailed] < 0.05). Conclusion(s): There is high incidence of perinatal transmission. Early onset group was more symptomatic but late onset group had increased duration of oxygen requirement and longer hospital stay. Copyright © 2022 National Neonatology Forum.

2.
Nanotheranostics for Treatment and Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases ; : 319-352, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2035586

ABSTRACT

Carbon-based inorganic nanomaterials (CINMs) which include carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene quantum dots (GQDs), graphene (G), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNPs) have gained significant interest in biomedical application. The unique geometries (i.e., dimensions: 0D, 1D, 2D, 3D), chemical functionality/surface chemistry, and tunable physical properties of the CINMs make more interesting materials for theranostic applications. These properties of CINMs endowed their use in the delivery of therapeutics (drug/gene/biomolecules) for therapy and diagnostics (imaging/tracking) as an agent for cells and tissue imaging. In this chapter, we will highlight the recent advancement of CINMs and their tunable structure for various drug delivery and optical properties for imaging cells and tissues using different imaging modalities. Furthermore, we will summarize the CINMs role and promising applications for theranostic applications in infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), influenza (H1N1), Ebola virus disease (EVD), Middle East respiratory syndrome virus (MERS), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and other infectious diseases and also discuss the future perspectives to find the desirable platforms. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

3.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucor mycosis (ROCM) is a relatively rare opportunistic infection caused by the Mucorales species. While ROCM suggests involvement of the paranasal sinuses, orbit and brain ROM (rhino-orbital-Mucormycosis) stands for the fungal invasion in sinuses and orbit sans cerebral involvement. In India with the outbreak of the second COVID wave and the delta variant of the virus, there has been a steep increase in this opportunistic fulminant fungal infection, named COVID-associated Mucor mycosis (CAM). The most critical question in orbital management is when to go ahead with an exenteration. Our study aims to design a pertinent minimal invasive surgical protocol for surgeons to manage such cases based on our surgical experience and mitigate the need for exenteration and save the eyes wherever possible. METHODS: The study is a retrospective analysis of patients of ROM with and without brain involvement, who underwent minimal surgical management between March 2021 to March 2022 along with their follow-up. RESULTS: There were 184 eyes of 148 patients diagnosed with CAM. The mean age was 51.7 years with a male predominance of 103 (70%). All patients developed ROM following the COVID-19 infection and the duration between diagnosis of COVID-19 and ROM was 36 ± 23 days. 18 cases (12%) were bilateral. 76 eyes (41%) had no vision at the presentation. Imaging revealed paranasal sinus involvement (100%), orbital apex involvement (61%), cavernous sinus involvement (53%), and central nervous system (CNS) involvement (47%). All the patients (100%) were treated with systemic Liposomal amphotericin-B and sinus debridement. Endoscopic debridement of the orbital disease was performed in 45 (30.4%) cases, 15(8.1%) eyes underwent exenteration and were later rehabilitated with a customized ocular prosthesis, 103 (56%) eyes underwent transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin-B. At a mean follow-up of 13.1 months; the complete resolution was seen in 25 (17%) cases, the residual stable lesion was seen in 77(52%) of the cases and new lesions were developed in 13(9%) of the cases. Mortality was seen in 33 (22%) patients and all of them had CNS involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic and protocol-based management can save the life and salvage the eyes.

4.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE ; 26(7):816-824, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939283

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Enlightening the changes in the usual clinical practices, working environment, and social life of Intensivists working in noncoronavirus disease intensive care units (non-COVID ICU) during the COVID pandemic. Materials and methods: Observational cross-sectional study for Indian intensivists working in non-COVID ICUs conducted between July and September 2021. A 16-question online survey consisting of the work and social profile of the participating intensivists, changes in the usual clinical practices, working environment, and impact on their social life was administered. For the last three sections, intensivists were asked to compare pandemic times to prepandemic times (pre-mid-March 2020). Results: The number of invasive interventions performed by intensivists working in the private sector with lesser clinical experience (<12 years) were significantly less as compared to the government sector (p = 0.07) and clinically experienced (p = 0.07). Intensivists without comorbidities performed significantly lesser number of patient examinations (p = 0.03). The cooperation from healthcare workers (HCWs) decreased significantly with lesser experienced intensivists (p = 0.05). Leaves were significantly reduced in case of private sector intensivists (p = 0.06). Lesser experienced intensivists (p = 0.06) and intensivists working in the private sector (p = 0.06) spent significantly lesser time with family. Conclusion: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) affected the non-COVID ICUs as well. Young and private sector intensivists were affected due to less leaves and family time. HCWs need proper training for better cooperation during the pandemic time.

5.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):355, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928135

ABSTRACT

Background: During the second wave of COVID-19, India suffered from a catastrophic outburst of cases and rapid transmission of disease due to the highly infectious delta strain (B.1.617.2). Patients infected with this strain underwent prolonged hospitalisations, suffered from severe symptoms. A sudden surge of fungal infections, primarily Mucormycosis was observed. Methods: We conducted a case-control study to study various risk factors and form of intracranial involvement in cases of Mucormycosis. Results: Study included 121 patients in total;out of which 61 were Mucormycosis patients with prior COVID-19 infection. 30 out of 61 Mucormycosis patients had intracranial involvement with majority having stroke in the form of the either infarct (10 patients, 34%);or haemorrhage (3 patients, 10%) and thrombosis of artery involvement (8 patients, 29%). Other intracranial form of involvement was abscess (6 patients, 20%) and meningitis (2 patients, 7%). The most frequent type of infarcts were lacunar infarcts and the most common location of infarcts were middle cerebral artery (MCA) or anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Patients were treated with administration of Amphotericin B and Posaconazole. Telephonic follow-up was conducted after a time period of about 90 days and their health condition was recorded on basis of modified ranking scale (mRS). Out of the 30 Mucormycosis infection patients displaying the occurrence of stroke, 10 patients could not survive. q Conclusion: Intracranial Mucormycosis in COVID19 patients presenting with stroke were observed frequently and had mortality in about one-third cases.

6.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):179-180, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928109

ABSTRACT

Background: The world was witness to a pandemic never experienced by this generation. The call to arms was answered by each branch of medicine, each fighting separate wars. The war, we as neurologists faced was the “Battle for the Vessels”. Health care workers are a precious resource in Low-Middle-Income-Countries. Hence, exposure to a covidpositive patient for a “full hour” during thrombolysis, isn't warranted. Hence Tenecteplase use which fits the bill “ideally” and “literally” was analysed in this study against Alteplase in strokes with covid-positivity. We analyse the factors which affect their action and the role covid had, in each scenario. Methods: This is an ambi-spective observational study of 37 patients in an apex tertiary-care centre in India. Routine stroke variables were assessed including follow-up imaging, functional outcomes at 3 months. The results were also analysed with the thrombolysis data from covidnegative individuals too in the same period. Results: Among the covid-positive patients 62.16% patients received tenecteplase while 37.83% received alteplase. Although the baseline characteristics were similar, the time-metrics for thrombolysis were significantly favourable in the tenecteplase arm. The median-hospital stay was shorter in the tenecteplase group as was the in-hospital mortality. On follow-up at 3 months, the median mRS-score was significantly favourable in the tenecteplase group. Conclusions: Thrombolysis during the pandemic has been a challenge in many ways especially in resource limited settings. This study shows that there needs to be a conscious and judicial transition towards tenecteplase during the pandemic, where healthcare workers are a precious resource too.

7.
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine ; 44(Supplement):S16-S18, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893280

ABSTRACT

Present study was conducted in ABV Government Medical college, which was the only recognised covid hospital by Government of M.P., with tertiary care facilities in Vidisha district. This study is a record based cross sectional study done to determine various clinico-demographic profile and co-morbidities associated with mortality, among covid 19 patients who died after initiation of treatment in IPD. Mean age affected was 56.64 yrs with slight preponderance of males. Almost 64.22% patient who died were suffering from comorbidities in whom the common were hypertension (11%), diabetes mellitus (9.17%), coronary artery disease (11%), renal involvement (5.5%), obesity (4.58%) and respiratory involvement (8.25%) cases. Common signs and symptoms were fever (92%), cough and cold (90%), dyspnoea (84%), fatigue and myalgia (71%) cases. Oxygen saturation was below 80 mm of Hg in 23.8 % patients and mean duration of hospital stay hospital was 4.0 days. Respiratory support in the form of Bi-pap and C-pap was needed in 17.43% cases and endotracheal intubation was needed in 7.33% cases. Treatment of cardiogenic shock was given in 22.01% cases. © 2022

9.
Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing ; : 22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799387

ABSTRACT

Purpose - The aim of this study is to examine the impact of supply chain management (SCM) practices and retail outlet attributes on the performance of organised food retailers in India during COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach - Authors conducted empirical research with SCM practices and retail outlet attributes to evaluate the retailers performance. The authors present the results from 321 valid responses from the Indian food retailers. The study used structured equation modeling to present the analysis and the results. Findings - The findings of this study reveal that most of the SCM practices (i.e. information technology, level of information sharing, customer relationship, supplier relationship and goal congruence) have a positive impact on performance except the quality of information sharing. The results show that in the time of the pandemic, the retail outlet attributes (image, service quality and convenience) have no significant relationship with the food retailer's performance while SCM practices are necessary to achieve better performance of the food retailers. Research limitations/implications - A proactive approach is needed from retailers at the time of pandemic situations to manage the supply chains. The retailers must be extra careful in screening the suppliers for the short and long run. The reason being that in the situation of pandemic, customers might be more demanding and hence, food retailers need to pay special attention to gain growth. It is also required that the policymakers should give importance to the implementation of these SCM practices to be positioned differently. Originality/value - The research can be valued in terms of its original contribution towards companies in overcoming the disruption caused by COVID-19 to maintain a balance between demand and supply and proposes a completely new theoretical framework. The proposed theoretical model would add value to the existing literature to help the retailers in process of their performance improvement. The study has provided insights for retail organisations, suppliers and government departments to manage their SCs more effectively and efficiently during the pandemic.

10.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research ; 13(12):661-665, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1766679

ABSTRACT

Calling Covid-19 a viral disease would be an understatement. The worldwide impact this pandemic has caused in every sphere of human life is remarkable and so is the pace at which treatment modalities and immunisation agents were formulised for it. More so, the severe complications of this disease can be devastating and fatal, therefore a number of pharmaceutical agents have been studied that have shown response in the critically ill. This article throws light upon how melatonin can be a safe and effective adjuvant pharmaceutical agent against Covid-19. Melatonin is one of the hormones that controls the bodily clock, which in turn has a crucial role to play in the pathogenesis of Covid-19. Yoga asanas can also aid in suppressing the aggravated immune response and inflammatory process in this disease. Anxiety due to the disease itself and other social factors related to it, is another reason for disturbed sleep and hence poor immune response in alleviating the effects of Covid-19.

11.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 13(4):166-174, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1733401

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study assessment of new-onset depression and anxiety associated with COVID-19. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was done the Department of Psychiatry Adesh Medical College Hospital Ambala Haryana, India for 10 months. By using Google Form platform contained validated online survey among Indian population which includes all adult males and females during or post COVID-19 infection and compared to the non-COVID-19 population as a control group. Results: 38% of participants were male while 62% are females. 26% of participants were married while 70% were single. 60% of participants are students and 38% are employed while 2% are retired. Regarding the COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative participants, 25% of participants reported having been diagnosed with COVID-19. Scores of PHQ-9 ranged from 0 to 27 (the mean is and the standard deviation is 6.12). Depression prevalence in our sample was 40%. Scores of GAD-7 ranged from 0 to 21 (the mean of 8.99 and the standard deviation is 5.33). Anxiety prevalence in our sample was 41%. The model shows a significant overall effect of gender [F(489) = 39.02, p<0.001], a non-significant effect of COVID-19 infection [F(489)=1.88, p=0.177] and a trending effect of the interaction between gender and COVID-19 [F(489) = 3.25, p=0.069]. Since the effect is not significant, we did not run any post hoc analyses. Conclusion: Significant levels of depression and anxiety were observed among the study population. The high levels of depression and anxiety may have masked the differences between those with or without COVID-19.

12.
Cureus ; 14(2): e22077, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726751

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been predominately associated with respiratory illness. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common reported kidney involvement. Kidney complications, including proteinuria, hematuria, and rarely collapsing glomerulopathy (CG), a form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), are also well known now and are frequently documented in the literature published so far. We present two cases of glomerulonephritis (GN) in the setting of AKI in COVID-19 infection in children. Kidney biopsy specimens showed immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) with crescentic GN (CGN) with acute tubular injury with focal medium artery vasculitis. The patients exhibited a severe presentation and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This report attempts to add a bit to the evolving information on COVID-19 disease, especially in children as far as kidney involvement is concerned.

14.
Employee Relations ; : 16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1691712

ABSTRACT

Purpose The current study aims is to investigate the impact of leader's e-competencies on the emotional wellbeing of employees in GVTs. Also, the moderating role of a leader's emotional intelligence in enhancing the wellbeing of the employees during the pandemic was explored. Design/methodology/approach A survey of 810 employees belonging to international IT companies was conducted. The conceptual model was hypothesized and validated using CFA and PL-SEM. Findings The three core e-competencies of leaders (e-communication skills, e-change management skills and e-technological skills) impacting the wellbeing of employees in the COVID pandemic were found. Also, emotional intelligence significantly moderated the association of leader's e-competencies and the wellbeing of employees. Research limitations/implications The study is limited to IT sector companies. Data were collected using the snowball sampling technique through a self-reported questionnaire. Future studies can explore the relationship between e-leadership and variables like job performance in other sectors. Practical implications A unique framework of "leaders" e-competencies and employees' wellbeing, moderated by emotional intelligence, has been proposed and validated. The present study is relevant for guiding the traditional leaders and managers transitioning to e-leaders due to the pandemic. Originality/value The current exploration is one of its kinds to understand the dynamics of study variables in international workplaces. Today, the majority of organizations are conducting their business through GVTs. Therefore, the emerging leaders have to display specific e-competencies to contribute to employees' wellbeing effectively.

15.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India ; 69(11):96, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1507226
16.
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge ; 20(1):74-82, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1490142

ABSTRACT

Local plant species have been in use in variety of ethnomedicinal practices from the time immemorial among the people of various communities for treating various human diseases. This paper reports about the plant species used by Adi community in curing various human diseases and ailments. A study was conducted during 2008-2009 and further refined in succeeding years with the 12 purposively selected traditional knowledge holders (TKHs) of Adi tribe of East Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Data were collected using combined approaches of personal interview, participant observations and transect walks. It was observed that with Shannon-Weaver diversity index 2.73, there were 39 local plant species belonging to 25 plant families and used as ethnomedicinal practices by the TKHs. Most of the species (17) were used by Adi TKHs with their green leaf parts followed by root and fruits (5 each) to develop ethnomedicinal formulations. Out of these, several species namely Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link.;Plumeria rubra L.;Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don;Solanum torvum Swartz;Solanum khasianum C.B. Clarke;Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth.ex Kurze;and Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) (Miers) were found in use by Adis against asthma, bronchitis, cough, sinusitis, diabetes, malaria, typhoid and jaundice. The Adi TKHs maintain a rich cultural ethics, govern by their own world-view in continuing ethnomedicinal practices, and harvesting the species from various land use systems with the aim to sustain biodiversity and associated practices. The key findings indicated that, plant species used as ethnomedicines for some of the diseases and ailments by the Adi TKHs, can be undertaken for the long-term trial to find some natural remedies against few human diseases, including search of immune enhancer against COVID-19, provided TKHs of Adi community are partnered in ethically and culturally appropriate manner.

17.
International Journal of Logistics Management ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1475983

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Nowadays, many firms are finding ways to enhance the survivability of sustainable supply chains (SUSSCs). The present study aims to develop a model for the SUSSCs of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: With the help of exhaustive literature review, constructs and items are identified to collect the responses from different SMEs. A total of 278 complete responses are received and 6 hypotheses are developed. Hypotheses testing have been done using structural equation modeling (SEM). Findings: Major constructs identified for the study are supply chain (SC) performance measurement under uncertainty (SPMU), supply chain cooperation (SCCO), supply chain positioning (SCP), supply chain administration (SCA), supply chain feasibility (SCF) and the SUSSCs. From statistical analysis of the data collected, it can be concluded that the considered latent variables contribute significantly towardsthe model fit. Research limitations/implications: The present study contributes to the existing literature on disruptions and survivability. The study can be further carried out in context to different countries and sectors to generalize the findings. Practical implications: The research findings will be fruitful for SMEs and other organizations in developing strategies to improve survivability during uncertain business environments. Originality/value: The study has developed a model that shows that the identified latent variables and their indicators contribute significantly toward the dependent variable, i.e. survivability. It contributes significantly in bridging the research gaps existing in context to the survivability of SMEs. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

18.
Journal of Enterprise Information Management ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1462605

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The study presents various barriers to adopt big data analytics (BDA) for sustainable manufacturing operations (SMOs) post-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemics. In this study, 17 barriers are identified through extensive literature review and experts’ opinions for investing in BDA implementation. A questionnaire-based survey is conducted to collect responses from experts. The identified barriers are grouped into three categories with the help of factor analysis. These are organizational barriers, data management barriers and human barriers. For the quantification of barriers, the graph theory matrix approach (GTMA) is applied. Design/methodology/approach: The study presents various barriers to adopt BDA for the SMOs post-COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, 17 barriers are identified through extensive literature review and experts’ opinions for investing in BDA implementation. A questionnaire-based survey is conducted to collect responses from experts. The identified barriers are grouped into three categories with the help of factor analysis. These are organizational barriers, data management barriers and human barriers. For the quantification of barriers, the GTMA is applied. Findings: The study identifies barriers to investment in BDA implementation. It categorizes the barriers based on factor analysis and computes the intensity for each category of a barrier for BDA investment for SMOs. It is observed that the organizational barriers have the highest intensity whereas the human barriers have the smallest intensity. Practical implications: This study may help organizations to take strategic decisions for investing in BDA applications for achieving one of the sustainable development goals. Organizations should prioritize their efforts first to counter the barriers under the category of organizational barriers followed by barriers in data management and human barriers. Originality/value: The novelty of this paper is that barriers to BDA investment for SMOs in the context of Indian manufacturing organizations have been analyzed. The findings of the study will assist the professionals and practitioners in formulating policies based on the actual nature and intensity of the barriers. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

19.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 14(Suppl. 1):989-998, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395590

ABSTRACT

In modern drug discovery, molecular docking analysis is routinely used to understand and predict the interaction between a drug molecule and a target protein from a microbe. Drugs identified in this way may inhibit the entry and replication of pathogens in host cells. The SARS-CoV-2 associated coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has become the most contagious and deadly pandemic disease in the world today. In abeyance of any specific vaccine or therapeutic against SARS-CoV-2, the burgeoning situation urges a need for effective drugs to treat the virus-infected patients. Herbal medicines have been used as natural remedies for treating various infectious diseases since ancient times. The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 is important for the attachment and pathogenesis of the virus. Therefore, this study focused on the search of useful ligands for S protein among active constituents present in common herbs that could serve as efficient remedies for COVID-19. We analysed the binding efficiency of twelve compounds present in common herbs with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 through molecular docking analysis and also results are validated with two different docking tools. The binding efficiency of ligands was scored based on their predicted pharmacological interactions coupled with binding energy estimates. In docking analysis, compound "I" (Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)) was found to have the highest binding affinity with the viral S protein, followed by compounds, "F" (Curcumin), "D" (Apigenin) and "E" (Chrysophanol). The present study corroborates that compound "I" (EGCG) mostly present in the integrants of green tea, shows the highest potentiality for acting as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2. Further, characterization of the amino acid residues comprising the viral binding site and the nature of the hydrogen bonding involved in the ligand-receptor interaction revealed significant findings with herbal compound "I" (EGCG) binding to the S protein at eight amino acid residues. The binding sites are situated near to the amino acids which are required for virus pathogenicity. The findings of the present study need in vivo experiments to prove the utility of "I", "F", "D" and "E" compounds and their further use in making herb-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 product in near future. This analysis may help to create a new ethno-drug formulation for preventing or curing the COVID-19.

20.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 14(Suppl. 1):789-798, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395572

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus initially reported in Wuhan, China, is the causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Symptoms of the disease comprise of fever, tiredness, dry cough, aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, diarrhoea and pneumonia at the late stage. SARS-CoV-2 has severely crippled the healthcare system and has caused huge economic losses. Following the outbreak, the SARS-CoV-2 was recognized timely and its genome was sequenced, leading to the development of real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for its detection in clinical samples collected from suspected cases. The management of the pandemic is limited by a number of misconceptions and insufficient information about laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2 to confirm the disease. This includes a lack of awareness about procedures for the collection, transport, testing, and handling of biological samples for COVID diagnosis. This article provides an overview of the current laboratory diagnostic methods with a purpose to provide information and guidance to laboratories, stakeholders, broader community and especially public health professionals involved in laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2.

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