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1.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24005, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954856

ABSTRACT

Background and objective It has been observed that peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) measured by pulse oximeter is consistently lower than arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) measured directly by blood gas analysis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between SpO2 and SaO2, and SpO2 and partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and compare the SpO2/FiO2 (SF) and PaO2/FiO2 (PF) ratios in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods In this observational study, SpO2 was recorded and arterial blood gas analysis was performed among 70 COVID-19 patients presenting on room air (FiO2 = 0.21). SaO2 and PaO2 were recorded from arterial blood gas analysis. The SF and PF ratios were then calculated. Results The strength of correlations between SpO2 and SaO2, and SpO2 and PaO2, were significant (p<0.001) and moderately positive [Pearson coefficient (r) = 0.68, 0.53]. SpO2 value (85%), i.e., SF ratio (404.7 or below), was the best estimate for mild ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) [PF ratio (300 or below)] with a sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 53%. Conclusion A pulse oximeter is a vital tool in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19. In our study, SpO2 was found to have a positive correlation with SaO2 and PaO2 with acceptable sensitivity but low specificity in estimating mild ARDS. Therefore, pulse oximetry can be used as a tool for the early diagnosis of mild COVID-19 ARDS as per the given considerations and clinical correlation.

2.
High Performance Polymers ; 34(6):629-629, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1932985

ABSTRACT

This comprises investigations on novel theoretical and experimental research on the synthesis, properties, and characterization of polymers, as well as studies on existing theoretical and experimental research. This conference was the result of prior encounters with similar forums in which scientists, scholars and engineers were encouraged to share their perspectives through discussions. The development of science and technology makes the people of the world able to live better by enjoying various facilities resulting from the discoveries and inventions of scientists. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of High Performance Polymers is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
J Mycol Med ; 32(4): 101307, 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914842

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although unexpected airway difficulties are reported in patients with mucormycosis, the literature on airway management in patients with mucormycosis associated with Coronavirus disease is sparse. METHODS: In this retrospective case record review of 57 patients who underwent surgery for mucormycosis associated with coronavirus disease, we aimed to evaluate the demographics, airway management, procedural data, and in-hospital mortality records. RESULTS: Forty-one (71.9%) patients had a diagnosis of sino-nasal mucormycosis, fourteen (24.6%) patients had a diagnosis of rhino-orbital mucormycosis, and 2 (3.5%) patients had a diagnosis of palatal mucormycosis. A total of 44 (77.2%) patients had co-morbidities. The most common co-morbidities were diabetes mellitus in 42 (73.6%) patients, followed by hypertension in 21 (36.8%) patients, and acute kidney injury in 14 (28.1%) patients. We used the intubation difficulty scale score to assess intubating conditions. Intubation was easy to slightly difficult in 53 (92.9%) patients. In our study, mortality occurred in 7 (12.3%) patients. The median (range) mortality time was 60 (27-74) days. The median (range) time to hospital discharge was 53.5 (10-85) days. The median [interquartile range] age of discharged versus expired patients was 47.5 [41,57.5] versus 64 [47,70] years (P = 0.04), and median (interquartile range) D-dimer levels in discharged versus expired patients was 364 [213, 638] versus 2448 [408,3301] ng/mL (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing surgery for mucormycosis associated with the coronavirus disease, airway management was easy to slightly difficult in most patients. Perioperative complications can be minimized by taking timely and precautionary measures.

4.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100312, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838937

ABSTRACT

World community is facing an unprecedented pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2). The disease has spread globally with more than 1.43 million confirmed cases and 82,100 deaths as of April 8, 2020. Despite worldwide efforts to contain it, the pandemic is continuing to spread for want of a clinically-proven prophylaxis and therapeutic strategy. The dimensions of pandemic require an urgent harnessing of all knowledge systems available globally. Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Wuhan to treat COVID-19 cases sets the example demonstrating that traditional health care can contribute to treatment of these patients successfully. Drawing on the Ayurveda classics, contemporary scientific studies, and experiential knowledge on similar clinical settings, here we propose a pragmatic plan for intervention in India. We provide a plan for graded response, depending on the stage of infection among individuals, in a population. Notwithstanding the fact that no system of medicine has any evidence-based treatment for COVID-19 as yet, clinical interventions are required to be put in place. Therefore, pragmatic strategy proposed here for Ayurveda system of medicine requires immediate implementation. It will facilitate learning, generate evidence and shall be a way forward.

5.
Cureus ; 14(4), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837810

ABSTRACT

Background and objective It has been observed that peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) measured by pulse oximeter is consistently lower than arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) measured directly by blood gas analysis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between SpO2 and SaO2, and SpO2 and partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and compare the SpO2/FiO2 (SF) and PaO2/FiO2 (PF) ratios in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods In this observational study, SpO2 was recorded and arterial blood gas analysis was performed among 70 COVID-19 patients presenting on room air (FiO2 = 0.21). SaO2 and PaO2 were recorded from arterial blood gas analysis. The SF and PF ratios were then calculated. Results The strength of correlations between SpO2 and SaO2, and SpO2 and PaO2, were significant (p<0.001) and moderately positive [Pearson coefficient (r) = 0.68, 0.53]. SpO2 value (85%), i.e., SF ratio (404.7 or below), was the best estimate for mild ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) [PF ratio (300 or below)] with a sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 53%. Conclusion A pulse oximeter is a vital tool in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19. In our study, SpO2 was found to have a positive correlation with SaO2 and PaO2 with acceptable sensitivity but low specificity in estimating mild ARDS. Therefore, pulse oximetry can be used as a tool for the early diagnosis of mild COVID-19 ARDS as per the given considerations and clinical correlation.

6.
Lung India ; 39(3): 247-253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810866

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypoxia in patients with COVID-19 is one of the strongest predictors of mortality. Silent hypoxia is characterised by the presence of hypoxia without dyspnoea. Silent hypoxia has been shown to affect the outcome in previous studies. Methods: This was a retrospective study of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were hypoxic at presentation. Clinical, laboratory and treatment parameters in patients with silent hypoxia and dyspnoeic hypoxia were compared. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify the factors predicting mortality. Results: Among 2080 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital, 811 patients were hypoxic with SpO2 <94% at the time of presentation. Among them, 174 (21.45%) did not have dyspnoea since the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Further, 5.2% of patients were completely asymptomatic for COVID-19 and were found to be hypoxic only on pulse oximetry. The case fatality rate in patients with silent hypoxia was 45.4% as compared to 40.03% in dyspnoeic hypoxic patients (P = 0.202). The odds ratio of death was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.41-2.97) in the patients with silent hypoxia after adjusting for baseline characteristics, laboratory parameters, treatment and in-hospital complications, which did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.851). Conclusion: Silent hypoxia may be the only presenting feature of COVID-19. As the case fatality rate is comparable between silent and dyspnoeic hypoxia, it should be recognised early and treated as aggressively. Because home isolation is recommended in patients with COVID-19, it is essential to use pulse oximetry in the home setting to identify these patients.

7.
Indian J Anaesth ; 66(3): 187-192, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776444

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: The risk of contracting infection while intubating a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive patient can be reduced by the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), video laryngoscope (VL) and aerosol-preventing intubation box. We compared two VLs (C-MAC and King Vision laryngoscope [KVL]) for ease of intubation and time taken to intubate the manikin using an intubation box. Methods: This randomised study involved healthcare workers having experience in using both C-MAC and KVL. After explaining the study and five practice sessions, a total of 63 volunteers were included; 61 participants gave consent and were enroled. The participants were allowed to intubate initially with one VL as per random sequence. Each participant performed three tracheal intubations with each device (C-MAC VL and KVL) on a manikin using an aerosol-prevention box over the head end at the time of intubation. Results: Time taken, percentage of glottic opening (POGO) score and the number of attempts taken for successful intubation with C-MAC and KVL were comparable in any of the three attempts (P > 0.05). The participants reported more difficulty in using KVL compared to C-MAC, and insertion of laryngoscope blade into the mouth of manikin for intubation was easy in group C-MAC compared to KVL in all three intubations (P < 0.01). Conclusion: C-MAC and KVL take comparable time for successful intubation under COVID-19 simulation conditions. But C-MAC is more user-friendly.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320171

ABSTRACT

Background: The highly contagious Co rona vi rus d isease (COVID-19) pandemic affected nearly all nations across the world. It was emerged as most swiftly affected disease across the world and more than 2934 lakhs population suffered in four months of the time period as on date April 26, 2020. Its first epicenter was at Wuhan city of China during the month of December 2019. Currently, the most affected people and new epicenter of Coronavirus is at the United States of America (USA). Various nation’s administration including the India government called for the regional and local lockdown. We predicted the confirmed COVID-19 cases for next May-2020 month, map the magnitude of COVID-19 disease for Indian states and model the paucity of COVID-19 disease with statistical confirmatory data analysis model for declining rate for the cases represented for the Indian proportion of population. Method: The ARIMA model used to predict for next short-term cases, based moving average of past confirmed cases. The restriction of COVID-19 pandemic disease analyzed with predicted cases for month May 2020 data at 95 percent confidence is more than 2.5 lakh cases. Results: The confirmatory data analysis model for the time estimation for the paucity of cases it takes in between six to eighteen months of time frame. The Confirmatory model which considers recovery rate, social, economic and government policy. To complete recovery from the COVID-19 cases it takes on an average more than next ten months. Conclusion: The disease impacts also depend upon administrative and local people support for self-quarantine and other measures. The India nation Gross Domestic Product (GDP) based on more than 17% of its agriculture production, due to longer affect of the disease and extended lockdown period it will be severely affected. However, all the economic activities with full of its intensity takes-up after complete paucity of COVID-19 disease spread. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2;Lockdown;GDP;Nobel-Corona;Confirmatory data model

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315096

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed a catena of contractual disputes. Several companies and firms have cited COVID-19 as force majeure to suspend the promised supply of goods or services, triggering legal claims of compensation from the counterparties. Employers have refused the promised employment, borrowers have expressed their inability to service debts, and insurance companies have denied compensation for business losses. Even the Centre is wavering in honoring terms of the ‘social contract’ for sharing GST revenue with the States.In this article, we synthesise the Indian Contract Act and relevant case laws to present a legal position on force majeure, frustration of contract and contractual gaps. Using the economic analysis of law, we examine contractual disputes from various sectors, including power, construction and real-estate, rental, event management and hospitality, among others. We analyse these disputes from legal and economic-efficiency points of view. We delineate disputes where the use of force majeure or frustration of contract is justified. We use economic analysis to draw the attention of courts and policymakers towards the economic implication of their decisions. Our analysis suggest that at times the courts under-appreciate the long-term economic consequences of their rulings. Finally, we argue that contracts are not a good instrument for achieving equitable distribution of economic gains and losses. We discuss how public policy is better suited to address equity the other related issues arising from long-term contracts such as debt, employment and insurance contracts.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314959

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with respiratory failure and subsequent hypoxia. New therapies that reduce hypoxia are urgently needed. Molecular hydrogen (H2) therapy may reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia. This case report suggests that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) increases oxygen saturation increase exercise tolerance in a patient with COVID-19-like symptoms.

11.
Lung India ; 39(1): 16-26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic hit India from early April 2021 to June 2021. We describe the clinical features, treatment trends, and baseline laboratory parameters of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their association with the outcome. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify clinical and biochemical predictors of developing hypoxia, deterioration during the hospital stay, and death. RESULTS: A total of 2080 patients were included. The case fatality rate was 19.5%. Among the survivors, the median duration of hospital stay was 8 (5-11) days. Out of 853 (42.3%%) of patients who had COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome at presentation, 340 (39.9%) died. Patients aged >45 years had higher odds of death as compared to the 18-44 years age group. Vaccination reduced the odds of death by 40% (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI]]: 0.6 [0.4-0.9], P = 0.032). Patients with hyper inflammation at baseline as suggested by leukocytosis (OR [95% CI]: 2.1 [1.5-3.1], P < 0.001), raised d-dimer >500 mg/dL (OR [95% CI]: 3.2 [2.2-4.7], P < 0.001), and raised C-reactive peptide >0.5 mg/L (OR [95% CI]: 3.7 [2.2-13], P = 0.037) had higher odds of death. Patients who were admitted in the 2nd week had lower odds and those admitted in the 3rd week had higher odds of death. CONCLUSION: This study shows that vaccination status and early admission during the inflammatory phase can change the course of illness of these patients. Improving vaccination rates and early admission of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 can improve the outcomes.

12.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296029

ABSTRACT

Purpose Although unexpected airway difficulties are reported in patients with mucormycosis, the literature on airway management in patients with mucormycosis associated with Coronavirus disease is sparse. Methods In this retrospective case record review of 57 patients who underwent surgery for mucormycosis associated with coronavirus disease, we aimed to evaluate the demographics, airway management, procedural data, and mortality records. Results Forty-one (71.9%) patients had a diagnosis of sino-nasal mucormycosis, fourteen (24.6%) patients had a diagnosis of rhino-orbital mucormycosis, and 2 (3.5%) patients had a diagnosis of palatal mucormycosis. A total of 44 (77.2%) patients had co-morbidities. The most common co-morbidities were diabetes mellitus in 42 (73.6%) patients, followed by hypertension in 21 (36.8%) patients, and acute kidney injury in 14 (28.1%) patients. We used the intubation difficulty scale score to assess intubating conditions. Intubation was easy to slightly difficult in 53 (92.9%) patients. In our study, mortality occurred in 7 (12.3%) patients. The median (range) mortality time was 60 (27–74) days. The median (range) time to hospital discharge was 53.5 (10–85) days. The median [interquartile range] age of discharged versus expired patients was 47.5 [41,57.5] versus 64 [47,70] years (P = 0.04), and median (interquartile range) D-dimer levels in discharged versus expired patients was 364 [213, 638] versus 2448 [408,3301] ng/mL (P = 0.03). Conclusion In patients undergoing surgery for mucormycosis associated with the coronavirus disease, airway management was easy to slightly difficult in most patients. Perioperative complications can be minimized by taking timely and precautionary measures.

13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546482

ABSTRACT

Neutropenia is a rare haematological complication of COVID-19 infection in immunocompetent patients. There is sparse literature on neutropenia in patients with COVID-19, except a few case reports. We encountered a similar case in an intensive care unit that developed severe neutropenia on day 24 of illness. Neutropenia resolved spontaneously on 4th day of its appearance. The patient was isolated and kept under close observation, antibiotics were upgraded and strict asepsis was maintained. Thus, we observed in a patient with no comorbidities and uncomplicated neutropenia that strict measures to prevent infection may suffice and the undue risk of hematopoietic therapy can be avoided. An expert opinion should always be sought in such cases as the presence of complications may require an aggressive approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutropenia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Neutropenia/chemically induced , Neutropenia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
IEEE Access ; 8: 186932-186938, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528293

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 cases in India have been steadily increasing since January 30, 2020 and have led to a government-imposed lockdown across the country to curtail community transmission with significant impacts on societal systems. Forecasts using mathematical-epidemiological models have played and continue to play an important role in assessing the probability of COVID-19 infection under specific conditions and are urgently needed to prepare health systems for coping with this pandemic. In many instances, however, access to dedicated and updated information, in particular at regional administrative levels, is surprisingly scarce considering its evident importance and provides a hindrance for the implementation of sustainable coping strategies. Here we demonstrate the performance of an easily transferable statistical model based on the classic Holt-Winters method as means of providing COVID-19 forecasts for India at different administrative levels. Based on daily time series of accumulated infections, active infections and deaths, we use our statistical model to provide 48-days forecasts (28 September to 15 November 2020) of these quantities in India, assuming little or no change in national coping strategies. Using these results alongside a complementary SIR model, we find that one-third of the Indian population could eventually be infected by COVID-19, and that a complete recovery from COVID-19 will happen only after an estimated 450 days from January 2020. Further, our SIR model suggests that the pandemic is likely to peak in India during the first week of November 2020.

15.
The International Journal of Educational Management ; 35(7):1405-1420, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1504793

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe study aims to model the factors influencing online learning adoption by Indian students as well as examine the mediating effect of attitude on the proposed relationships.Design/methodology/approachA survey was conducted online using a well-structured questionnaire. The target respondents of the study were students of undergraduate and postgraduate courses in India. Structural equation modeling was employed on a final sample of 402 respondents to test the proposed hypotheses.FindingsThe results reveal that there is a significant impact of the perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, social influence, peer influence and self-esteem on attitude toward online learning. Further, attitude significantly mediates the impact of these factors on intention to adopt online learning.Originality/valueThe study is one of the initial attempts in the backdrop of the pandemic to examine the mediating role of attitude in affecting intention to adopt online learning by university students in India.

16.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(11): e05039, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499239

ABSTRACT

Administration of molecular hydrogen dissolved in water to patient with COVID-19-like symptoms may improve oxygen levels and exercise capacity.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150639, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442557

ABSTRACT

Mathematical models of different types and data intensities are highly used by researchers, epidemiologists, and national authorities to explore the inherently unpredictable progression of COVID-19, including the effects of different non-pharmaceutical interventions. Regardless of model complexity, forecasts of future COVID-19 infections, deaths and hospitalization are associated with large uncertainties, and critically depend on the quality of the training data, and in particular how well the recorded national or regional numbers of infections, deaths and recoveries reflect the the actual situation. In turn, this depends on, e.g., local test and abatement strategies, treatment capacities and available technologies. Other influencing factors including temperature and humidity, which are suggested by several authors to affect the spread of COVID-19 in some countries, are generally only considered by the most complex models and further serve to inflate the uncertainty. Here we use comparative and retrospective analyses to illuminate the aggregated effect of these systematic biases on ensemble-based model forecasts. We compare the actual progression of active infections across ten of the most affected countries in the world until late November 2020 with "re-forecasts" produced by two of the most commonly used model types: (i) a compartment-type, susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model; and (ii) a statistical (Holt-Winters) time series model. We specifically examine the sensitivity of the model parameters, estimated systematically from different subsets of the data and thereby different time windows, to illustrate the associated implications for short- to medium-term forecasting and for probabilistic projections based on (single) model ensembles as inspired by, e.g., weather forecasting and climate research. Our findings portray considerable variations in forecasting skill in between the ten countries and demonstrate that individual model predictions are highly sensitive to parameter assumptions. Significant skill is generally only confirmed for short-term forecasts (up to a few weeks) with some variation across locations and periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Forecasting , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
18.
Macromolecular Symposia ; 397(1):1-1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1281234

ABSTRACT

Prof. Pramod Kumar Singh Department of Physics Sharda University, India Dr. Ikhwan Syafiq Mohd Noor Physics Division Centre of Foundation Studies for Agricultural Science Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Prof. Dr. Ram Chandra Singh Department of Physics Sharda University, India Dr. Burak Gultekin Solar Energy Institute Ege University, Izmir, Turkey The theme of emerging technologies and applications in materials science are selected in line with the development of world technology. Research on advance functional materials is now a hot topic among scientists around the world. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Macromolecular Symposia is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

19.
The Indian Economic Journal ; : 00194662211013218, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1226808

ABSTRACT

In this study, we develop a model to examine the dynamics of the insolvency and bankruptcy code (IBC) processes in the aftermath of Covid-19. We use the model to study the impact of the pandemic on the following aspects of the financial disputes and their implications: number of disputes between debtors and their creditors in the aftermath of Covid-19;frequency of these disputes coming to the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT);impact of the pandemic on the frequency of ?out of court? settlements;the nature of disputes settled amicably and those adjudicated under the corporate insolvency resolution process of the NCLT;and the recovery rates in the settled versus litigated disputes. We show that while the number of disputes will go up, the frequency of settlements will come down in the post-Covid world. Moreover, the post-pandemic legal changes made to the IBC are detrimental to the interest of the micro, small and medium enterprises and also for the formal and informal sector employees. We offer suggestions for promoting out-of-court settlements to save time and costs of the parties involved. Our suggestions related to public policy can help mitigate the macroeconomic costs of the pandemic.JEL Classification Codes: K00, K22, K41, G21

20.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(3): 1082-1085, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218667

ABSTRACT

Significant public health events of the 21st century include epidemic prone diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), influenza A (H1N1), Ebola virus disease, and coronavirus (SARS-COV-2). Preparedness as well as risk mitigation strategies play an integral role for the success of responses to such health emergencies. An extraordinary cluster of cases of respiratory disease of unknown cause triggered a series of events that constituted a public health risk across the globe through international spread from China and was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30 January, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). To monitor implementation of activities in order to contain the local transmission of COVID-2019 in India, a control room was established at the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), New Delhi on 23rd January, 2020 under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP). The main objectives of the control room were to alleviate the concerns and address queries of passengers arriving from the affected countries and also to provide the general public information regarding the measures to be taken as well as the contact details of the respected district health authorities for further necessary action. A total of 183 hunting lines were established at the NCDC, Noida, TB Centre, and the National Health Authority (NHA) Hyderabad and Bengaluru by March 2020. A total of 79,013 calls, 1,04,779 emails, and 1,787 international calls were received w.e.f. 23 January to 30 March, 2020 at the NCDC control room. The NHA Bengaluru and Hyderabad Control room received 3,52,176 calls w.e.f. 15 March to 30 March and TB Noida control room received 55,018 calls w.e.f. 16 March to 30 March, 2020. This prompt action of the center to set up a control room at the NCDC gave the states enough grace period to train their staff and start their individual help lines for addressing people's queries and allay fears.

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