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1.
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews ; : 102396, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1620631

ABSTRACT

Background and aims Molnupiravir is a newer oral antiviral drug that has recently received emergency use authorization (EUA) in USA, UK and India. We aim to conduct an update on our previous systematic review to provide practical clinical guideline for using molnupiravir in patients with COVID-19. Methods We systematically searched the electronic database of PubMed, MedRxiv and Google Scholar until January 5, 2022, using key MeSH keywords. Results Final result of phase 3 study in 1433 non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients showed a significant reduction in composite risk of hospital admission or death (absolute risk difference, −3.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, −5.9 to −0.1%];1-sided P = 0.02) although with a non-significant 31% relative risk reduction (RRR). RRR for death alone was 89% (95% CI, 14 to 99;P-value not reported). Number needed to treat to prevent 1 death or 1 hospitalization or death composite appears to be closely competitive to other agents having EUA in people with COVID-19. However, cost-wise molnupiravir is comparatively cheaper compared to all other agents. Conclusion Molnupiravir could be a useful agent in non-pregnant unvaccinated adults with COVID-19 who are at increased risk of severity including hospitalization. However, it is effective only when used within 5-days of onset of symptoms. A 5-days course seems to be safe without any obvious short-term side effects.

2.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296020

ABSTRACT

Background Two vaccines are currently being administered in India to prevent the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We assessed the humoral immune response after the first dose of two vaccines ChAdOx1-nCOV (Covishield™) and BBV-152 (Covaxin™) in Indian health care workers (HCW). Methods This ongoing, Pan-India, Cross-sectional, Coronavirus Vaccine-induced Antibody Titre (COVAT) study is being conducted amongst HCW, with or without past history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike binding antibody is being assessed quantitatively at four timepoints between 21 days or more after the first dose to 6 months after the second dose. Primary aim is to analyze antibody response following each dose of both vaccines and its correlation to age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities. Here we report the preliminary results of anti-spike antibody response after the first dose. Results Amongst the 552 HCW (325 Male, 227 Female), 456 and 96 received first dose of Covishield and Covaxin respectively. Overall, 79.3% showed seropositivity after the first dose. Responder rate and median (IQR) rise in anti-spike antibody was significantly higher in Covishield vs. Covaxin recipient (86.8 vs. 43.8%;61.5 vs. 6 AU/ml;both p<0.001). This difference persisted in propensity-matched (age, sex and BMI) analysis in 172 subjects. No difference was observed with age, gender and BMI. History of hypertension had lower responder rate (65.7 vs. 82.3%, p=0.001). Covishield recipient had more adverse event vs. Covaxin arm (46.7 vs. 31.2%, p=0.006). Presence of comorbidities, past SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine types used were independent predictors for seropositivity after the first dose, in multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusions While both vaccines elicited immune response, seropositivity rates to anti-spike antibody were significantly higher in Covishield recipient compared to Covaxin after the first dose. Ongoing COVAT study will further enlighten the immune response between two vaccines after the second dose. Highlights This study evaluated the humoral antibody response of two SARS-CoV-2 vaccines Covishield™ and Covaxin™ in Indian health-care workers. Both vaccines showed seropositivity to anti-spike antibody, 21 days or more after the first dose. Responder rates were higher in Covishield recipient compared to Covaxin in propensity-matched cohorts. Past SARS-CoV-2 infection, presence of comorbidities and vaccine type received were independent predictors of antibody response after the first dose.

3.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(41): 4197-4211, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547089

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by a newly identified coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since its inception in late December 2019, COVID-19 has led to a tremendous loss of human life worldwide. To overcome the unprecedented challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic to the public and economic health, strengthening the healthcare system is of utmost need. In this regard, research communities are putting efforts into developing an advanced healthcare system that could reduce the severe impacts of this pandemic. Nanotechnology is an advanced technology that has contributed significantly to produce powerful arsenals for the frontline warriors in this battle against COVID-19. It has offered opportunities for the development of fast and accurate point-of-care testing, efficient therapeutics and vaccines, potent sanitizers, facemasks, and personal protective equipment against SARS-CoV-2. However, associated toxicity, lengthy procedures of clinical trials, and uncertain health risks are some points that are still debatable. The present paper provides an overview of COVID-19 specific therapeutics and vaccines with an emphasis on nano-based strategies, which are significantly contributing towards the success of mitigation measures and strategies against COVID-19. Furthermore, the associated challenges, current limitations, and opportunities in this field are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Nanotechnology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Molnupiravir is a newer oral antiviral drug that has recently been tested in COVID-19. We aim to conduct a systematic review of literature to find out the efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched the electronic database of PubMed, MedRxiv and Google Scholar from inception until October 15, 2021, using MeSH keywords. Ongoing trials of molnupiravir in COVID-19 were additionally searched from the ClinicalTrials.Gov and ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials. We retrieved all the available granular details of phase 1 to 3 studies of molnupiravir in COVID-19. Subsequently we reviewed the results narratively. RESULTS: Two phase 1 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled (DBRPC) studies of molnupiravir showed that 1600 mg daily dose is safe and tolerable, without any serious adverse events up to 5.5 days. One phase 2 DBPRC study found significantly lower time to clearance (RNA negativity) with molnupiravir 800 mg twice daily compared to the placebo (log-rank p value = 0.013) in mild to moderate COVID-19. Interim report of one phase 3 DBRPC study in non-hospitalized COVID-19 found a significant reduction in the risk of hospital admission or death by 50% (p = 0.0012). However, no significant benefit was observed with molnupiravir in the later stage of moderate to severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Molnupiravir is first oral antiviral drug to demonstrate a significant benefit in reducing hospitalization or death in mild COVID-19 and could be an important weapon in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, its role in moderate to severe COVID-19 is questionable and more studies are needed.

5.
Vaccine ; 39(44): 6492-6509, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the humoral immune response of both ChAdOx1-nCOV (CovishieldTM) and BBV-152 (CovaxinTM) vaccines in Indian health care workers (HCW). METHODS: A Pan-India, Cross-sectional, Coronavirus Vaccine-induced Antibody Titre (COVAT) study was conducted that measured SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike binding antibody quantitatively, 21 days or more after the first and second dose of two vaccines in both severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) naïve and recovered HCW. Primary aim was to analyze antibody response (seropositivity rate, Geometric Mean Titre [GMT] and 95% Confidence Interval [CI]) following each dose of both vaccines and its correlation to age, sex, blood group, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities. Here we report the results of anti-spike antibody response after first and two completed doses. RESULTS: Among the 515 HCW (305 Male, 210 Female) who took two doses of both vaccines, 95.0% showed seropositivity to anti-spike antibody. However, both seropositivity rate and GMT (95% CI) of anti-spike antibody was significantly higher in Covishield vs. Covaxin recipients (98.1 vs. 80.0%; 129.3 vs. 48.3 AU/mL; both p < 0.001). This difference persisted in 457 SARS-CoV-2 naïve and propensity-matched (age, sex and BMI) analysis of 116 participants. Age > 60-years, males, people with any comorbidities, and history of hypertension (HTN) had a significantly less anti-spike antibody GMT compared to age ≤ 60 years, females, no comorbidities and no HTN respectively, after the completion of two doses of either vaccine. Gender, presence of comorbidities, and vaccine type were independent predictors of antibody seropositivity rate and anti-spike antibody titre levels in multiple logistic and log transformed linear regression analysis. Both vaccine recipients had similar solicited mild to moderate adverse events and none had severe or unsolicited side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Both vaccines elicited good immune response after two doses, although seropositivity rates and GMT of anti-spike antibody titre was significantly higher in Covishield compared to Covaxin recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibody Formation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(41): 4197-4211, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378154

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by a newly identified coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since its inception in late December 2019, COVID-19 has led to a tremendous loss of human life worldwide. To overcome the unprecedented challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic to the public and economic health, strengthening the healthcare system is of utmost need. In this regard, research communities are putting efforts into developing an advanced healthcare system that could reduce the severe impacts of this pandemic. Nanotechnology is an advanced technology that has contributed significantly to produce powerful arsenals for the frontline warriors in this battle against COVID-19. It has offered opportunities for the development of fast and accurate point-of-care testing, efficient therapeutics and vaccines, potent sanitizers, facemasks, and personal protective equipment against SARS-CoV-2. However, associated toxicity, lengthy procedures of clinical trials, and uncertain health risks are some points that are still debatable. The present paper provides an overview of COVID-19 specific therapeutics and vaccines with an emphasis on nano-based strategies, which are significantly contributing towards the success of mitigation measures and strategies against COVID-19. Furthermore, the associated challenges, current limitations, and opportunities in this field are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Nanotechnology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(9): 2552, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371008
9.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322678

ABSTRACT

GOAL: We aim to perform a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine if elevated serum lipase determines clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). BACKGROUND: Several cases of acute pancreatitis (AP) have recently been reported in association with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Most of the evidence is based on elevated serum lipase values without objective demonstration of pancreatic inflammation or necrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based, multicenter, retrospective cohort study utilizing TriNetX was performed to obtain aggregated health records of ∼69 million patients from 49 health care organizations from January 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. Adult patients (18 y and above) diagnosed with COVID-19 were identified using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes and were stratified into 2 groups, with elevated (≥180 U/L) and with normal (≤80 U/L) serum lipase. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality; other outcomes were 30-day rehospitalization, need for mechanical ventilation, need for vasopressor use, acute kidney injury. RESULTS: A total of 435,731 adult patients with COVID-19 were identified, and 1406 of them had elevated serum lipase which was associated with higher 30-day mortality [risk ratio (RR)=1.53, P<0.001], risk of acute kidney injury (RR=1.5, P=0.003), and vasopressor use (RR=1.69, P<0.001) without any difference in 30-day rehospitalization (RR=0.98, P=0.54), or need for mechanical ventilation (RR=1.20, P=0.26). The negative predictive value of normal serum lipase for 3-month mortality in patients with COVID-19 was 91%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 who have elevated serum lipase experience worse clinical outcomes even in the absence of AP. If these findings can be replicated in prospective studies, serum lipase can be utilized as a marker of disease severity in patients with COVID-19.

11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102146, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are increasing case reports of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially from India. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for both severe COVID-19 and mucormycosis. We aim to conduct a systematic review of literature to find out the patient's characteristics having mucormycosis and COVID-19. METHODS: We searched the electronic database of PubMed and Google Scholar from inception until May 13, 2021 using keywords. We retrieved all the granular details of case reports/series of patients with mucormycosis, and COVID-19 reported world-wide. Subsequently we analyzed the patient characteristics, associated comorbidities, location of mucormycosis, use of steroids and its outcome in people with COVID-19. RESULTS: Overall, 101 cases of mucormycosis in people with COVID-19 have been reported, of which 82 cases were from India and 19 from the rest of the world. Mucormycosis was predominantly seen in males (78.9%), both in people who were active (59.4%) or recovered (40.6%) from COVID-19. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus (DM) was present in 80% of cases, while concomitant diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was present in 14.9%. Corticosteroid intake for the treatment of COVID-19 was recorded in 76.3% of cases. Mucormycosis involving nose and sinuses (88.9%) was most common followed by rhino-orbital (56.7%). Mortality was noted in 30.7% of the cases. CONCLUSION: An unholy trinity of diabetes, rampant use of corticosteroid in a background of COVID-19 appears to increase mucormycosis. All efforts should be made to maintain optimal glucose and only judicious use of corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/pathology , Mucormycosis/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors
12.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(4): 453-460, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197617

ABSTRACT

Among the various strategies for the prevention of airborne transmission, engineering measures are placed high in the hierarchy of control. Modern hospitals in high-income countries have mechanical systems of building ventilation also called HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning) but installation and maintenance of such systems is a challenging and resource-intensive task. Even when the state-of-the-art technology was used to build airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs), recommended standards were often not met in field studies. The current coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic has highlighted the need to find cost-effective and less resource-intensive engineering solutions. Moreover, there is a need for the involvement of interdisciplinary teams to find innovative infection control solutions and doctors are frequently lacking in their understanding of building ventilation-related problems as well as their possible solutions. The current article describes building ventilation strategies (natural ventilation and hybrid ventilation) for hospitals where HVAC systems are either lacking or do not meet the recommended standards. Other measures like the use of portable air cleaning technologies and temporary negative-pressure rooms can be used as supplementary strategies in situations of demand surge. It can be easily understood that thermal comfort is compromised in buildings that are not mechanically fitted with HVAC systems, therefore the given building ventilation strategies are more helpful when climatic conditions are moderate or other measures are combined to maintain thermal comfort. How to cite this article: Zia H, Singh R, Seth M, Ahmed A, Azim A. Engineering Solutions for Preventing Airborne Transmission in Hospitals with Resource Limitation and Demand Surge. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(4):453-460.

13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1641-1644, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: At-admission hyperglycemia have been associated with poorer outcome during critical illnesses. At-admission hyperglycemia in previously unknown diabetes is not uncommonly encountered entity in patients with COVID-19. We sought to find out the outcomes of at-admission hyperglycemia and effect of early intervention to achieve optimal glycemic control in relation to COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Google Scholar database up till August 20, 2020 using specific keywords related to our aims and objectives. RESULTS: All currently available evidences clearly hint that at-admission hyperglycemia in patients with COVID-19 is associated with a poorer outcome, compared with normoglycemic individuals. Fortunately, early intervention by achieving an optimal glycemic control has also been associated with a significant improvement in the outcomes in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: At-admission hyperglycemia should be taken seriously by all clinicians treating patients with COVID-19. All efforts should be made towards an optimal glycemic control in patients with COVID-19, even in absence of pre-existing diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Early Medical Intervention/trends , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Patient Admission/trends , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(6): 6267-6288, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002147

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a significant public health emergency in recent times. It is a respiratory illness caused by the novel virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was initially reported in late December 2019. In a span of 6 months, this pandemic spread across the globe leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. Soon after the identification of the causative virus, questions concerning the impact of environmental factors on the dissemination and transmission of the virus, its persistence in environmental matrices, and infectivity potential begin to emerge. As the environmental factors could have far-reaching consequences on infection dissemination and severity, it is essential to understand the linkage between these factors and the COVID-19 outbreak. In order to improve our current understanding over this topic, the present article summarizes topical and substantial observations made regarding the influences of abiotic environmental factors such as climate, temperature, humidity, wind speed, air, and water quality, solid surfaces/interfaces, frozen food, and biotic factors like age, sex, gender, blood type, population density, behavioural characteristics, etc. on the transmission, persistence, and infectivity of this newly recognized SARS-CoV-2 virus. Further, the potential pathways of virus transmission that could pose risk to population health have been discussed, and the critical areas have been identified which merits urgent research for the assessment and management of the COVID-19 outbreak. Where possible, the knowledge gaps requiring further investigation have been highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Humidity , Pandemics , RNA, Viral
15.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000324

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) is in focus over all known human diseases, because it is destroying the world economy and social life, with increased mortality rate each day. To date, there is no specific medicine or vaccine available against this pandemic disease. However, the presence of medicinal plants and their bioactive molecules with antiviral properties might also be a successful strategy in order to develop therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, this review will summarize the available literature and other information/data sources related to antiviral medicinal plants, with possible ethnobotanical evidence in correlation with coronaviruses. The identification of novel antiviral compounds is of critical significance, and medicinal plant based natural compounds are a good source for such discoveries. In depth search and analysis revealed several medicinal plants with excellent efficacy against SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, which are well-known to act on ACE-2 receptor, 3CLpro and other viral protein targets. In this review, we have consolidated the data of several medicinal plants and their natural bioactive metabolites, which have promising antiviral activities against coronaviruses with detailed modes of action/mechanism. It is concluded that this review will be useful for researchers worldwide and highly recommended for the development of naturally safe and effective therapeutic drugs/agents against SARS-CoV-2 infection, which might be used in therapeutic protocols alone or in combination with chemically synthetized drugs.

16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 159-167, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several observational studies have recently reported the outcomes of non-insulin anti-diabetic agents (ADA) in patients with T2DM and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to review the literature to appraise the clinicians on these outcomes. METHODS: A literature search using the specific keywords was carried out in the database of PubMed, MedRxiv and Google Scholar up till December 11, 2020 applying Boolean method. Full text of all the relevant articles that reported the outcomes of ADA in patients with T2DM and COVID-19 were retrieved. Subsequently, an appraisal of literature report was narratively presented. RESULTS: Available studies that reported the outcomes of ADA are either case series or retrospective cohorts or prospective observational studies, in absence of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results from these observational studies suggest that amongst all the non-insulin ADA, metformin users prior to the hospitalization had improved outcomes compared to the non-users. Data for dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are encouraging although inconsistent. No documentation of any harm or benefit has been observed for sulfonylureas (SUs), sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) and glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). No data is yet available for pioglitazone. CONCLUSION: Metformin and DPP-4i should be continued in patients with T2DM until hospitalization or unless contraindicated. No evidence of harm suggests that SUs, SGLT-2i or GLP-1RAs may not be stopped unless very sick, hospitalized or contraindicated. The results from RCTs are needed to claim any meaningful benefit with either metformin or DPP-4i in patients with T2DM and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
17.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(12): 43-48, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-946734

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical and laboratory features of COVID-19 may have regional variations. This study aimed to discern their association with severity of illness and mortality in tertiary setup of Delhi, India. Methods: Retrospective data of hospitalised COVID-19 patients over 3 months (end March to June 2020) were evaluated for symptom profile, blood investigations and chest radiograph data and classified according to COVID-19 severity and as survivors and non-survivors. Results: Average age (n=182) was 46.1 years, male to female ratio 1.4:1. Fever (51.1%), cough (49.4%) and breathlessness (48.3%) were the commonest symptoms, and frequency of all the three increased with severity of COVID-19. Fever duration, leucocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated blood urea, transaminitis and higher Brixia score on chest X-ray were also more in severe COVID-19 compared to mild and moderate categories. Higher age, more comorbidities, fever, breathlessness and chest pain; longer duration of fever, leucocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, elevated serum urea, creatinine, transaminases and hyperglycemia, and higher radiographic Brixia score were observed in non-survivors compared to survivors. Conclusion: Greater prevalence of symptoms (alone and in combination) and derangements in blood biochemistry are seen in severe COVID-19 compared to mild or moderate cases, and also in non-survivors compared to survivors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
18.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(9): 857-862, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883966

ABSTRACT

Disposable filtering face piece respirators (FFRs) are usually not approved for routine practice of decontamination and reuse. However, such practice of decontamination and reuse may be needed only as a crisis capacity strategy to ensure continued availability. The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic would help us enlighten about more effective and efficient ways of decontamination and reuse. Based on the limited research available, ultraviolet irradiation, vapors of hydrogen peroxide, and moist heat showed the most promising potential methods to decontaminate FFRs. This article summarizes available research about decontamination of FFRs before reuse. How to cite this article: Singh R, Azim A, Singh N. Should We or Should We Not Reuse Filtering Face Piece Masks? A Review. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(9):857-862.

19.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-983

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a global pandemic and with current knowledge about the virus rapidly evolving, systematic reviews are needed to assess those most at ris

20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108382, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728513

ABSTRACT

Hyperglycemia with or without blood glucose in diabetes range is an emerging finding not uncommonly encountered in patients with COVID-19. Increasingly, all evidence currently available hints that both new-onset hyperglycemia without diabetes and new-onset diabetes in COVID-19 is associated with a poorer outcome compared with normoglycemic individuals and people with pre-existing diabetes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
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