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1.
Coronavirus Drug Discovery: Volume 1: SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment ; : 349-362, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2048781

ABSTRACT

Nations worldwide are currently fighting the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are facing challenges in disseminating accurate and credible information to the public. During such conditions, people are seeking help from social media and social networking platforms, owing to their speed and reach, for the latest updates on the pandemic. Such alarming situations test the potential of social media and their role in providing assistance to the healthcare community. Current chapter broadly discusses the wide range of contributions made by social media platforms in acting as an information disseminating tool, a tracking tool, and also providing psychological aid to the public to elevate the positive attitude during pandemic. Spread of fake news and misinformation is a drawback faced by these platforms and they are continuously updating their technology to identify and solve this glitch. This chapter throws a brief light on how social media influencers are propitious in conveying information to the society. The chapter aims at encouraging the proper and validated use of social media and social networks in conditions of pandemic like COVID-19. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2.
Coronavirus Drug Discovery: Volume 1: SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment ; : 17-36, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2048776

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the pandemic, COVID-19, triggered by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) throughout the world took a large number of lives till today and even counting. We have made an effort in this critical hour to compile and contemplate the literature reported till July 13, 2020 about the structure and morphology, epidemiology, transmission, replication cycle, and potential therapeutic strategies to tackle this pandemic. We have also highlighted some unexplored targets and potential gateways for the researchers in the field which may help to unravel some breakthrough therapy against this infection. Additionally, we have focused on the different approaches for vaccine development which could be used by researchers to develop a vaccine strong enough to eradicate this viral infection and to improve the current healthcare of the infected patients. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

3.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(8):BC19-BC23, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033410

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Lipids are fundamental biomolecules of the body. Infections like COVID-19 with intricate immune response in some patient’s leads to acute complications by affecting metabolic pathways at multiple levels. Metabolism of cholesterol, triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-Cholesterol is deranged by cytokines and multiple inflammatory mediators. The sex differences in lipid metabolism may contribute in susceptibility, severity and outcome of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Performing lipid profile in COVID-19 patient may help in assessing severity and prognosis of disease. Aim: To assess the relationship between lipid profile and inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients and also to evaluate the gender wise differences in lipid parameters and their correlations with inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry at SHKM, GMC, Mewat, Haryana, India (tertiary care health centre) on COVID-19 positive patients attending Outpatient Department (OPD) and Inpatient Department (IPD), from October 2020 to December 2020. The data of 85 patients with COVID-19 positive, confirmed by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and who were prescribed for lipid profile along with C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and serum ferritin were included in the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-Cholesterol, CRP and ferritin were measured in the subjects. Data was statistically analysed using Student’s t test and Pearson correlation coefficient. results: Total 85 (46 males and 39 females) COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Mean age in male and female patients were 43.02±15.52 years and 42.02±15.25 years, respectively with a range of 5-82 years. Mean value of Serum triglycerides, HDL-C and total cholesterol was 204.94±141.27 mg/dL, 42.97±13.38 mg/ dL and 187.058±45.75 mg/dL, respectively. Serum triglycerides were statistically significantly higher in males than females (p-value=0.0413). The HDL-C however was significantly higher in females than males (p-value=0.0006). In male patients, r-value between cholesterol and CRP was -0.3538, and p-value was 0.016. Ferritin had a significant negative correlation with HDL-C (r-value=-0.3578, p-value=0.00079). Weak Positive correlation was noted between triglyceride and ferritin (r-value= 0.2285, p-value=0.035). conclusion: High levels of serum triglycerides, low total cholesterol, and low HDL-cholesterol correlates with inflammatory markers like CRP and ferritin in COVID-19 patients. Lipid profile may be used as a potential marker in all COVID-19 patients in assessing prognosis of disease.

4.
Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry ; 18(7):841-849, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1551385

ABSTRACT

Pandemic, COVID-19 came into existence in late December 2019 at Wuhan, China. To cure the COVID-19 and reduction in morbidity, the development of potential vaccines and antiviral drugs may take months or years. To reduce the pressure on healthcare infrastructure, traditional medicines may use as an alternative measure. The rationale of the current study was to provide the pharmacological details of Ayurvedic herbs viz. Alstonia scholaris L., Picrorhiza kurroa, Swertia chirata and Caesalpinia crista w.r.t. symptoms of COVID-19. The available information on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology was collected via a library and electronic searches in Sci-Finder, Pub-Med, Science Direct, Google Scholar for the period of up to 31 August 2020. The major symptoms of COVID-19 include pro-inflammation, inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme II (ACE2) and reactive oxygen species. A literature search revealed that all herbs under study are potent against two or more symptoms of COVID-19. All four Ayurvedic herbs viz. Alstonia scholaris L., Picrorhiza kurroa, Swertia chirata and Caesalpinia crista may be a good option, including other traditional drugs during the outbreak of COVID-19. In-depth experimental, preclinical and clinical studies are required in the future to develop a potent drug against COVID-19.

5.
International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences ; 16(1):84-96, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1273627

ABSTRACT

In pandemic crises such as the COVID-19, violence based on gender grows more acutely and in order to develop and implement effective prevention strategies to combat the increase ofgender-based violence during pandemics, careful consideration has to be given to factors that influence it. This study examines the main causes ofgender-based violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study makes use of secondary data such as peer-reviewed articles and is discussed based on the ecological theory. Its findings prove that since the outbreak of the COVID-19, gender-based violence has increased in several countries around the world due to measures put in place to control the spread ofthe virus. The results highlight the need to develop effective intervention and prevention strategies to reduce gender-based violence during this pandemic.

6.
World Journal of Engineering ; 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-936586

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study to investigate the effects and possible future prediction of COVID-19. The dataset considered in this study to investigate the effects and possible future prediction of COVID-19 is constrained as follows: age, gender, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, diabetes and its medication, does the patient suffered from heart disease or took anti-cough agent food or sensitive to cough related issues and any other chronic kidney disease, physical contact with foreign returns and social distance for the prediction of the risk of COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach: This work implemented a meta-heuristic algorithm on the aforementioned dataset for possible analysis of the risk of being infected with COVID-19. The authors proposed a simple yet effective Risk Prediction through Nature Inspired Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization and Sine Cosine Algorithm (HPSOSCA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and sine cosine algorithm (SCA) algorithms. Findings: The simulated results on different cases discussed in the dataset section reveal which category of individuals may happen to have the disease and of what level. The experimental results reveal that the proposed model can predict the percentage of risk with an overall accuracy of 88.63%, sensitivity (87.23%), specificity (89.02%), precision (69.49%), recall (87.23%), f_measure (77.36%) and Gmean (88.12%) with 41 and 146 true positive and negative, 18 and 6 false positive and negative cases, respectively. The proposed model provides a quite stable prediction of risk for COVID-19 on different categories of individuals. Originality/value: The work for the very first time developed a novel HPSOSCA model based on PSO and SCA for the prediction of COVID-19 disease. The convergence rate of the proposed model is too high as compared to the literature. It also produces a better accuracy in a computationally efficient fashion. The obtained outputs are as follows: accuracy (88.63%), sensitivity (87.23%), specificity (89.02%), precision (69.49%), recall (87.23%), f_measure (77.36%), Gmean (88.12%), Tp (41), Tn (146), Fb (18) and Fn (06). The recommendations to reduce disease outbreaks are as follow: to control this epidemic in various regions, it is important to appropriately manage patients suspected of having the disease, immediately identify and isolate the source of infection, cut off the transmission route and prevent viral transmission from these potential patients or virus carriers. © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.

7.
International Journal of Criminology and Sociology ; 9:221-230, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-854540

ABSTRACT

An evidence-based analysis of COVID-19 suggests that the ailment is a bio-medically inclined natural mystic blowing through the world. To this end, this study focuses solely on the role the pandemic plays as an outbreak of cybercrime vector. The study presents a number of the world's most recent cyber insecurity cases that accompanied the onset of the pandemic and findings were discussed within the context of situational opportunity theory of crime. It provides a framework for emergency management approach to protect global citizens and institutions from cyberattacks, as well as, mitigating the outbreak of the crime being propagated by the presence of the novel virus. Global sensitization and awareness programmes across various communities on the potential dangers of cyber insecurity accompanying the COVID-19 pandemic should be helpful. Of most significance, the fight against the invisible warfare should continue with high spirits of relentlessness until absolute peace, relief, resilience and normalcy are able to take root in the global communities. © 2020 Lifescience Global.

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