Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 47
Filter
1.
Journal of Communicable Diseases ; 54(2):49-54, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026308

ABSTRACT

Surveillance tools measure and help to predict the possibility of the onset of any disease including vector-borne diseases during some specific situations likemass gatherings (MGs) that are closely related tothe disease epidemiology (why, what, who, where, when, and how)concerningthe transmission of infectious diseases including vector-borne diseases. Some situations ofmass gatherings may bring closely large and diverse population groups coming from different endemic zones/areas leading tothe transmission of communicable diseases including vector-borne diseases. Mass gatherings (MGs) may have the potential to enhance the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseasesowing to different geographical, social, and climatic factors. Usually, MGs have been thought to have enhanced risks of disease transmission.Theyalso have the potential to increase the opportunities for other types of mechanical injuriesfrom accidents, stampedes, alcohol use, internal group fights etc. that may result in morbidity or mortality.Besides, they are potential breeding places for the proliferation of vector species, capable of transmitting malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and JE including ticks and mites-borne diseases. It is a well-known fact there area large number of asymptomatic cases which act as sub-clinical cases, hence, chances of local transmission through vectors during such mass gatherings can not be ruled out.There is always a need for well-structured, intensified real-time disease and vector surveillance and reporting systems in place which is essential for efficient MG planning, to ensure disease prevention and control. In the present context of the ongoing COVIDpandemic, such surveillance systems havebecome a vital component of such events of mass gatherings and large-scale movement of people. © 2022: Author(s).

2.
J Neurosurg Case Lessons ; 4(6), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine is the use of wireless communications and Web-based technologies to provide healthcare and services. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge to healthcare providers, who have been forced to change their usual mode of service delivery and have been given an opportunity to adopt the concept of telemedicine. OBSERVATIONS: A 40-year-old underprivileged and unseparated conjoined twin (pygopagus) had dorsal spine tuberculosis and was on a regular follow-up through telemedicine due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and embarrassment they had to face in public appearances. After a few months, they contracted COVID-19 infection after which they were shifted to our tertiary care center. Several unique challenges were encountered during the 4-day course of management. Ultimately, they died and left us with questions of whether we are really prepared to tackle these challenges. LESSONS: The general public should be made aware of such groups of patients and to encourage them to follow COVID-appropriate behavior. Vaccinations should be given on a priority basis to these subsets. A more robust approach of telemedicine consultation is required for management of patients in remote areas at the time of a pandemic. Ventilator management of these patients is still intriguing.

3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022:3012778, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2020490

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a human coronavirus (HCoV) that has created a pandemic situation worldwide as COVID-19. This virus can invade human cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor-based mechanisms, affecting the human respiratory tract. However, several reports of neurological symptoms suggest a neuroinvasive development of coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2 can damage the brain via several routes, along with direct neural cell infection with the coronavirus. The chronic inflammatory reactions surge the brain with proinflammatory elements, damaging the neural cells, causing brain ischemia associated with other health issues. SARS-CoV-2 exhibited neuropsychiatric and neurological manifestations, including cognitive impairment, depression, dizziness, delirium, and disturbed sleep. These symptoms show nervous tissue damage that enhances the occurrence of neurodegenerative disorders and aids dementia. SARS-CoV-2 has been seen in brain necropsy and isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of COVID-19 patients. The associated inflammatory reaction in some COVID-19 patients has increased proinflammatory cytokines, which have been investigated as a prognostic factor. Therefore, the immunogenic changes observed in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's patients include their pathogenetic role. Inflammatory events have been an important pathophysiological feature of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The neuroinflammation observed in AD has exacerbated the Aβ burden and tau hyperphosphorylation. The resident microglia and other immune cells are responsible for the enhanced burden of Aβ and subsequently mediate tau phosphorylation and ultimately disease progression. Similarly, neuroinflammation also plays a key role in the progression of PD. Several studies have demonstrated an interplay between neuroinflammation and pathogenic mechanisms of PD. The dynamic proinflammation stage guides the accumulation of α-synuclein and neurodegenerative progression. Besides, few viruses may have a role as stimulators and generate a cross-autoimmune response for α-synuclein. Hence, neurological complications in patients suffering from COVID-19 cannot be ruled out. In this review article, our primary focus is on discussing the neuroinvasive effect of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, its impact on the blood-brain barrier, and ultimately its impact on the people affected with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.

4.
Surgical Neurology International ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006708

ABSTRACT

Background: Mucormycosis, which was previously considered to be rare, has emerged with a new challenge in patients infected with or recovering from COVID-19. Immunocompromised patients are particularly prone to developing this disease. The most common form of presentation is rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM). We present various neurosurgical approaches to an entire spectrum of its clinical manifestations. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who were admitted to the neurosurgery department with ROCM and a history of COVID-19 infection between November 1, 2020, and September 1, 2021. All cases of ROCM underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, paranasal sinuses, and orbit. A tissue biopsy was sent for histopathological analysis. All confirmed cases received liposomal amphotericin B and surgical treatment was immediately undertaken. Results: Out of 200 patients with ROCM, 40 patients presented with neurological manifestations. Seven out of 40 patients had focal lesions in the brain and skull bone that needed neurosurgical intervention along with sinus debridement and antifungal treatment. These seven patients presented with different clinical manifestations: large-vessel stroke (one), medium-vessel stroke (one), frontal lobe abscess (one), frontal bone osteomyelitis (two), isolated central nervous system involvement (one), and mucor mimicking trigeminal schwannoma (one). The surgical intervention included decompressive craniectomy, frontal craniotomy, subtemporal craniotomy, and a minimally invasive supraorbital keyhole approach. Conclusion: In high-risk patients, a high level of clinical suspicion combined with appropriate investigations should be performed as soon as possible. Symptoms and early warning signs should not be overlooked, as treatment delays can be fatal. A minimally invasive surgical approach is possible in view of decreasing the morbidity of large craniotomy.

5.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 34(2):301-305, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1975880

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Urban floods were addressed as a separate disaster after the historical 2005 Mumbai floods. Urban flood peaks are 2-8 times and volume 6 times when compared with rural floods. We are now handling multiple disasters simultaneously due to the Covid-19 Pandemic. The river plains of north India are prone to floods in the monsoon season and geographical location of Prayagraj doubles the damage because it faces wrath from two sides. Very few researches have been conducted on urban floods and evidence needs to be generated from the field. Methodology: This qualitative research was planned with an objective to identify the difficulties faced in operating an urban flood relief camp during superimposed burden of COVID-19 Pandemic and to suggest remedial measures from the public health aspect. We conducted in-depth interviews of nodal officers, health staff and beneficiaries of the identified camps. Informed consent was taken from participant after explaining them about the research. Results: The findings from the interviews were categorized into 3phases of flood relief i.e. before the floods, during floods and lastly post flood. The most crucial work before floods is to spread awareness about do’s and don’ts in detail. Next was identification of the local people actually affected by flood. The space and facilities at few centers was low for the population load. Urban flood management needs a major overhauling of public health infrastructure to handle such disasters in future. Conclusion: The officials were working hard to make the homeless feel as if they are on a picnic. The database of beneficiaries should be strengthened and should also include students and labourers, anyone who is a flood victim and not only local flood victims. © 2022, Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine. All rights reserved.

6.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 15(7):110-113, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957633

ABSTRACT

Objective: To comprehend the evolution and spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) virus and also to prevent the future spread of the same, sequencing and analyzing the genomic data of SARS CoV-2 are essential. The objective of the present study is to describe the scope of improvement identified by the state of Madhya Pradesh in the data flow chain and the methodology designed to address the identified shortcomings. Methods: The number of sources of sample data collection was altered as well as a series of Google Sheets were formulated as an open-source tool, to implement an efficient sample data-sharing platform. The application of the proposed tool (Google Sheets as a source of data collection and information sharing) was within the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Result: After utilizing this mechanism, the state was able to trace more than 80% VOCs and 3341 primary contacts and was also able to communicate this result to all stakeholders without much delay. Conclusion: Based on successful implementation and results, the authors suggest widening the domain of the proposed tool to other states.

7.
IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948860

ABSTRACT

Healthcare systems are equipped with the latest technological advancement and remotely diagnose the patients. In critical conditions, the patients need continuous monitoring by health experts, which is almost impossible in many cases—for example- in the recent COVID-19 crisis when the hospitals are full of infected people. The advanced cyber-physical system (CPS) based medical devices supplement this monitoring system. Health specialists can connect with patients remotely and receive updated health reports simultaneously using Internet-enabled CPS devices. Due to the openness of security protocols, transferring information in the CPS module is a challenging task. Securing health data, on the other hand, is critical. Existing data security techniques, such as RSA and DSA, have drawbacks;one of the most prominent drawbacks of all existing data security strategies is a lack of resources. This study proposed a lightweight data security technique for sharing information in real-time to address this problem. The proposed approach is generalized, as it will work with all categories of data and provide security to the critical information of healthcare data. Additionally, the model is tested with the cross-platform dataset of different categories like.txt, .pdf, .doc, .png, etc., and found promising outcomes. IEEE

8.
Journal of Reports in Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 11(1):28-40, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939225

ABSTRACT

Though the scientific community of the entire world has been struggling to create preventive and therapeutic drugs for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the role of nutraceuticals has been hitherto neglected. Established role of fatty acids and polyphenols in combating lifestyle disease can be harnessed to play a significant role in the prevention of this disease. The synergistic effect of these phytonutrients and prebiotics is anticipated to prove beneficial for prevention as well as attenuation of COVID-19 infection. Presence of fatty acids, polyphenols and prebiotics in vegetables from the Cucurbitaceae family makes them an attractive choice for being used as a nutritional supplement during COVID-19. These are known to attenuate the excessive immune response which may prove to be beneficial in preventing and mitigating COVID-19. Use of prebiotics to promote the growth of probiotics has also been recommended for the prevention and cure of COVID-19. However, no such report exists in literature that throws light on such role of cucurbita plants. The present review focuses on the role of the triad of fatty acids, prebiotics and polyphenols present in cucurbita plants in controlling systemic inflammation and endothelial damage, the two main etiopathological factors involved in COVID-19. Cucurbita plants are rich in all these components and their inclusion in diet would be an effective strategy to combat COVID-19. The main focus of the review is to discuss the role of various components of the plants of Cucurbita family, taken as dietary component, in prevention and control of the ongoing pandemic COVID19.

9.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2630-2636, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934380

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has become a global threat, with an inexplicable course of action and suboptimal response to the multitudes of therapies being tried. Vitamin D's pleiotropic effects (immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral) have lately received considerable attention in the scientific community, and it has been shown to be helpful in the defense against viral respiratory infections. Aim: To find out the association between vitamin D and COVID-19.

10.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing and Electrical Circuits and Electronics, ICDCECE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932105

ABSTRACT

According to the World Health Organization, the coronavirus outbreak poses a daily threat to the global health system. Almost all countries' health resources are insufficient or unequally distributed. There are several issues, such as a lack of health care workers, beds, and intensive care units, to name a few. The key to the country's health systems overcoming this epidemic is to use limited resources at optimal levels. Disease detection is critical to averting an epidemic. The greater the success, the more tightly the covid viral spread may be managed. PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) testing is commonly used to determine whether or not a person has a virus. Deep learning approaches can be used to classify chest X-RAY images in addition to the PCR method. By analyzing multi-layered pictures in one go and establishing manually entered parameters in machine learning, deep learning approaches have become prominent in academic research. This popularity has a favorable impact on the available health datasets. The goal of this study was to detect disease in persons who had x-rays done for suspected COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019). A bi-nary categorization has been used in most COVID-19 investigations. Chest x-rays of COVID-19 patients, viral pneumonia patients, and healthy patients were obtained from IEEE [17] (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) and Kaggle [18]. Before the classification procedure, the data set was subjected to a data augmentation approach. These three groups have been classified through multiclassclassification deep learning models. We are also debating a taxonomy of recent contributions on the eXplainability of Artificial Intelligence (XAI). © 2022 IEEE.

11.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(7):FC01-FC06, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928867

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nutritional supplements modify immune response and protect against viral infections. Health related behaviour of medical and nursing students governs their attitude towards counselling patients. This study assessed the differences in the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) between undergraduate medical and nursing students regarding the role of nutraceuticals in Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Aim: To assess the differences in the KAP between undergraduate medical and nursing students regarding the role of nutraceuticals in COVID-19. Materials and Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Patna, Bihar, India in September 2020. A questionnaire was administered to assess the KAP of 265 medical and 150 nursing undergraduates regarding nutraceuticals. The total knowledge score varied between 0 and 12. The score of the attitude was based on 5 points Likert scale. The data was collected through self-administered google forms. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test was used to compare the difference in categorical data. results: There were total 273 (65.8%) participants with good knowledge and only 47 (11.3%) with positive attitude. About 68.7% medical students and 82.7% nursing students felt that regular intake of nutraceuticals has a positive role in protecting against COVID-19 (p=0.007). Out of 415, 264 participants (63.6%) had used nutraceuticals. About 156 (58.9%) medical students and 103 (68.7%) nursing students felt that the safety of nutraceuticals is a grave concern. Two- fifth of the participants (202, 48.7%) had consumed a dietary supplement to maintain good health. conclusion: Although the knowledge score was good, but positive attitude was lacking. Thus, Health Care Personnels (HCP)s should be trained regarding proper usage and recommendations of nutraceuticals.

12.
Journal of Communicable Diseases ; 2022:15-23, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1904117

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As new strains of SARCOV2 virus emerge across the world, it is imperative to investigate measures which restrict the movement of the general population such as social and travel restrictions by lockdowns to mitigate the effects of COVID-19. Thus, our paper helps in two ways: 1) Drastic measures like lockdown are essential but cannot be a feasible long-term intervention. Therefore, it is crucial to understand if the same unlock down can be reversed without compromising public health needs. Our paper provides evidence on the same;and 2) Our report also provides an insight into the trends of disease transmission during different phases of the un-lockdown. Methods: We examine the spread of pandemic during different phases of Un-lockdown (8th June to 31st October 2020). Since Rt calculation takes into consideration numerous factors, we use β, the transmission coefficient that governs the transition of population from Susceptible to Exposed pool, to examine the effect of public heaThelth interventions on disease spread. Results: The comparison of the distribution of fitted β values, thus calculated using SEIR model and GLM have been done and a Welch Two Sample t-test suggests that the GLM fitted β and SEIR β data sets are not significantly different from one another. Conclusion: We provide evidence that un-lockdown can be achieved without increasing the transmission of disease disproportionately. Thus, a phased wise approach to un-lockdown is encouraged. We also provide the rationale for using β over Rt values to specifically assess the effect of public health interventions designed to decrease exposure. Copyright (c) 2022: Author(s).

13.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences ; 91(9):1274-1279, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1897938

ABSTRACT

The discovery of the CRISPR/Cas microbial adaptive immune system and its ongoing development as a genome editing tool represents the work of many scientists around the world.The time line of CRISPR/Cas system shows that this technology is improving continuously to remove the demerits of preceding one with the aim of development of highly efficient, specific with low off target effect and ultimately transgene free technology in light of ethical and environmental issues related with transgenic technology.Initially, CRISPR/Cas9 was developed as method of choice as it provides targeted mutagenesis under in vivo condition and all the homeoalleles of a gene can be targeted in same plant, especially in case of polyploid species efficiently which is difficult through other existing technology.No residual or foreign gene insertion is required and modification is permanent.Now, CRISPR/Cpfl has been developed as more potent, efficient and simpler than CRISPR/Cas9.Different forms of Cas enzymes provide new avenues for regulation of genomic component.In view of the present devastating COVID-19 disaster the scientists used this novel technology for detection of virus in humans at an early stage of infection thus saving human lives.The evolution of CRlSPR'Cas technology, their advantages, apprehensions and solution, experimental design and updates of this technology is discussed in the present review. © 2021 Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.

14.
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine ; 13(1):6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1885860

ABSTRACT

The pandemic spread of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global threat. No cure is available for this condition till date. Ayurveda, may come to rescue in these times of COVID-19 spread. In this review we have analyzed that the COVID-19 has analogy with the Rajayakshma (-a wasting disease indicating suboptimum immune response) and the established treatment of Rajayakshma disease can be proposed for preventive as well as curative purpose. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Institute of Transdisciplinary Health Sciences and Technology and World Ayurveda Foundation. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

15.
Ieee Transactions on Industrial Informatics ; 18(8):5648-5657, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853499

ABSTRACT

Deep learning demonstrates its efficacy and potential to solve challenging computer vision problems in medical and other industrial applications. Federated learning is a learning paradigm that facilitates collaborative learning in a federation of users without exchanging actual data with a single authority like a server. However, federated learning provides only a basic level of privacy and robustness and is vulnerable to model poisoning and model inversion attacks in hostile training environments. Hence, in this article, we propose MediSecFed-a secure framework for federated learning in a hostile environment. Compared to the widely used FedAvg, our method relies on simple and practical ideas from knowledge distillation and model inversion to ensure additional security and privacy features. Our approach achieves knowledge exchange among participating entities without sharing model parameters as FedAvg does, thus protecting the privacy of the local data from the server and significantly reducing communication costs. We evaluate our method on two chest X-ray datasets. Our method outperforms FedAvg by 15% on both datasets in a hostile environment. Our method will also continue to maintain good performance even if the number of malicious participating entities increases. Robustness to learn in a malicious environment while preserving privacy with reduced communication costs makes our method more desirable and efficient than that of FedAvg.

16.
Clinical Neurosurgery ; 68(SUPPL 1):141, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812787

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Second wave of covid19 affected India significantly with total numbers of cases 31,440,950 and total death 4,21,224. As India acheived stablity in fight against covid, another challenge emerged in the form of Mucormycosis. Mucormycosis is a serious angioinvasive infection caused by the order Mucorales and class of Mucormycetes. It is associated with high mortality in immunocompromised mainly diabetic patients if not treated agressively. METHODS: Our Hospital, IGIMS was declared exclusive covid facility in April 2021 and subsequently was declared dedicated hospital for Mucormycosis.During this two month period demographic, Clinical details and outcome were collected prospectively. RESULTS: During two month period, 500 cases were seen in OPD, 300 patients were admitted and 120 patients were operated. 47 patients have cerebral involvement. 11 patients with extensive involvement of brain including cavernous sinus were not offered surgery, because of poor pronosis. 4 patients of this group improved 5 patients died and 2 patients were discharged in moribund condition. Another 26 patients with only meningeal involvement and small lesion, with no mass effect and was treated conservatively. 16 of this group improved, Four (with poor coma score expired. Another 4 patients were transferred to other medical facilities and details of these patients are not available. 10 patients having large fungal lesion in non eloquent area along with mass effect were operated. six patients were operated with microscopic technique and 4 patients with endoscopic technique. eight patients were earlier, Covid RT-PCR positive and was treated with steroid and oxygen inhalation. Another two patient had fever , but Covid RT-PCR was negative and was treated at home with oxygen cylinder.All of them were treated with liposomal amphotrecin B. Sinus surgery was performed in all patients. Eight patient did well and was discharged from hospital in good condition. One patient, in which endoscopic cerebral exploration was done expired. Another patient was discharged with severe neurological sequlae. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Rhincerebral Mucormycosis spreading outside sinonasal cavity to the base of the brain can be treated by neurosurgical intervention.

17.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 106:229-238, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1787751

ABSTRACT

Online media plays a vital role in defining the future of tomorrow. Almost every field in the present-day is dependent on technology and online media either for procuring better outputs or for the satisfaction of end clients. In this paper, the authors have tried to bring out the various factors that led to the shift of the majority of individuals to online media, briefly discussing its impact on the economy and social factors. It leverages the facts of how the offline media got impacted not only during the days of the novel coronavirus but before as well. It has been plausibly displayed that fake word gets out quicker and more considerably than authentic news utilizing online media. A boost toward the use of E-platforms has predominantly been taken a closer look at in the middle sections of the paper. Further, the exploratory analysis fore- casts the number of online media users by 2031 and presents inquisitive visualizations on the study of various websites during, before, and after the pandemic in the later sections of the paper. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

18.
5th International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Networks, ISCON 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1759113

ABSTRACT

Effective consumer behavior prediction can play a crucial role in online marketing, especially in the COVID19 scenario. In this work, we have analyzed consumer behavior to understand consumer needs and predict future requirements. For the same, we have applied the machine learning models on an amazon dataset collected from Kaggle. The dataset consists of reviewers' comments, ratings, many other parameters for the product. The model's outcome indicates that the proposed Random Forest model performs exceptionally well, and its Accuracy is approx. 98.73%. A comparative study has been done to show the efficacy of the work, and it has been observed that the performance of the proposed model is quite remarkable, and it can be a competent model for effective consumer behavior prediction. © 2021 IEEE.

19.
Geography, Environment, Sustainability ; 14(4):192-198, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1727228

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to examine the change in the concentration of nitrogen dioxide due to the lockdown amid the COVID-19 pandemic in India at the district level using Sentinel-5P TROPOMI. The spatio-temporal characteristics of the tropospheric column NO2 concentration during 45 days of the lockdown were compared with the same days of 2019. Further, to model spatially varying relationships of NO2 during the lockdown period, it was given as a dependent variable whereas NO2 during the pre-lockdown period was considered as an independent variable. Results show that the mean NO2 concentration was reduced from 0.00406 mol/m2 before the lockdown (2019-03-25 to 2019-05-10) to 0.0036 mol/m2 during the lockdown period (2020-03-25 to 2020-05-10). The maximum decline of NO2 concentration was observed in Gautam Buddha Nagar and Delhi. This indicates the high level of atmospheric pollution due to the excess use of fuel in human activities. The results of the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method show a strong positive relationship between both variables. Positive standard residuals indicate that the concentration of NO2 has reduced more than expected as per the OLS model. The z-score (24.11) was obtained from spatial autocorrelation. It indicates that residuals are highly clustered and there is less than a 1% likelihood that this clustered pattern could be a result of a random chance. The highest decrease was observed in districts/urban agglomerations of Gautam Buddha Nagar (-40%), Delhi (-37%), Greater Bombay (-31%), Hyderabad (-29%), Faridabad (-29%), Bangalore Urban (-28%), Gandhinagar (-27%), Chennai (-27%) and Gurgaon (-26%) respectively. © 2021, Russian Geographical Society. All rights reserved.

20.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1710409

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Lymphopenia has been frequently documented and linked to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) attack. A decrease in the T-lymphocyte count has shown promise as a clinical indicator and predictor of COVID-19 severity. OBJECTIVE: The review intended to examine the relationship of COVID-19 infections in individuals to lost expression of CD28 on naive CD4+/CD8+-mediated, vaccine-specific, neutralizing antibody responses. DESIGN: The research team performed a narrative review by searching eight databases: Medline, Elsevier, Cochrane, PubMed, Google Scholar, Mendeley, and Springer Nature. The search used the following key terms: SARS CoV-2, clinical aspects and pathology of SARS CoV-2, involvement of viral spike (S) protein in SARS CoV-2, immunological changes in COVID-19 infection, basic overview of CD28 immuno-molecule ligand, reduction of vaccine therapeutic efficacy in COVID-19 infection, and immunomodulatory response of lost CD28 ligand. SETTING: This study was done in a Maharishi Arvind College of Pharmacy, Jaipur, India. RESULTS: In COVID-19 patients, particularly those with severe disease, had increased levels of IL-2 or IL-2R. Given IL-2's supportive role in the expansion and differentiation of T cells, the authors exhibiting that lymphopenia, particularly in severe COVID-19, could be attributed to nonfunctional and dysfunctional differentiation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as a result of low CD28 immuno-molecule expression on naive T cells. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review found that independent, early immunological prognostic markers for a poor prognosis, in addition to higher levels of IL-6, include a substantial proportion of large inflammatory monocytes and a small proportion of chronic CD28+ CD4+T cells. The current findings suggest that a combination of COVID-19 vaccination with SARS CoV-2-reactive naive T cells with the CD28 immune-molecule may be a viable method for establishing T-cell-based, adaptive cellular immunotherapy against COVID-19 infection. Further research is needed, especially larger studies to confirm the current findings, to improve early clinical treatment.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL