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1.
Cureus ; 14(3): e23146, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic hit the world badly with high mortality. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection increased the COVID-19 burden among developed and developing countries due to the unavailability of proven treatment options. Vitamin D has many important anti-inflammatory, immunomodulator, and anti-viral functions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between Vitamin D in COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Patna, India. All the patients were enrolled during the period of 3.5 months. A chemiluminescence-based immunoassay analyzer was used to quantify Vitamin D among COVID-19 patients. The study compared Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among different groups, i.e., age, sex, BMI, comorbidity, etc. Diabetes and hypertension were evaluated as risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: A total of 225 patients were investigated. Of these, 13.6% had Vitamin D deficiency and 38.9% had insufficiency. Vitamin D level was statistically significant among different age groups, sex, and smokers. Patients aged >60 years were 23 times more likely to have a severe illness (adjusted OR (aOR) 23.53, 95%CI 4.67-118.61), whereas those aged 40 to 60 years were 11 times more likely to have a severe illness (aOR 10.86, 95%CI 2.39-49.31). Patients with many comorbidities, on the other hand, had a tenfold greater chance of severe COVID-19 (aOR 9.94, 95%CI 2.47-39.88). A deficiency of vitamin D increased the chance of a serious illness by nearly five times (aOR 4.72, 95%CI 1.31-17.03). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D level was associated with severity of illness; it can be used to estimate the prognosis of COIVD-19 patients and aid in the modification of treatment protocols.

2.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 15: 101046, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797099
3.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(5): 394-402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547558

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is spreading like wildfire with no specific recommended treatment in sight. While some risk factors such as the presence of comorbidities, old age, and ethnicity have been recognized, not a lot is known about who the virus will strike first or impact more. In this hopeless scenario, exploration of time-tested facts about viral infections, in general, seems to be a sound basis to prop further research upon. The fact that immunity and its various determinants (e.g., micronutrients, sleep, and hygiene) have a crucial role to play in the defense against invading organisms, may be a good starting point for commencing research into these as yet undisclosed territories. Herein, the excellent immunomodulatory, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory roles of Vitamin D necessitate thorough investigation, particularly in COVID-19 perspective. This article reviews mechanisms and evidence suggesting the role Vitamin D plays in people infected by the newly identified COVID-19 virus. For this review, we searched the databases of Medline, PubMed, and Embase. We studied several meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials evaluating the role of Vitamin D in influenza and other contagious viral infections. We also reviewed the circumstantial and anecdotal evidence connecting Vitamin D with COVID-19 emerging recently. Consequently, it seems logical to conclude that the immune-enhancing, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and lung-protective role of Vitamin D can be potentially lifesaving. Hence, Vitamin D deserves exhaustive exploration through rigorously designed and controlled scientific trials. Using Vitamin D as prophylaxis and/or chemotherapeutic treatment of COVID-19 infection is an approach worth considering. In this regard, mass assessment and subsequent supplementation can be tried, especially considering the mechanistic evidence in respiratory infections, low potential for toxicity, and widespread prevalence of the deficiency of Vitamin D affecting many people worldwide.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunity/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/adverse effects
4.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12: 100875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487637
5.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 68: 102661, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the pandemic COVID-19 affected developing and developed countries, there is no proven treatment options available yet. The anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune modulator effect of Vitamin D could be beneficial to COVID-19. AIM: To find out the possible association between Vitamin D and COVID-19. METHODS: The present case-control study was conducted at tertiary care hospital, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar, India. Total 156 cases and 204 controls were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. Categorization of the patients were done based on clinical severity and level of Vitamin D. The association between these categories with different variables were analyzed using regression analysis and other statistical tests. RESULTS: The status of Vitamin D (optimal, mild to moderate deficiency and severe deficiency) differed significantly among cases and controls. Diabetes and hypertension were most prevalent comorbidities among cases. On regression analysis, the difference in Vitamin D level was significant (aOR, 3.295; 95%CI, 1.25-8.685). The association between Vitamin D status and clinical severity group was statistically significant among cases. Among all variables, age, diabetes, hypertension and clinical severity were associated with worst outcome. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D status appears to be strongly associated with COVID-19 clinical severity. After COVID-19 confirmation, Vitamin D level should be measured in all patients and curative plus preventive therapy should be initiated.

6.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2523-2531, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world is facing the most challenging pandemic in the 21st century. The developed and developing countries are facing the burden equally and no proven treatment options available. Recent studies suggest the plausibility of vitamin D therapy and prophylaxis for COVID-19, in the setting where the deficiency is more prevalent. Though evaluation of vitamin D status is not a routine in India, the present study focuses on the level of Vitamin d among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The study was a hospital-based cross-sectional to find the status of vitamin D among COVID-19 patients in a tertiary care hospital, Patna, Bihar, India. The demographic, comorbidity data were taken, and the level of vitamin D was measured by a chemiluminescence-based immunoassay analyzer. The analysis compared the level of deficiency and insufficiency among different groups of COVID-19 patients. The role of DM and HTN as risk factors for mortality was compared. RESULTS: Among the total study participants (156), 42.31% were obese and 17.31% were severe as per clinical severity. The total prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 58.97% and insufficiency was 89.1%. The prevalence was found high among male (61.02%), overweight (65.52%), and severe (62.96%) patients. The severity increases with advanced age (p<0.05) and important risk factors for mortality are DM, HTN, and advanced age. CONCLUSION: The level of vitamin D can be assessed for the prognosis of COIVD-19 patients and help to modify the treatment protocol. Appropriate therapeutic/preventive intervention of vitamin D can alter the course and severity of COVID-19.

7.
Adv Med Educ Pract ; 12: 237-243, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127886

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most educational institutions have opted for online education rather than traditional modes of education to protect their employees and students. Online education has been gaining momentum in almost all countries around the world. This coincides with the recently introduced competency-based medical education in India which has embraced online education. This poses a new challenge for the institutions involved, the instructors or teachers, and the students since they must adapt quickly to the new mode of learning. Online education requires teachers to improve their competency in three major areas; pedagogy, technology, and content knowledge. Some of the challenges include; lack of technological skill, poor time management and lack of infrastructure. As technology rapidly advances, health care education systems must also advance in tandem. To implement the new competency-based system and online education, the institutions and the individuals must realize the importance of online education, identify the barriers and quickly work on solutions for success. METHODS: This review was conducted based on various research papers on the topic of online medical education, the challenges faced by faculty members, and the opinion of students on this dilemma. Search terms included online medical education, COVID19, competency-based medical education. CONCLUSION: This review identified various challenges posed by online education on the current medical curriculum, faced by both faculty members and students, especially under the light of the Competency-Based Undergraduate Curriculum for Indian Graduates. Different solutions were proposed to overcome these challenges.

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