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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982295

ABSTRACT

The 2019 outbreak of corona virus disease began from Wuhan (China), transforming into a leading pandemic, posing an immense threat to the global population. The WHO coined the term nCOVID-19 for the disease on 11th February, 2020 and the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses named it SARS-CoV-2, on account of its similarity with SARS-CoV-1 of 2003. The infection is associated with fever, cough, pneumonia, lung damage, and ARDS along with clinical implications of lung opacities. Brief understanding of the entry target of virus, i.e., ACE2 receptors has enabled numerous treatment options as discussed in this review. The manuscript provides a holistic picture of treatment options in COVID-19, such as non-specific anti-viral drugs, immunosuppressive agents, anti-inflammatory candidates, anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, antibodies and anti-parasitic, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, anti-retroviral, vitamins and hormones, JAK inhibitors, and blood plasma therapy. The text targets to enlist the investigations conducted on all the above categories of drugs, with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic, to accelerate their significance in hindering the disease progression. The data collected primarily targets recently published articles and most recent records of clinical trials, focusing on the last 10-year database. The current review provides a comprehensive view on the critical need of finding a suitable treatment for the currently prevalent COVID-19 disease, and an opportunity for the researchers to investigate the varying possibilities to find and optimized treatment approach to mitigate and ameliorate the chaos created by the pandemic worldwide.

2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(28): 42404-42432, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872658

ABSTRACT

The human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus; the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Natural products, secondary metabolites show positive leads with antiviral and immunotherapy treatments using genomic studies in silico docking. In addition, it includes the action of a mechanism targeting the SARS-CoV-2. In this literature, we aimed to evaluate the antiviral movement of the NT-VRL-1 unique terpene definition to Human coronavirus (HCoV-229E). The effects of 19 hydrolysable tannins on the SARS-CoV-2 were therefore theoretically reviewed and analyzed utilising the molecular operating surroundings for their C-Like protease 3CLpro catalytic dyad residues Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (MOE 09). Pedunculagin, tercatan, and castalin were detected as interacting strongly with SARS-receptor Cov-2's binding site and catalytic dyad (Cys145 and His41). SARS-CoV-2 methods of subunit S1 (ACE2) inhibit the interaction of the receiver with the s-protein once a drug molecule is coupled to the s-protein and prevent it from infecting the target cells in alkaloids. Our review strongly demonstrates the evidence that natural compounds and their derivatives can be used against the human coronavirus and serves as an area of research for future perspective.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113178, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866910

ABSTRACT

Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, endothelium imbalance, chronic inflammation, immune dysregulation, and its comorbidities may all have a role in systemic inflammation, leading to the pulmonary fibrosis and cytokine storm, which leads to failure of lung function, which is a hallmark of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Obesity may also disrupt the function of mucociliary escalators and cooperation of epithelial cell's motile cilia in the airway, limiting the clearance of the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). Adipose tissues in obese patients have a greater number of proteases and receptors for SARS-CoV-2 admittance, proposing that they could serve as an accelerator and reservoir for this virus, boosting immunological response and systemic inflammation. Lastly, anti-inflammatory cytokines such as anti-IL-6 and the infusion of mesenchymal stem cells could be used as a modulation therapy of immunity to help COVID-19 patients. Obesity, on the other hand, is linked to the progress of COVID-19 through a variety of molecular pathways, and obese people are part of the SARS-CoV-2 susceptible individuals, necessitating more protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Inflammation , Morbidity , Obesity/epidemiology
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113089, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821149

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a condition that affects a large percentage of the population and it is the leading cause of a wide range of costly complications. Diabetes is linked to a multi-fold increase in mortality and when compared to non-diabetics, the intensity and prevalence of COVID-19 ailment among diabetic individuals are more. Since its discovery in Wuhan, COVID-19 has grown rapidly and shown a wide range of severity. Temperature, lymphopenia, non-productive cough, dyspnoea, and tiredness are recognized as the characteristic of individuals infected with COVID-19 disease. In COVID-19 patients, diabetes and other related comorbidities are substantial predictors of disease and mortality. According to a recent study, SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for covid-19 disease) may also lead to direct pancreatic harm, which could aggravate hyperglycemia and potentially cause the establishment of diabetes in formerly non-diabetic individuals. This bidirectional association of COVID-19 and diabetes load the burden on health care professionals throughout the world. It is recommended that gliptin medications be taken moderately, blood glucose levels must be kept under control, ACE inhibitors should be used in moderation, decrease the number of avoidable hospitalizations, nutritional considerations, and some other prevention measures, such as immunization, are highly recommended. SARS-CoV-2 may cause pleiotropic changes in glucose homeostasis, which could exacerbate the pathophysiology of pre-existing diabetes or result in new disease processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Morbidity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 13: 661-669, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793394

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 is a pandemic which has affected most people directly or indirectly. It being a communicable disease, the best way to control the disease is to prevent its spread. Lockdown in India has resulted in aesthetic practices all over the country being shut down indefinitely. As things return to normal, most aesthetic practitioners are looking forward to opening practices. Hence, there was a definite need for a consensus on how to safely open up practices in India and at the same time reassure patients coming into these clinics that their safety is paramount. METHODS: This consensus guidelines use the PICO model in its structure. Five critical areas for opening up clinical establishments were identified and approached independently. A questionnaire was prepared using the modified Likert scale, and all the stakeholders were asked to answer the same. Any differences were then resolved with discussion among the stakeholders. The entire study was divided into five subgroups which were then analyzed in detail. RESULTS: Key recommendations and consensus guidelines were made after detailed analysis. Handy flow diagram reviews of these key areas have been provided. A thorough review of literature was also done on each of the critical areas and recommendations incorporated wherever feasible. CONCLUSION: These recommendations have considered the difficulties and cultural issues faced by aesthetic practices in India. They are user friendly, easy to understand and implement. These guidelines would help in reassuring practices to open up safely and continue serving patients with utmost care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, Consensus guidelines.

6.
Reprod Sci ; 29(4): 1188-1196, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756997

ABSTRACT

Uterine fibroids are common benign tumors that occur in up to 80% of women. Approximately half of the women affected experience considerable physical, psychological, and economic burdens and impact on quality of life due to symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility. Several medical and surgical options are available to treat uterine fibroids; however, healthcare providers may benefit from practical guidance in the development of individualized treatment plans based on a personalized approach. Medical treatments and minimally invasive procedures are generally preferred by most patients before considering more invasive, higher risk surgical interventions. In general, patient-centered, uterine-preserving procedures may be prioritized based on the patient's goals and the clinical scenario. Occasionally, hysterectomy may be the preferred treatment option for some patients who require definitive treatment. This call-to-action highlights recent challenges to patient care, including radical shifts in physician-patient interactions due to the COVID-19 pandemic and recent changes to evidence-based, clinically approved therapies. This report also reviews contemporary recommendations for women's health providers in the diagnosis and medical and surgical management of uterine fibroids. This call-to-action aims to empower healthcare providers to optimize the quality of care for women with uterine fibroids utilizing the best available evidence and best practices.


Subject(s)
Disease Management , Evidence-Based Practice , Leiomyoma/therapy , Uterine Neoplasms/therapy , Female , Humans , Patient-Centered Care , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Quality of Health Care , Quality of Life
7.
Jurnal Mantik ; 4(4):2576-2580, 2021.
Article in English | Indonesian Research | ID: covidwho-1755039

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is currently very influential in all fields. One of them is in the field of education where learning is usually carried out with a Face-to-Face Learning System must be changed to a Distance Learning System (DLS). To solve this problem you can use various applications such as: Zoom Google Classroom Go To Meeting Cisco Webex Meetings Google Meet and others. However in the implementation of this activity there are still many problems.This study aims to analyze the Distance Learning System using quantitative descriptive methods. Based on the research results it can be seen how effective the distance learning system that is being carried out now.

8.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(1): 60-66, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726345

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 has spread all over the world and most of the countries are still grappled with the Pandemic. Health-care-workers (HCWs) being the frontlines during such pandemics have different beliefs and faiths with regards to ethical aspects of preparations. Methodology: In order to study the perception of HCW about ethical aspects of COVID-19, a cross-sectional study was done in a tertiary-care-teaching hospital. A pretested questionnaire was circulated among the participants on a digital platform. Results: The HCWs were divided over many statements, like if COVID-19 was more hype than reality (45.77% disagreed and 43.25% agreed). 57.44% of participants either agreed or strongly agreed that the treatment of non-COVID-19 cases suffered due to arrangements made for COVID-19 cases. When the responses received against individual statements were compared with various other socio-demographic variables as a denominator, various interesting results were revealed. There was a significant difference of opinion among the participating HCWs (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Differences of the opinions had their relationships to demographic characteristics of the subjects as well as related to perceived knowledge of COVID-19.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112756, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708753

ABSTRACT

The 2019 corona virus disease (COVID-19) has caused a global chaos, where a novel Omicron variant has challenged the healthcare system, followed by which it has been referred to as a variant of concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization (WHO), owing to its alarming transmission and infectivity rate. The large number of mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is responsible for strengthening of the spike-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction, thereby explaining the elevated threat. This is supplemented by enhanced resistance of the variant towards pre-existing antibodies approved for the COVID-19 therapy. The manuscript brings into light failure of existing therapies to provide the desired effect, however simultaneously discussing the novel possibilities on the verge of establishing suitable treatment portfolio. The authors entail the risks associated with omicron resistance against antibodies and vaccine ineffectiveness on one side, and novel approaches and targets - kinase inhibitors, viral protease inhibitors, phytoconstituents, entry pathways - on the other. The manuscript aims to provide a holistic picture about the Omicron variant, by providing comprehensive discussions related to multiple aspects of the mutated spike variant, which might aid the global researchers and healthcare experts in finding an optimised solution to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cathepsins/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Phytotherapy/methods , Plants, Medicinal , Protein Binding/physiology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/physiology , Protein Structural Elements/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 808: 152072, 2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550061

ABSTRACT

The combat against the Corona virus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), has created a chaos among the healthcare institutions and researchers, in turn accelerating the dire need to curtail the infection spread. The already established entry mechanism, via ACE2 has not yet successfully aided in the development of a suitable and reliable therapy. Taking in account the constant progression and deterioration of the cases worldwide, a different perspective and mechanistic approach is required, which has thrown light onto the cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) transmembrane protein, as a novel route for SARS-CoV-2 entry. Despite lesser affinity towards COVID-19 virus, as compared to ACE2, this receptor provides a suitable justification behind elevated blood glucose levels in infected patients, retarded COVID-19 risk in women, enhanced susceptibility in geriatrics, greater infection susceptibility of T cells, infection prevalence in non-susceptible human cardiac pericytes and so on. The manuscript invokes the title role and distribution of CD147 in COVID-19 as an entry receptor and mediator of endocytosis-promoted entry of the virus, along with the "catch and clump" hypothesis, thereby presenting its Fundamental significance as a therapeutic target for potential candidates, such as Azithromycin, melatonin, statins, beta adrenergic blockers, ivermectin, Meplazumab etc. Thus, the authors provide a comprehensive review of a different perspective in COVID-19 infection, aiming to aid the researchers and virologists in considering all aspects of viral entry, in order to develop a sustainable and potential cure for the 2019 COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Basigin , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Cell Differentiation , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(6): 8109-8125, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540257

ABSTRACT

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide that is produced by the lymphoid cells and plays a major role in immunological functions for controlling the homeostasis of the immune system. VIP has been identified as a potent anti-inflammatory factor, in boosting both innate and adaptive immunity. Since December 2019, SARS-Cov-2 was found responsible for the disease COVID-19 which has spread worldwide. No specific therapies or 100% effective vaccines are yet available for the treatment of COVID-19. Drug repositioning may offer a strategy and several drugs have been repurposed, including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and tocilizumab. This paper describes the main pharmacological properties of synthetic VIP drug (Aviptadil) which is now under clinical trials. A patented formulation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), named RLF-100 (Aviptadil), was developed and finally got approved for human trials by FDA in 2001 and in European medicines agency in 2005. It was awarded Orphan Drug Designation in 2001 by the US FDA for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome and for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in 2005. Investigational new drug (IND) licenses for human trials of Aviptadil was guaranteed by both the US FDA and EMEA. Preliminary clinical trials seem to support Aviptadil's benefit. However, such drugs like Aviptadil in COVID-19 patients have peculiar safety profiles. Thus, adequate clinical trials are necessary for these compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide , Drug Combinations , Humans , Phentolamine , SARS-CoV-2
12.
AIMS Public Health ; 8(4): 614-623, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health Care Workers (HCW) are among the primary stakeholders and front liners in the fight against COVID-19. They are in direct contact with the patients as primary caregivers and, therefore, are at a higher risk of infection. This Pandemic offers a unique opportunity to explore the level of knowledge among ground-level HCWs during this global health crisis. OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to assess the knowledge and awareness among HCW regarding the COVID-19 Pandemic in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study done on HCW comprising faculty, senior residents, junior residents, demonstrators, and nursing staff of various specialties directly involved in the care of suspected/confirmed COVID-19 patients. A pretested questionnaire consisting of 20 questions was used as a study tool and was circulated through the digital platform. RESULTS: There were a total of 437 respondents. In the subgroup analysis, the respondents in the age group of 55-64 years had a higher mean knowledge score, followed by the respondents in the age group of 18-24 years. For years of experience, the mean knowledge score varied from 13.89 (10-20 years of experience) to 13.83 (5-10 years of experience). The mean knowledge score was the highest for consultants (14.10), followed by Resident Doctors (13.96). CONCLUSIONS: This study has shed some critical clues for further research and interventions. Firstly, as health care workers are probably learning about COVID-19 from their practical exposure rather than formal teaching, it is pertinent to address this issue through well-planned formal sessions of training workshops and lectures.

13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 583: 14-21, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471891

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has a major effect on world health, particularly on individuals suffering from severe diseases or old aged persons. Various case studies revealed that COVID-19 might increase the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Coxsackievirus, dengue virus Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis C virus, Japanese encephalitis, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, West Nile virus, and human immunodeficiency virus have all been linked to the development of transient or permanent parkinsonism, owing to the induction of neuroinflammation/hypoxic brain injury with structural/functional damage within the basal ganglia. Coronavirus mainly infects the alveolar cells and may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 invades cells via the ACE2 receptor, which is widely expressed in the central nervous system, where the virus may precipitate or accelerate dementia. SARS-CoV-2 could enter the central nervous system directly by the olfactory/vagus nerves or through the bloodstream. Here, we talked about the importance of this viral infection in terms of the CNS as well as its implications for people with Parkinson's disease; anosmia & olfaction-related impairments in COVID-19 & PD patients. And, also discussed the role of vitamin D to sustain the progression of Parkinson's disease and the COVID-19; regular vitamin D3 consumption of 2000-5000 IU/day may reduce the risk and severity of COVID-19 in parkinsonian patients.

14.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(7): 2619-2624, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitals are at the forefront of dealing infectious public health emergencies. Recently, COVID-19 has been declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization. Dealing with COVID-19 pandemic requires high intensity of administrative activity. OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to assess and compare, objectively, hospital preparedness with available Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. METHODS: CDC has issued checklist for the assessment of hospital preparedness for COVID-19 pandemic, globally. This list contains 10 elements with sub-sections. We objectified the same and scored the hospital preparations accordingly. Various financial efforts made by the hospital to procure COVID19-specified items was also recorded. RESULTS: As per the CDC checklist, the hospital scored 197 points (72.06%) out of 270 points with highest points in element two and eight. Element two is for the development for written COVID-19 plan. Element eight consists of addressing the occupational health of healthcare workers. Lowest scoring was in the element seven represented visitor access and movement within facility. During the study period, the hospital procured items of approximately 55 lakhs. In the study period, doctors, nursing staff, housekeeping staff, and security staff were channelized for doing COVID-19 duties. CONCLUSIONS: We obtained a score above 70% (good) which is quite encouraging, and we concluded that pandemic preparations in hospitals are necessary and it can be assessed objectively against prevailing standards. It is important in poor countries like India where spending on healthcare is minimal compared to other countries. Additionally, this assessment can be used to guide us further changes in policies and identifying the gaps in pandemic preparedness in hospitals which require special attention.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266745

ABSTRACT

With advanced technology and its development, bioinformatics is one of the avant-garde fields that has managed to make amazing progress in the pharmaceutical-medical field by modeling the infrastructural dimensions of healthcare and integrating computing tools in drug innovation, facilitating prevention, detection/more accurate diagnosis, and treatment of disorders, while saving time and money. By association, bioinformatics and pharmacovigilance promoted both sample analyzes and interpretation of drug side effects, also focusing on drug discovery and development (DDD), in which systems biology, a personalized approach, and drug repositioning were considered together with translational medicine. The role of bioinformatics has been highlighted in DDD, proteomics, genetics, modeling, miRNA discovery and assessment, and clinical genome sequencing. The authors have collated significant data from the most known online databases and publishers, also narrowing the diversified applications, in order to target four major areas (tetrad): DDD, anti-microbial research, genomic sequencing, and miRNA research and its significance in the management of current pandemic context. Our analysis aims to provide optimal data in the field by stratification of the information related to the published data in key sectors and to capture the attention of researchers interested in bioinformatics, a field that has succeeded in advancing the healthcare paradigm by introducing developing techniques and multiple database platforms, addressed in the manuscript.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , MicroRNAs , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Whole Genome Sequencing , Animals , COVID-19 , Drug Industry , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Pharmacovigilance , Public Health
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 91: 107309, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is considered the most critical health pandemic of 21st century. Due to extremely high transmission rate, people are more susceptible to viral infection. COVID-19 patients having chronic type-2 asthma prevails a major risk as it may aggravate the disease and morbidities. OBJECTIVE: The present review mainly focuses on correlating the influence of COVID-19 in type-2 asthmatic patients. Besides, it delineates the treatment measures and drugs that can be used to manage mild, moderate, and severe symptoms of COVID-19 in asthmatic patients, thus preventing any exacerbation. METHODS: An in-depth research was carried out from different peer-reviewed articles till September 2020 from several renowned databases like PubMed, Frontier, MEDLINE, and related websites like WHO, CDC, MOHFW, and the information was analysed and written in a simplified manner. RESULTS: The progressive results were quite conflicting as severe cases of COVID-19 shows an increase in the level of several cytokines that can augment inflammation to the bronchial tracts, worsening the asthma attacks. Contradicting to this, certain findings reveal the decrease in the severity of COVID-19 due to the elevation of T-cells in type-2 asthmatic patients, as prominent reduction of T-cell is seen in most of the COVID-19 positive patients. This helps to counteract the balance of immune responses and hence ameliorate the disease progression. CONCLUSION: Asthmatic patients must remain cautious during the COVID-19 pandemic by maintaining all the precautions to stay safe due to limited research data. Future strategies should include a better understanding of asthmatic exacerbation and its relation to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma/pathology , Asthma/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Animals , Asthma/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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