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1.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916257

ABSTRACT

AIM: Covid-19 has presented an unprecedented challenge to health services and has significantly affected the management of non-Covid illnesses, like thalassemia. The present study documents the impact of Covid-associated restrictions and disruptions on working of the pediatric thalassemia day care centre (TDCC), and measures taken by TDCC and blood transfusion services to adapt to and mitigate the negative impact of Covid pandemic and associated lockdown on patient care. METHODS: Pre-transfusion haemoglobin and packed cell transfusion requirement were compared across three time periods, namely pre-lockdown, lockdown and post-lockdown in paediatric transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (TDT) patients. Caregivers were interviewed to document any problems faced by them. RESULTS: The study involved 181 TDT patients. There was a significant reduction in mean pre-transfusion haemoglobin and red cells transfused during lockdown phase as compared to pre-lockdown phase. Regular care was interrupted in 45% of patients and 76% of patients getting blood from outside could not get leukoreduced red cells. Investigations, monitoring and continuity of iron chelation were also affected. Blood centre faced 30.5% reduction in blood supply during lockdown. TDCC and blood centre took several steps, including prolongation of service hours and staggering of transfusions to ensure maximum transfusions while ensuring social distancing. CONCLUSION: The Covid-19 pandemic imposed many unprecedented challenges to the routine care of thalassaemic patients; however, some of them could be dealt with by a proactive approach and micro-planning at the institution level. Other similar resource-limited settings could learn from experiences for continued quality care for chronic medical conditions during pandemic like situations.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e020255, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356988

ABSTRACT

Background The acuity and magnitude of the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in New York mandated a drastic change in healthcare access and delivery of care. Methods and Results We retrospectively studied patients admitted with an acute cardiovascular syndrome as their principal diagnosis to 13 hospitals across Northwell Health during March 11 through May 26, 2020 (first COVID-19 epidemic wave) and the same period in 2019. Three thousand sixteen patients (242 COVID-19 positive) were admitted for an acute cardiovascular syndrome during the first COVID-19 wave compared with 9422 patients 1 year prior (decrease of 68.0%, P<0.001). During this time, patients with cardiovascular disease presented later to the hospital (360 versus 120 minutes for acute myocardial infarction), underwent fewer procedures (34.6% versus 45.6%, P<0.001), were less likely to be treated in an intensive care unit setting (8.7% versus 10.8%, P<0.001), and had a longer hospital stay (2.91 [1.71-6.05] versus 2.87 [1.82-4.95] days, P=0.033). Inpatient cardiovascular mortality during the first epidemic outbreak increased by 111.1% (3.8 versus 1.8, P<0.001) and was not related to COVID-19-related admissions, all cause in-hospital mortality, or incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac deaths in New York. Admission during the first COVID-19 surge along with age and positive COVID-19 test independently predicted mortality for cardiovascular admissions (odds ratios, 1.30, 1.05, and 5.09, respectively, P<0.0001). Conclusions A lower rate and later presentation of patients with cardiovascular pathology, coupled with deviation from common clinical practice mandated by the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, might have accounted for higher in-hospital cardiovascular mortality during that period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization , Inpatients , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
4.
Indian J Pediatr ; 89(1): 45-51, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To detail clinical profile and outcome in children infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This retrospective study was undertaken at a tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital in Northern India. The data on clinical characteristics and outcome of children (< 18 y) with COVID-19 illness from April 2020-October 2020 were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 2919 children with suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) illness were tested for novel COVID-19 virus in the flu emergency (n = 1744), severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) ward (n = 825), and non-COVID area (n = 350) of the hospital. 8.73% (255/2919) children tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of the 255 positive cases, 144 (56.47%) were managed on an outpatient basis and 100 (59 boys) required admission in COVID ward. The mortality rate of patients with SARS-CoV-2 was 11.4% (29/255). Majority of children admitted with COVID-19 had severe to critical illness due to the presence of malnutrition and underlying comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Children of all age groups were susceptible to COVID-19 illness with a slight male preponderance. Amongst infected, two-third were asymptomatic or had mild symptoms that required outpatient management and home isolation. The adverse outcomes were more commonly seen in infants and children > 10 y of age with malnutrition and comorbid illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238917

ABSTRACT

Children affected by tuberculous meningitis (TBM), as well as their families, have needs that lie at the intersections between the tuberculosis and meningitis clinical, research, and policy spheres. There is therefore a substantial risk that these needs are not fully met by either programme. In this narrative review article, we use the World Health Organization (WHO) "Defeating Meningitis by 2030: global roadmap" as a starting point to consider key goals and activities to specifically defeat TBM in children. We apply the five pillars outlined in the roadmap to describe how this approach can be adapted to serve children affected by TBM. The pillars are (i) prevention; (ii) diagnosis and treatment; (iii) surveillance; (iv) support and care for people affected by meningitis; and (v) advocacy and engagement. We conclude by calling for greater integration between meningitis and TB programmes at WHO and at national levels.

8.
Physiol Genomics ; 52(6): 255-268, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-632632

ABSTRACT

Precision medicine requires the translation of basic biological understanding to medical insights, mainly applied to characterization of each unique patient. In many clinical settings, this requires tools that can be broadly used to identify pathology and risks. Patients often present to the intensive care unit with broad phenotypes, including multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) resulting from infection, trauma, or other disease processes. Etiology and outcomes are unique to individuals, making it difficult to cohort patients with MODS, but presenting a prime target for testing/developing tools for precision medicine. Using multitime point whole blood (cellular/acellular) total transcriptomics in 27 patients, we highlight the promise of simultaneously mapping viral/bacterial load, cell composition, tissue damage biomarkers, balance between syndromic biology versus environmental response, and unique biological insights in each patient using a single platform measurement. Integration of a transcriptome workflow yielded unexpected insights into the complex interplay between host genetics and viral/bacterial specific mechanisms, highlighted by a unique case of virally induced genetics (VIG) within one of these 27 patients. The power of RNA-Seq to study unique patient biology while investigating environmental contributions can be a critical tool moving forward for translational sciences applied to precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Precision Medicine/methods , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Transcription, Genetic , Viral Load
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