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3.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
4.
Int J Stroke ; 16(4): 437-447, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with a significant risk of thrombotic events in critically ill patients. AIM: To summarize the findings of a multinational observational cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort of consecutive adults evaluated in the emergency department and/or admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across 31 hospitals in four countries (1 February 2020-16 June 2020). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of cerebrovascular events, inclusive of acute ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhages (ICH), and cortical vein and/or sinus thrombosis (CVST). RESULTS: Of the 14,483 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2, 172 were diagnosed with an acute cerebrovascular event (1.13% of cohort; 1130/100,000 patients, 95%CI 970-1320/100,000), 68/171 (40.5%) were female and 96/172 (55.8%) were between the ages 60 and 79 years. Of these, 156 had acute ischemic stroke (1.08%; 1080/100,000 95%CI 920-1260/100,000), 28 ICH (0.19%; 190/100,000 95%CI 130-280/100,000), and 3 with CVST (0.02%; 20/100,000, 95%CI 4-60/100,000). The in-hospital mortality rate for SARS-CoV-2-associated stroke was 38.1% and for ICH 58.3%. After adjusting for clustering by site and age, baseline stroke severity, and all predictors of in-hospital mortality found in univariate regression (p < 0.1: male sex, tobacco use, arrival by emergency medical services, lower platelet and lymphocyte counts, and intracranial occlusion), cryptogenic stroke mechanism (aOR 5.01, 95%CI 1.63-15.44, p < 0.01), older age (aOR 1.78, 95%CI 1.07-2.94, p = 0.03), and lower lymphocyte count on admission (aOR 0.58, 95%CI 0.34-0.98, p = 0.04) were the only independent predictors of mortality among patients with stroke and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with a small but significant risk of clinically relevant cerebrovascular events, particularly ischemic stroke. The mortality rate is high for COVID-19-associated cerebrovascular complications; therefore, aggressive monitoring and early intervention should be pursued to mitigate poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Thrombosis/etiology , Tobacco Use , Young Adult
6.
Neurosurg Open ; 1(3): okaa008, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preliminary data suggest that Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulability and neurovascular events, but data on outcomes is limited. OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical course and outcomes of a case series of COVID-19 patients with a variety of cerebrovascular events. METHODS: We performed a multicentric, retrospective chart review at our three academic tertiary care hospitals, and identified all COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular events requiring neuro-intensive care and/or neurosurgical consultation. RESULTS: We identified 26 patients between March 1 and May 24, 2020, of whom 12 (46%) died. The most common event was a large-vessel occlusion (LVO) in 15 patients (58%), among whom 8 died (8/15, 53%). A total of 9 LVO patients underwent mechanical thrombectomy, of whom 5 died (5/9, 56%). A total of 7 patients (27%) presented with intracranial hemorrhage. Of the remaining patients, 2 had small-vessel occlusions, 1 had cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and another had a vertebral artery dissection. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome occurred in 8 patients, of whom 7 died. Mortalities had a higher D-dimer on admission (mean 20 963 ng/mL) than survivors (mean 3172 ng/mL). Admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was poor among mortalities (median 7), whereas survivors had a favorable GCS at presentation (median 14) and at discharge (median 14). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 may be associated with hemorrhage as well as ischemia, and prognosis appears poorer than expected-particularly among LVO cases, where outcome remained poor despite mechanical thrombectomy. However, a favorable neurological condition on admission and lower D-dimer may indicate a better outcome.

7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105047, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597796

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic disease which predominantly affects the respiratory system, however it also causes multi-organ dysfunction in a subset of patients. There is a growing evidence that it increases the propensity of strokes in younger patients. Besides producing a prothrombotic state, arterial dissection could be one of its many manifestations, increasing the risks of stroke. Herein, we report the first case of spontaneous bilateral vertebral artery dissection in a patient with COVID-19. 39-year female presented with spontaneous bilateral vertebral artery dissections without any instigating traumatic events and no history of connective tissue disorders. Whether this patient's vertebral artery dissections were triggered by exaggerated inflammatory response or arteriopathy secondary to COVID-19 remains speculative. Nonetheless, arterial dissection could be one of it's complications. It is important for the physicians to be aware of different clinical manifestations of COVID-19 as we manage these patients with no historical experience, to provide adequate care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/etiology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/etiology , Adult , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/virology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery Dissection/drug therapy , Vertebral Artery Dissection/virology
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