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1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1746954

ABSTRACT

Understanding the role of vaccine hesitancy in under-vaccination or non-vaccination of childhood vaccines is important for increasing vaccine confidence and uptake. We used data from April to June interviews in the 2018 and 2019 National Immunization Survey-Flu (n=78,725), a nationally representative cross-sectional household cellular telephone survey. We determined the adjusted population attributable fraction (PAF) for each recommended childhood vaccine to assess the contribution of vaccine hesitancy to the observed non-vaccination level. Hesitancy is defined as being somewhat or very hesitant toward childhood vaccines. Furthermore, we assessed the PAF of non-vaccination for influenza by sociodemographic characteristics, Health and Human Services region, and state. The proportion of non-vaccination attributed to parental vaccine hesitancy was lowest for hepatitis B birth dose vaccine (6.5%) and highest for ≥3 dose diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine (31.3%). The PAF of non-vaccination on influenza non-vaccination was highest for non-Hispanic White and Black populations (15.4%), households with high educational (17.7%) and income levels (16.5%), and urban areas (16.1%). Among states, PAF ranged from 25.4% (New Hampshire) to 7.5% (Louisiana). Implementing strategies to increase vaccination confidence and uptake are important, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Am J Prev Med ; 2021 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588374

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare personnel are at increased risk for COVID-19 from workplace exposure. National estimates on COVID-19 vaccination coverage among healthcare personnel are limited. METHODS: Data from an opt-in Internet panel survey of 2,434 healthcare personnel, conducted on March 30, 2021-April 15, 2021, were analyzed to assess the receipt of ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination intent. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination and intent for vaccination. RESULTS: Overall, 68.2% of healthcare personnel reported a receipt of ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, 9.8% would probably/definitely get vaccinated, 7.1% were unsure, and 14.9% would probably/definitely not get vaccinated. COVID-19 vaccination coverage was highest among physicians (89.0%), healthcare personnel working in hospitals (75.0%), and healthcare personnel of non-Hispanic White or other race (75.7%-77.4%). Healthcare personnel who received influenza vaccine in 2020-2021 (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.92) and those aged ≥60 years (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.37) were more likely to report a receipt of ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. Non-Hispanic Black healthcare personnel (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.74), nurse practitioners/physician assistants (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.55), assistants/aides (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.73), and nonclinical healthcare personnel (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.79) were less likely to have received a COVID-19 vaccine. The common reasons for vaccination included protecting self (88.1%), family and friends (86.3%), and patients (69.2%) from COVID-19. The most common reason for nonvaccination was concern about side effects and safety of COVID-19 vaccine (59.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding vaccination status and intent among healthcare personnel is important for addressing barriers to vaccination. Addressing concerns on side effects, safety, and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines as well as their fast development and approval may help improve vaccination coverage among healthcare personnel.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(50): 1723-1730, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575163

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is critical to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, and health care providers play an important role in achieving high vaccination coverage (1). To examine the prevalence of report of a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination and its association with COVID-19 vaccination coverage and attitudes, CDC analyzed data among adults aged ≥18 years from the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM), a nationally representative cellular telephone survey. Prevalence of report of a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination among adults increased from 34.6%, during April 22-May 29, to 40.5%, during August 29-September 25, 2021. Adults who reported a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination were more likely to have received ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine (77.6%) than were those who did not receive a recommendation (61.9%) (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.12). Report of a provider recommendation was associated with concern about COVID-19 (aPR = 1.31), belief that COVID-19 vaccines are important to protect oneself (aPR = 1.15), belief that COVID-19 vaccination was very or completely safe (aPR = 1.17), and perception that many or all of their family and friends had received COVID-19 vaccination (aPR = 1.19). Empowering health care providers to recommend vaccination to their patients could help reinforce confidence in, and increase coverage with, COVID-19 vaccines, particularly among groups known to have lower COVID-19 vaccination coverage, including younger adults, racial/ethnic minorities, and rural residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Physician-Patient Relations , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Am J Prev Med ; 62(4): 473-482, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520662

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Health disparities among racial and ethnic and socioeconomic groups are pervasive, and the COVID-19 pandemic has not been an exception. This study explores the key demographic and socioeconomic factors related to racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage. METHODS: Using recent (January 2021-March 2021) data on adults from the U.S. Census Bureau Household Pulse Survey, a regression-based decomposition method was used to estimate how much of the observed racial and ethnic disparities in vaccination coverage could be explained by particular socioeconomic and demographic factors (i.e., age, number of children and adults in household). RESULTS: Demographics, socioeconomic factors, and experiencing economic hardship during the pandemic each explained a statistically significant portion of vaccination coverage disparities between non-Hispanic White and racial/ethnic minority individuals. The largest disparity was observed among people who identified as Hispanic or Latino, whose vaccination coverage was 8.0 (95% CI=7.1, 8.9) percentage points lower than that of their non-Hispanic White counterparts. Socioeconomic factors explained 4.8 (95% CI=4.3, 5.2) percentage points of this disparity, and economic hardship explained an additional 1.4 (95% CI=1.2, 1.6) percentage points. CONCLUSIONS: This paper identified the key factors related to racial and ethnic disparities in adult vaccination coverage. The variables that explained the largest portions of the disparities were age, education, employment, and income. The study findings can help to inform efforts to increase equitable vaccine access and engage various segments of the population to prevent the further exacerbation of COVID-19 health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(41): 1435-1440, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468852

ABSTRACT

Immunization is a safe and cost-effective means of preventing illness in young children and interrupting disease transmission within the community.* The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends vaccination of children against 14 diseases during the first 24 months of life (1). CDC uses National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) data to monitor routine coverage with ACIP-recommended vaccines in the United States at the national, regional, state, territorial, and selected local levels.† CDC assessed vaccination coverage by age 24 months among children born in 2017 and 2018, with comparisons to children born in 2015 and 2016. Nationally, coverage was highest for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (92.7%); ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.9%); ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.6%); and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (VAR) (90.9%). Coverage was lowest for ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine (60.6%). Coverage among children born in 2017-2018 was 2.1-4.5 percentage points higher than it was among those born in 2015-2016 for rotavirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), the HepB birth dose, and ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine. Only 1.0% of children had received no vaccinations by age 24 months. Disparities in coverage were seen for race/ethnicity, poverty status, and health insurance status. Coverage with most vaccines was lower among children who were not privately insured. The largest disparities between insurance categories were among uninsured children, especially for ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine, the combined 7-vaccine series, § and rotavirus vaccination. Reported estimates reflect vaccination opportunities that mostly occurred before disruptions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Extra efforts are needed to ensure that children who missed vaccinations, including those attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic, receive them as soon as possible to maintain protection against vaccine-preventable illnesses.


Subject(s)
Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , /statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , United States
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(39): 1365-1371, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444553

ABSTRACT

Estimates from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS) indicated that 15.2% of adults aged ≥18 years had at least one reported functional disability (1). Persons with disabilities are more likely than are those without disabilities to have chronic health conditions (2) and also face barriers to accessing health care (3). These and other health and social inequities have placed persons with disabilities at increased risk for COVID-19-related illness and death, yet they face unique barriers to receipt of vaccination (4,5). Although CDC encourages that considerations be made when expanding vaccine access to persons with disabilities,* few public health surveillance systems measure disability status. To describe COVID-19 vaccination status and intent, as well as perceived vaccine access among adults by disability status, data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM) were analyzed. Adults with a disability were less likely than were those without a disability to report having received ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine (age-adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.93) but more likely to report they would definitely get vaccinated (aPR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.43-2.42). Among unvaccinated adults, those with a disability were more likely to report higher endorsement of vaccine as protection (aPR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.16-1.44), yet more likely to report it would be or was difficult to get vaccinated than did adults without a disability (aPR = 2.69; 95% CI = 2.16-3.34). Reducing barriers to vaccine scheduling and making vaccination sites more accessible might improve vaccination rates among persons with disabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2908-2913, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444023

ABSTRACT

We assessed coronavirus disease vaccination and intent and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among essential workers during March-June 2021. Coverage was 67%; 18% reported no intent to get vaccinated. Primary concerns were potential side effects, safety, and lack of trust in vaccines, highlighting the importance of increasing vaccine confidence in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1183-1190, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395455

ABSTRACT

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents aged 11-12 years routinely receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY); and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for hepatitis B (HepB); hepatitis A (HepA); measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); and varicella (VAR) vaccines for adolescents whose childhood vaccinations are not current. Adolescents are also recommended to receive a booster dose of MenACWY vaccine at age 16 years, and shared clinical decision-making is recommended for the serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (MenB) for persons aged 16-23 years (1). To estimate coverage with recommended vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2020 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for 20,163 adolescents aged 13-17 years.* Coverage with ≥1 dose of HPV vaccine increased from 71.5% in 2019 to 75.1% in 2020. The percentage of adolescents who were up to date† with HPV vaccination (HPV UTD) increased from 54.2% in 2019 to 58.6% in 2020. Coverage with ≥1 dose of Tdap, ≥1 dose (and among adolescents aged 17 years, ≥2 doses) of MenACWY remained similar to coverage in 2019 (90.1%, 89.3%, and 54.4% respectively). Coverage increased for ≥2 doses of HepA among adolescents aged 13-17 years and ≥1 dose of MenB among adolescents aged 17 years. Adolescents living below the federal poverty level§ had higher HPV vaccination coverage than adolescents living at or above the poverty level. Adolescents living outside a metropolitan statistical area (MSA)¶ had lower coverage with ≥1 MenACWY and ≥1 HPV dose, and a lower proportion being HPV UTD than adolescents in MSA principal cities. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted routine immunization services. Results from the 2020 NIS-Teen reflect adolescent vaccination coverage before the COVID-19 pandemic. The 2020 NIS-Teen data could be used to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on catch-up vaccination but not on routine adolescent vaccination because adolescents included in the survey were aged ≥13 years, past the age when most routine adolescent vaccines are recommended, and most vaccinations occurred before March 2020. Continued efforts to reach adolescents whose routine medical care has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic are necessary to protect persons and communities from vaccine-preventable diseases and outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Meningococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Advisory Committees , COVID-19/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Conjugate/administration & dosage
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(25): 928-933, 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282752

ABSTRACT

Since April 19, 2021, all persons aged ≥16 years in the United States have been eligible to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. As of May 30, 2021, approximately one half of U.S. adults were fully vaccinated, with the lowest coverage and lowest reported intent to get vaccinated among young adults aged 18-39 years (1-4). To examine attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination and vaccination intent among adults in this age group, CDC conducted nationally representative household panel surveys during March-May 2021. Among respondents aged 18-39 years, 34.0% reported having received a COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 51.8% were already vaccinated or definitely planned to get vaccinated, 23.2% reported that they probably were going to get vaccinated or were unsure about getting vaccinated, and 24.9% reported that they probably or definitely would not get vaccinated. Adults aged 18-24 years were least likely to report having received a COVID-19 vaccine and were most likely to report being unsure about getting vaccinated or that they were probably going to get vaccinated. Adults aged 18-39 years with lower incomes, with lower educational attainment, without health insurance, who were non-Hispanic Black, and who lived outside of metropolitan areas had the lowest reported vaccination coverage and intent to get vaccinated. Concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness were the primary reported reasons for not getting vaccinated. Vaccination intent and acceptance among adults aged 18-39 years might be increased by improving confidence in vaccine safety and efficacy while emphasizing that vaccines are critical to prevent the spread of COVID-19 to friends and family and for resuming social activities (5).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Intention , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(24): 895-899, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278794

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are critical for ending the COVID-19 pandemic; however, current data about vaccination coverage and safety in pregnant women are limited. Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19 compared with nonpregnant women of reproductive age, and are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth (1-4). Pregnant women are eligible for and can receive any of the three COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States via Emergency Use Authorization.* Data from Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), a collaboration between CDC and multiple integrated health systems, were analyzed to assess receipt of ≥1 dose (first or second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines or a single dose of the Janssen [Johnson & Johnson] vaccine) of any COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, receipt of first dose of a 2-dose COVID-19 vaccine (initiation), or completion of a 1- or 2-dose COVID-19 vaccination series. During December 14, 2020-May 8, 2021, a total of 135,968 pregnant women were identified, 22,197 (16.3%) of whom had received ≥1 dose of a vaccine during pregnancy. Among these 135,968 women, 7,154 (5.3%) had initiated and 15,043 (11.1%) had completed vaccination during pregnancy. Receipt of ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy was highest among women aged 35-49 years (22.7%) and lowest among those aged 18-24 years (5.5%), and higher among non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) (24.7%) and non-Hispanic White (White) women (19.7%) than among Hispanic (11.9%) and non-Hispanic Black (Black) women (6.0%). Vaccination coverage increased among all racial and ethnic groups over the analytic period, likely because of increased eligibility for vaccination† and increased availability of vaccine over time. These findings indicate the need for improved outreach to and engagement with pregnant women, especially those from racial and ethnic minority groups who might be at higher risk for severe health outcomes because of COVID-19 (4). In addition, providing accurate and timely information about COVID-19 vaccination to health care providers, pregnant women, and women of reproductive age can improve vaccine confidence and coverage by ensuring optimal shared clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/ethnology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(19): 725-730, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227232

ABSTRACT

Compared with other age groups, older adults (defined here as persons aged ≥65 years) are at higher risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality and have therefore been prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination (1,2). Ensuring access to vaccines for older adults has been a focus of federal, state, and local response efforts, and CDC has been monitoring vaccination coverage to identify and address disparities among subpopulations of older adults (2). Vaccine administration data submitted to CDC were analyzed to determine the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination initiation among adults aged ≥65 years by demographic characteristics and overall. Characteristics of counties with low vaccination initiation rates were quantified using indicators of social vulnerability data from the 2019 American Community Survey.* During December 14, 2020-April 10, 2021, nationwide, a total of 42,736,710 (79.1%) older adults had initiated vaccination. The initiation rate was higher among men than among women and varied by state. On average, counties with low vaccination initiation rates (<50% of older adults having received at least 1 vaccine dose), compared with those with high rates (≥75%), had higher percentages of older adults without a computer, living in poverty, without Internet access, and living alone. CDC, state, and local jurisdictions in partnerships with communities should continue to identify and implement strategies to improve access to COVID-19 vaccination for older adults, such as assistance with scheduling vaccination appointments and transportation to vaccination sites, or vaccination at home if needed for persons who are homebound.† Monitoring demographic and social factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine access for older adults and prioritizing efforts to ensure equitable access to COVID-19 vaccine are needed to ensure high coverage among this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Social Factors , United States/epidemiology
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(11): 389-395, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140829

ABSTRACT

In December 2020, two COVID-19 vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) received Emergency Use Authorization from the Food and Drug Administration.*,† Both vaccines require 2 doses for a completed series. The recommended interval between doses is 21 days for Pfizer-BioNTech and 28 days for Moderna; however, up to 42 days between doses is permissible when a delay is unavoidable.§ Two analyses of COVID-19 vaccine administration data were conducted among persons who initiated the vaccination series during December 14, 2020-February 14, 2021, and whose doses were reported to CDC through February 20, 2021. The first analysis was conducted to determine whether persons who received a first dose and had sufficient time to receive the second dose (i.e., as of February 14, 2021, >25 days from receipt of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine or >32 days from receipt of Moderna vaccine had elapsed) had received the second dose. A second analysis was conducted among persons who received a second COVID-19 dose by February 14, 2021, to determine whether the dose was received during the recommended dosing interval, which in this study was defined as 17-25 days (Pfizer-BioNTech) and 24-32 days (Moderna) after the first dose. Analyses were stratified by jurisdiction and by demographic characteristics. In the first analysis, among 12,496,258 persons who received the first vaccine dose and for whom sufficient time had elapsed to receive the second dose, 88.0% had completed the series, 8.6% had not received the second dose but remained within the allowable interval (≤42 days since the first dose), and 3.4% had missed the second dose (outside the allowable interval, >42 days since the first dose). The percentage of persons who missed the second dose varied by jurisdiction (range = 0.0%-9.1%) and among demographic groups was highest among non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons (5.1%) and persons aged 16-44 years (4.0%). In the second analysis, among 14,205,768 persons who received a second dose, 95.6% received the dose within the recommended interval, although percentages varied by jurisdiction (range = 79.0%-99.9%). Public health officials should identify and address possible barriers to completing the COVID-19 vaccination series to ensure equitable coverage across communities and maximum health benefits for recipients. Strategies to ensure series completion could include scheduling second-dose appointments at the first-dose administration and sending reminders for second-dose visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 217-222, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079856

ABSTRACT

As of February 8, 2021, 59.3 million doses of vaccines to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had been distributed in the United States, and 31.6 million persons had received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (1). However, national polls conducted before vaccine distribution began suggested that many persons were hesitant to receive COVID-19 vaccination (2). To examine perceptions toward COVID-19 vaccine and intentions to be vaccinated, in September and December 2020, CDC conducted household panel surveys among a representative sample of U.S. adults. From September to December, vaccination intent (defined as being absolutely certain or very likely to be vaccinated) increased overall (from 39.4% to 49.1%); the largest increase occurred among adults aged ≥65 years. If defined as being absolutely certain, very likely, or somewhat likely to be vaccinated, vaccination intent increased overall from September (61.9%) to December (68.0%). Vaccination nonintent (defined as not intending to receive a COVID-19 vaccination) decreased among all adults (from 38.1% to 32.1%) and among most sociodemographic groups. Younger adults, women, non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons, adults living in nonmetropolitan areas, and adults with lower educational attainment, with lower income, and without health insurance were most likely to report lack of intent to receive COVID-19 vaccine. Intent to receive COVID-19 vaccine increased among adults aged ≥65 years by 17.1 percentage points (from 49.1% to 66.2%), among essential workers by 8.8 points (from 37.1% to 45.9%), and among adults aged 18-64 years with underlying medical conditions by 5.3 points (from 36.5% to 41.8%). Although confidence in COVID-19 vaccines increased during September-December 2020 in the United States, additional efforts to tailor messages and implement strategies to further increase the public's confidence, overall and within specific subpopulations, are needed. Ensuring high and equitable vaccination coverage across all populations is important to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and mitigate the impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Intention , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1505-1511, 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890752

ABSTRACT

Immunization has been described as a "global health and development success story," and worldwide is estimated to prevent 2-3 million deaths annually.* In the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) currently recommends vaccination against 14 potentially serious illnesses by the time a child reaches age 24 months (1). CDC monitors coverage with ACIP-recommended vaccines through the National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child); data from the survey were used to estimate vaccination coverage at the national, regional, state, territorial, and selected local area levels† among children born in 2016 and 2017. National coverage by age 24 months was ≥90% for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (VAR); national coverage was ≥90% for ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), although MMR coverage was <90% in 14 states. Coverage with ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine was higher for children born during 2016-2017 (58.1%) than for those born during 2014-2015 (53.8%) but was the lowest among all vaccines studied. Only 1.2% of children had received no vaccinations by age 24 months. Vaccination coverage among children enrolled in Medicaid or with no health insurance was lower than that among children who were privately insured. The prevalence of being completely unvaccinated was highest among uninsured children (4.1%), lower among those enrolled in Medicaid (1.3%), and lowest among those with private insurance (0.8%). The largest disparities on the basis of health insurance status occurred for ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine and for completion of the rotavirus vaccination series. Considering the disruptions to health care provider operations caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, extra effort will be required to achieve and maintain high levels of coverage with routine childhood vaccinations. Providers, health care entities, and public health authorities can communicate with families about how children can be vaccinated safely during the pandemic, remind parents of vaccinations that are due for their children, and provide all recommended vaccinations to children during clinic visits. This will be especially important for 2020-21 seasonal influenza vaccination to mitigate the effect of two potentially serious respiratory viruses circulating in the community simultaneously.


Subject(s)
Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child, Preschool , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Infant, Newborn , United States
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(33): 1109-1116, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724362

ABSTRACT

Three vaccines are recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for routine vaccination of adolescents aged 11-12 years to protect against 1) pertussis; 2) meningococcal disease caused by types A, C, W, and Y; and 3) human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers (1). At age 16 years, a booster dose of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) is recommended. Persons aged 16-23 years can receive serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (MenB), if determined to be appropriate through shared clinical decision-making. CDC analyzed data from the 2019 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) to estimate vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years in the United States.* Coverage with ≥1 dose of HPV vaccine increased from 68.1% in 2018 to 71.5% in 2019, and the percentage of adolescents who were up to date† with the HPV vaccination series (HPV UTD) increased from 51.1% in 2018 to 54.2% in 2019. Both HPV vaccination coverage measures improved among females and males. An increase in adolescent coverage with ≥1 dose of MenACWY (from 86.6% in 2018 to 88.9% in 2019) also was observed. Among adolescents aged 17 years, 53.7% received the booster dose of MenACWY in 2019, not statistically different from 50.8% in 2018; 21.8% received ≥1 dose of MenB, a 4.6 percentage point increase from 17.2% in 2018. Among adolescents living at or above the poverty level,§ those living outside a metropolitan statistical area (MSA)¶ had lower coverage with ≥1 dose of MenACWY and with ≥1 HPV vaccine dose, and a lower percentage were HPV UTD, compared with those living in MSA principal cities. In early 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed the way health care providers operate and provide routine and essential services. An examination of Vaccines for Children (VFC) provider ordering data showed that vaccine orders for HPV vaccine; tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap); and MenACWY decreased in mid-March when COVID-19 was declared a national emergency (Supplementary Figure 1, https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/91795). Ensuring that routine immunization services for adolescents are maintained or reinitiated is essential to continuing progress in protecting persons and communities from vaccine-preventable diseases and outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Meningococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , United States , Vaccines, Conjugate/administration & dosage
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