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1.
JAMA Network Open ; 5(12):e2249002, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172238

ABSTRACT

Importance: It is important to understand the association between staff vaccination rates and adverse COVID-19 outcomes in nursing homes.

2.
Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites ; 45(4):1674-1682, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2205733

ABSTRACT

The first epidemic of the modern world that has changed the course of the current civilization & turned out to be a pandemic (i.e. COVID-19) has tremendously affected several industries including that of tourism & hospitality. Due to the multilevel impact, the whole world struggled to overcome this situation but with almost two years of its co-existence, people have now managed to change their style of living & social habits including that of the food habits. One of such food habits i.e. 'Eating out/ Dining out' was bound to change in the post-pandemic period due to the health advisories & closure of several hotels, restaurants and food outlets. The present research tries to find out the changes in the Eating out behaviour of the residents of Dharamshala (H.P.) in the pre & post-pandemic period. Further, it tries to identify the factors which affect the eating out behaviour of the residents & measure their importance in different periods (pre &post pandemic). The data were collected from 286 residents of Dharamshala region, through a structured questionnaire & analysed through reliability checks (Cronbach's Alpha-α), KMO & Bartlett's test, factor analysis, paired sample t-test and analysis of frequency & mean values. The results showed a significant decrease in the frequency of visits, purchasing/ordering, percentage of outside meals consumed, average spending etc, whereas the level of priority given by the residents to hygiene, food safety, quality, service & distribution etc has increased in the post-pandemic period. Hence various strategies were suggested for the restaurants/local eateries like, (1) Use of technology (automatic doors, sensor & timer enabled soap & sanitiser dispenser, online payments), (2) cost reduction tactics (controlling of food wastage, reduction in menu items), (3) training of employees (sanitisation rules, HACCP rules) etc which were if adopted will certainly help them revive from the crisis slowly & steadily over the period. © 2022 Editura Universitatii din Oradea. All rights reserved.

3.
Space and Culture, India ; 8(4):134-146, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2204784

ABSTRACT

The novel Corona virus has been declared a pandemic due to its high transmissibility rate, influencing human life to its heights. It has affected the psychological and mental health of all people, including the functioning of various sectors. This study is based on a micro-level survey that discusses the pandemic's effect on 600 students pursuing education in secondary and higher secondary levels in Kolkata. The school students' effect was analysed based on four parameters— school, home, a shift in the medium of education from offline to online and the effect on the students' future plans, aims and ambition. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire, which was comprised of structured and semi-structured questions circulated online among the respondents. The respondents were asked to initially rank the indicators and the variables they considered the most critical cause affecting their studies. The respondents were then asked to rate the indicators on a five-point Likert scale to judge the degree of impact of the variables on the respondents. © 2021 Sinha

4.
Cureus ; 14(11), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2203371

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the COVID-19 surge, due to a lack of operating room availability, we performed Achilles tendon tenotomy in clubfoot patients using a 16/18 gauge needle to avoid delay in their management. The procedures were performed on an outpatient basis. The current retrospective study aims to investigate the effectiveness of needle tenotomy for the correction of equinus in clubfoot at a minimum of one year of follow-up.Methods: Clinical records of all clubfoot patients that underwent needle tenotomy of Achilles tendon from March 2020 onwards with at least one year of follow-up were reviewed. We recorded Pirani scores and the equinus deformity at the initial presentation, after Achilles tendon tenotomy, and at the final follow-up. We also recorded any procedure-related complications following the Achilles tendon tenotomy. We compared dorsiflexion after final cast removal and after one year of follow-up.Results: A total of 26 clubfeet in 14 patients underwent needle tenotomy of the Achilles tendon and completed one year of follow-up. Ankle dorsiflexion was achievable in all patients and the mean dorsiflexion of 27.4 degrees. The average Pirani score after tenotomy at final cast removal was 0.16, while the mean dorsiflexion at final cast removal was 24.2 degrees (p = .00084). No tenotomy procedure-related complications were noted.Conclusion: Percutaneous needle tenotomy of the Achilles tendon is a simple, safe, and effective technique for equinus correction in clubfoot. Considering the less invasive nature of the procedure, it can be done as a short procedure on an outpatient basis and has a limited risk of hemorrhage and other wound-related complications.

5.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(11), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2203299

ABSTRACT

Background At the peak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the need for an orally administered agent to prevent the progression of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection became increasingly evident, which was the impetus behind our investigations with molnupiravir. Molnupiravir has been shown to be effective in preventing hospitalizations and/or clinical complications in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in Indian patients with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and at least one risk factor for disease progression (CTRI/2021/05/033739).Methodology This was a phase III, multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled study conducted in Indian adults aged 18-60 years with mild SARS-CoV-2, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-positive within 48 hours of enrollment in the study, and within five days of first symptom onset. Enrolled patients were randomized to treatment arms in a 1:1 ratio to receive molnupiravir or placebo in addition to the standard of care (SoC) for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SoC was in compliance with Government of India guidelines that were in force at the time. The primary endpoint was the rate of hospitalization up to day 14. Safety endpoints included incidence of adverse events (AEs).Results Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive molnupiravir in addition to SoC treatment (n = 608) or SoC alone (n = 610). In the molnupiravir group, nine (1.48%) patients required hospitalization versus 26 (4.26%) patients in the control group (risk difference =-2.78%;95% CI =-4.65,-0.90;p = 0.0053). Overall, 45 (3.70%) patients reported 47 AEs during the study, most of which were mild and resolved completely. The molnupiravir group reported 30 AEs compared to 17 AEs in the control group. Headache and nausea were the two most commonly reported AEs.Conclusions The molnupiravir arm showed a lower rate of hospitalization and a shorter time for the improvement of clinical symptoms coupled with early RT-PCR negativity. Molnupiravir was well tolerated, and AEs were mild and rare. The addition of molnupiravir to standard therapy has the potential to prevent the progression of mild COVID-19 disease to the severe form.

6.
10th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization ,Trends and Future Directions, ICRITO 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191923

ABSTRACT

Machine learning has seen a considerable increase in performance and interest in scientific research and industrial applications over the previous decade. The success of most current state-of-the-art methods can be linked to recent deep learning advancements. Deep learning has been demonstrated to outperform not only standard machine learning but also highly specialized tools designed by domain specialists when applied to many scientific fields involving the processing of non-tabular data, such as pictures or text. This article will cover ML-based research on SARS-Co V-2 Proteinase Biological Activity classification, with an emphasis on the most recent successes and research trends. SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) produced a global pandemic of coronavirus illness (COVID-19), which prompted a rush to find treatment options. Despite the attempts, no vaccine or medicine for therapy has been approved. In this paper, we mentioned some previous articles that have resulted in successful bioactivity prediction. The discussion of the machine having to learn technology that has been used for bioactivity prediction in general and has the potential to lead the way for successful working with complex molecules in the future is also a focus of this review. The study finishes with a brief viewpoint on contemporary machine learning research advances, including student engagement and semi-supervised learning, which offer considerable potential for increasing bioactive discovery. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
British Journal of Surgery ; 109, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2188286
8.
Rairo-Operations Research ; 56(6):4191-4227, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2186235

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has turned our life topsy-turvy. It has bought a massive change in all sectors around the world. A great number of research papers have already been published accounting for various aspects of the COVID-19 issue, owing to the ever-increasing interest in this hot area. The essential data is gathered using the well-known and dependable search engine SCOPUS. We looked at research papers, journals, and reviews from 25 leading countries to highlight a comprehensive study of research output through COVID-19 papers. This study focuses on the top authors, leading articles, and journals from various nations, the percentage of published papers in various fields, and the top collaborative research work from different authors and countries. USA, UK, China, Italy, and India have all made a significant contribution to COVID-19 research. The USA is the leading country followed by UK and China but for H-index China is in the best position. The highest number of papers has been developed in the area of "medicine". The Harvard Medical School of the UK contributed the highest number of papers followed by the University of Toronto of Canada. Professor K. Dhama of India has published the highest number of papers while C. Huang of China received the highest number of citations. It also highlights that several authors have differing opinions on the efficacy of taking the medicine remdesivir. Our research provides a complete and comprehensive image of the virus's current research status, or in other words, a roadmap of the present research status.

9.
ACS Bio & Med chem Au ; 2(6):627-641, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185502

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is an ongoing threat to global health, and the continuing emergence of contagious variants highlights the urgent need for additional antiviral therapy to attenuate COVID-19 disease. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (3CLpro) presents an attractive target for such therapy due to its high sequence conservation and key role in the viral life cycle. In this study, we designed a fluorescent-luminescent cell-based reporter for the detection and quantification of 3CLpro intracellular activity. Employing this platform, we examined the efficiency of known protease inhibitors against 3CLpro and further identified potent inhibitors through high-throughput chemical screening. Computational analysis confirmed a direct interaction of the lead compounds with the protease catalytic site and identified a prototype for efficient allosteric inhibition. These developments address a pressing need for a convenient sensor and specific targets for both virus detection and rapid discovery of potential inhibitors.

10.
PLoS Pathogens ; 18(12):e1010994, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162605

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 necessitates unremitting efforts to discover novel therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we report an extremely potent mAb named P4A2 that can neutralize all the circulating variants of concern (VOCs) with high efficiency, including the highly transmissible Omicron. The crystal structure of the P4A2 Fab:RBD complex revealed that the residues of the RBD that interact with P4A2 are a part of the ACE2-receptor-binding motif and are not mutated in any of the VOCs. The pan coronavirus pseudotyped neutralization assay confirmed that the P4A2 mAb is specific for SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs. Passive administration of P4A2 to K18-hACE2 transgenic mice conferred protection, both prophylactically and therapeutically, against challenge with VOCs. Overall, our data shows that, the P4A2 mAb has immense therapeutic potential to neutralize the current circulating VOCs. Due to the overlap between the P4A2 epitope and ACE2 binding site on Spike-RBD, P4A2 may also be highly effective against a number of future variants.

11.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(674):eabq6682, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2152884

ABSTRACT

The lung naturally resists Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) in healthy individuals, but multiple conditions can disrupt this resistance, leading to lethal invasive infections. Core processes of natural resistance and its breakdown are undefined. We investigated three distinct conditions predisposing to lethal aspergillosis-severe SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection, influenza A viral pneumonia, and systemic corticosteroid use-in human patients and murine models. We found a conserved and essential coupling of innate B1a lymphocytes, Af-binding natural immunoglobulin G antibodies, and lung neutrophils. Failure of this axis concealed Af from neutrophils, allowing rapid fungal invasion and disease. Reconstituting the axis with immunoglobulin therapy reestablished resistance, thus representing a realistic pathway to repurpose currently available therapies. Together, we report a vital host resistance pathway that is responsible for protecting against life-threatening aspergillosis in the context of distinct susceptibilities.

12.
Nature ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2151057

ABSTRACT

Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection through the modulation of viral host receptors, such as ACE2(1), could represent a new chemoprophylactic approach for COVID-19 complementing vaccination(2,3). However, the mechanisms controlling ACE2 expression remain elusive. Here, we identify the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) as a direct regulator of ACE2 transcription in multiple COVID19-affected tissues, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. We then use the over-the-counter compound z-guggulsterone (ZGG) and the off-patent drug ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) to reduce FXR signalling and downregulate ACE2 in human lung, cholangiocyte and intestinal organoids and in the corresponding tissues in mice and hamsters. We demonstrate that UDCA-mediated ACE2 downregulation reduces susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, in vivo and in human lungs and livers perfused ex situ. Furthermore, we illustrate that UDCA reduces ACE2 expression in the nasal epithelium in humans. Finally, we identify a correlation between UDCA treatment and positive clinical outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection using retrospective registry data, and confirm these findings in an independent validation cohort of liver transplant recipients. In conclusion, we identify a novel function of FXR in controlling ACE2 expression and provide evidence that modulation of this pathway could be beneficial for reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection, paving the road for future clinical trials.

13.
COVID-19 Pandemic, Public Policy, and Institutions in India: Issues of Labour, Income, and Human Development ; : 184-200, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2144523

ABSTRACT

This chapter glances through the desired roles of businesses as corporate citizens in society and discusses why ‘CSR as Unusual’ is needed in times of crisis, like the COVID-19 pandemic. Through a qualitative study of secondary data, the author reviews the disasters/pandemic-related public policies and companies’ CSR policies separately, along with contributions made by firms and wealthy entrepreneurs for the COVID-19 pandemic relief. Although the findings acknowledge the businesses’ contributions, they also simultaneously raise some questions if firms could have played their role differently and done better in such times of crisis. The chapter also reflects on some severe consequences of the Government’s interferences in CSR. Also, it expresses concerns over the blurred, ad hoc, and spend-centric CSR responses by firms to the pandemic, primarily done for the private benefit. Finally, the author summarizes all his arguments to term it ‘Conspicuous CSR’. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Indranil De, Soumyadip Chattopadhyay, Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan, and Kingshuk Sarkar;individual chapters, the contributors.

14.
British Journal of Surgery ; 109(Supplement 4):iv2-iv3, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2134867

ABSTRACT

Introduction: WHO declared a pandemic of COVID-19 in March 2020. This study analyses the impact of COVID-19 on beta-cell replacement therapy in the UK. Method(s): Pancreas and islet donation and transplant activity in the period March 2020/2021 was compared with the same period the previous year. Result(s): 2,180 patients had a functioning graft during March 2020/2021. 5.8%(n=126) tested positive for COVID-19 and two died (1%). In this period there was a 43% reduction in solid organ donors n=1,615, compared with the previous year, n=2,840. Of the 625 solid organ donors with a pancreas offered, 32% had the pancreas retrieved compared with 51% the previous period. 97 whole pancreas and islet transplants were performed in the UK down 54% from the prior period. Of the 84 pancreas transplant recipients;four tested positive for COVID-19 but none died, and two grafts failed within the first week from vascular thrombosis (neither were COVID-19 positive). Of the 13 SIK and islet alone transplant recipients, two tested positive for COVID-19 but neither died. Of these SIK transplants, one is known to have failed within a month and this is equivalent to that seen in the previous time period. To our knowledge, no patient receiving beta cell replacement therapy died of COVID during the first year of the pandemic despite immunosuppression. Conclusion(s): In the UK, pancreas, and islet transplantation have continued during the pandemic at a lower rate. Outcomes following transplantation within the COVID era are, so far, similar to those in the period prior. Take-home message: Outcomes following transplantation within the COVID era are, so far, similar to those in the period prior.

15.
Translational Bioinformatics in Healthcare and Medicine ; 13:171-182, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2129641

ABSTRACT

The amount of raw data has exponentially increased due to tools and technologies for analysis of biologic organisms (including viruses). The task now, therefore, is to have computational systems that allow the average researcher to calculate information to store, retrieve, visualize, and analyze data. Fortunately, the advancement of computer technology, particularly that relating to databases, has balanced continuous improvements to data-intensive biologic technologies. This research forms the foundation of many of the bioinformatics technologies that provide an overview of the different databases available for viruses and how they provide valuable information from the stored biologic data. The different tools associated with virus analysis are also discussed, accompanied by a summary of several online databases that contain general biologic and viral data. The chapter also features a case study on evaluating genome relationship between SARS-CoV-2 strains at different geolocations. © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

16.
International Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics and Applications, ICNDA 2022 ; : 1425-1434, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2128342

ABSTRACT

Sudden and unexpected outbreak of covid-19 has left a serious impression on Indian as well as global economy. A simple way of investigating and verifying this impact is to mind the movement of stock values and consequent market swing. In this piece of work, we tried to figure out the movement pattern of stock prices in different sectors. We carefully picked some representative stocks from each of the sectors and tried to perceive their beat to beat and overall movement in the pandemic period and express through mathematical language. This study offered some interesting, valuable and to some extent ‘counter-intuitive’ insights. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

17.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:893, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2125993

ABSTRACT

Background: Membranous nephropathy is a relatively common glomerular pathology that manifests with either nephrotic or sub-nephrotic range proteinuria. Evidence is emerging of COVID-19 and its vaccines having an influence on various glomerular diseases, including IgA nephropathy and minimal change disease, with limited information on membranous nephropathy. Data from our tertiary centre suggested a rise in cases of membranous nephropathy within a month after vaccination. Method(s): Patients who had renal biopsies in 2021 were identified from pathology results and online clinical records. Information on COVID-19 status, COVID vaccinations and biochemical results were compared. Patients were then split into 2 groups;those presenting within 1 month of vaccination or COVID infection and those who hadn't had vaccinations or a COVID infection within 4 weeks of presentation. Result(s): Complete vaccination and COVID infection history was present in 17 of the 24 patients. Of the 17 patients, 6 were in group 1 and 11 in group 2. 16 out of the 17 patients had nephrotic range proteinuria, 6 also had an AKI at presentation. There was no significant difference in presentation between the groups (see table 1). Conclusion(s): Our data has not conclusively shown a difference between the two groups probably because of the low numbers. But further studies are needed to see if there is a link between either COVID infections or COVID vaccinations and glomerular disease.

18.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:892-893, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2124798

ABSTRACT

Background: Presenting features for glomerular disease can be varied, including but not exclusively, acute kidney injury, nephrotic syndrome or haemo-proteinuria. At our regional tertiary centre we conducted a retrospective study to see whether clinical presentations of glomerular diseases had changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method(s): In this study, new and repeat native renal biopsies were included from January 2018 to October 2021. Glomerular pathologies of interest included minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis and pauciimmune glomerulonephritis. We looked at three periods of time: prior to the start COVID-19 pandemic in 2018/19;during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020;and after the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines in 2021. Result(s): 263 biopsies were identified over the 4-year period. IgA nephropathy - n = 13. Lupus nephritis - n = 43. The different classes of lupus nephritis are shown in (see figure 1) Minimal change disease - n = 57. All presented with the nephrotic syndrome. Between 6-25% over the study period presented with AKI (mean 19%) Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis - n = 85. Between 81%-91% over the study period presented with AKI, or AKI on CKD (mean 84%) Membranous glomerulopathy - n = 66. 50%, presented with the nephrotic syndrome. 20% presented with AKI in addition to proteinuria. Conclusion(s): Our analysis has not shown a significant change in clinical presentations of glomerular disease. There has not been an increased propensity in presenting with AKI in minimal change disease or membranous nephropathy. We saw the highest proportion of class IV lupus nephritis in 2021.

19.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:307, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2124691

ABSTRACT

Background: Glomerular disease carries a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. There is emerging evidence of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 vaccination on glomerular disease. The aim of the study was to retrospectively analyse our experience of the incidence of glomerular disease between 2018 and 2021. Method(s): Native renal biopsy results were reviewed to compare the incidence of glomerular disease prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (2018/19);prior to development of COVID-19 vaccination (2020);and after the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines (2021). Biopsy data from January 2018 to October 2021 were collated from pathology records for all glomerular disease patients in our unit. We focused on the incidence of IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. Result(s): 263 native biopsies were performed;45 biopsies in 2018, 75 in 2019, 65 in 2020 and 78 in the first ten months of 2021. The proportional incidence of each disease is shown in figure 1. The incidence of membranous nephropathy was noted to be higher in 2021, coinciding with the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccine programme in the UK, from an average of 23% of cases between 2018-2020, to 31% in the first ten months of 2021. The overall incidence of glomerular disease, excluding vasculitis, seemed to have fallen during 2020. Conclusion(s): The emergence of COVID-19 does not appear to have caused a significant increase in the overall incidence of glomerular disease in our population. We noted an increase in the incidence of membranous nephropathy following the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccination programme in 2021. The relatively lower incidence in 2020 could be related to limited access to primary health care practitioners and consequent reduction in referrals to secondary care at the time.

20.
British Journal of Surgery ; 109(Supplement 5):v137-v138, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2134946

ABSTRACT

Aims: To review kidney transplant rejection rate following change in immunosuppression regime due to COVID pandemic. Induction immunosuppression changed from Alemtuzumab pre-COVID to Basiliximab during COVID pandemic period. Maintenance immunosuppressant included The addition of prednisolone to tacrolimus and mycophenolate in The COVID period. Method(s): Retrospective analysis of patients that underwent cadaveric kidney transplant in a single transplant Surgical unit. Rejection was confirmed following transplant kidney biopsy. Result(s): Total of 192 patient records were reviewed. 96 patients underwent kidney transplant between March to November 2019 (pre-COVID group). 96 patients underwent kidney transplant between March to July 2020 (COVID pandemic group). Rejection number pre-COVID group was 6 (total number of biopsy was 30). Rejection number COVID group was 5 (total number of biopsy was 14). Pre-COVID group follow up was for 16 months. COVID group follow up period was for 6 months. Conclusion(s): Early follow up result suggests possibly higher rejection rate with Basiliximab when compared to Alemtuzumab group. Longer term follow up in post-COVID kidney transplant needs to be carried out to draw stronger conclusion. Risk of lymphocyte depleting induction agent during COVID crisis versus potential higher risk of rejection with non-depleting agent needs to be balanced.

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