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Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228548


Coronaviruses infections, culminating in the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic beginning in 2019, have highlighted the importance of effective vaccines to induce an antibody response with cross-neutralizing activity. COVID-19 vaccines have been rapidly developed to reduce the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections and disease severity. Cross-protection from seasonal human coronaviruses (hCoVs) infections has been hypothesized but is still controversial. Here, we investigated the neutralizing activity against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and the variants of concern (VOCs) in individuals vaccinated with two doses of either BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or AZD1222, with or without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antibody neutralizing activity to SARS-CoV-2 and the VOCs was higher in BNT162b2-vaccinated subjects who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and conferred broad-spectrum protection. The Omicron BA.1 variant was the most resistant among the VOCs. COVID-19 vaccination did not confer protection against hCoV-HKU1. Conversely, antibodies induced by mRNA-1273 vaccination displayed a boosting in their neutralizing activity against hCoV-NL63, whereas AZD1222 vaccination increased antibody neutralization against hCoV-229E, suggesting potential differences in antigenicity and immunogenicity of the different spike constructs used between various vaccination platforms. These data would suggest that there may be shared epitopes between the HCoVs and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins.

Front Immunol ; 13: 842468, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080127


The role of the mucosal pulmonary antibody response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcome remains unclear. Here, we found that in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 48 patients with severe COVID-19-infected with the ancestral Wuhan virus, mucosal IgG and IgA specific for S1, receptor-binding domain (RBD), S2, and nucleocapsid protein (NP) emerged in BAL containing viruses early in infection and persist after virus elimination, with more IgA than IgG for all antigens tested. Furthermore, spike-IgA and spike-IgG immune complexes were detected in BAL, especially when the lung virus has been cleared. BAL IgG and IgA recognized the four main RBD variants. BAL neutralizing titers were higher early in COVID-19 when virus replicates in the lung than later in infection after viral clearance. Patients with fatal COVID-19, in contrast to survivors, developed higher levels of mucosal spike-specific IgA than IgG but lost neutralizing activities over time and had reduced IL-1ß in the lung. Altogether, mucosal spike and NP-specific IgG and S1-specific IgA persisting after lung severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance and low pulmonary IL-1ß correlate with COVID-19 fatal outcome. Thus, mucosal SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies may have adverse functions in addition to protective neutralization. Highlights: Mucosal pulmonary antibody response in COVID-19 outcome remains unclear. We show that in severe COVID-19 patients, mucosal pulmonary non-neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 IgA persit after viral clearance in the lung. Furthermore, low lung IL-1ß correlate with fatal COVID-19. Altogether, mucosal IgA may exert harmful functions beside protective neutralization.

COVID-19 , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Lung , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus