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2.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 275-286, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661973

ABSTRACT

The humoral arm of innate immunity includes diverse molecules with antibody-like functions, some of which serve as disease severity biomarkers in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present study was designed to conduct a systematic investigation of the interaction of human humoral fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Of 12 PRMs tested, the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) bound the viral nucleocapsid and spike proteins, respectively. MBL bound trimeric spike protein, including that of variants of concern (VoC), in a glycan-dependent manner and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in three in vitro models. Moreover, after binding to spike protein, MBL activated the lectin pathway of complement activation. Based on retention of glycosylation sites and modeling, MBL was predicted to recognize the Omicron VoC. Genetic polymorphisms at the MBL2 locus were associated with disease severity. These results suggest that selected humoral fluid-phase PRMs can play an important role in resistance to, and pathogenesis of, COVID-19, a finding with translational implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , Complement Activation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Female , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/genetics , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Amyloid P-Component/immunology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(4): 817-836, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340268

ABSTRACT

The MS4A gene family encodes 18 tetraspanin-like proteins, most of which with unknown function. MS4A1 (CD20), MS4A2 (FcεRIß), MS4A3 (HTm4), and MS4A4A play important roles in immunity, whereas expression and function of other members of the family are unknown. The present investigation was designed to obtain an expression fingerprint of MS4A family members, using bioinformatics analysis of public databases, RT-PCR, and protein analysis when possible. MS4A3, MS4A4A, MS4A4E, MS4A6A, MS4A7, and MS4A14 were expressed by myeloid cells. MS4A6A and MS4A14 were expressed in circulating monocytes and decreased during monocyte-to-Mϕ differentiation in parallel with an increase in MS4A4A expression. Analysis of gene expression regulation revealed a strong induction of MS4A4A, MS4A6A, MS4A7, and MS4A4E by glucocorticoid hormones. Consistently with in vitro findings, MS4A4A and MS4A7 were expressed in tissue Mϕs from COVID-19 and rheumatoid arthritis patients. Interestingly, MS4A3, selectively expressed in myeloid precursors, was found to be a marker of immature circulating neutrophils, a cellular population associated to COVID-19 severe disease. The results reported here show that members of the MS4A family are differentially expressed and regulated during myelomonocytic differentiation, and call for assessment of their functional role and value as therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Membrane Proteins , Antigens, CD20 , Family , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Monocytes/metabolism
4.
Nat Immunol ; 22(1): 19-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065905

ABSTRACT

Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an essential component of humoral innate immunity, involved in resistance to selected pathogens and in the regulation of inflammation1-3. The present study was designed to assess the presence and significance of PTX3 in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)4-7. RNA-sequencing analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, single-cell bioinformatics analysis and immunohistochemistry of lung autopsy samples revealed that myelomonocytic cells and endothelial cells express high levels of PTX3 in patients with COVID-19. Increased plasma concentrations of PTX3 were detected in 96 patients with COVID-19. PTX3 emerged as a strong independent predictor of 28-d mortality in multivariable analysis, better than conventional markers of inflammation, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The prognostic significance of PTX3 abundance for mortality was confirmed in a second independent cohort (54 patients). Thus, circulating and lung myelomonocytic cells and endothelial cells are a major source of PTX3, and PTX3 plasma concentration can serve as an independent strong prognostic indicator of short-term mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Macrophages/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serum Amyloid P-Component/genetics , A549 Cells , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Cohort Studies , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism
5.
Nat Immunol ; 22(1): 19-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933698

ABSTRACT

Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an essential component of humoral innate immunity, involved in resistance to selected pathogens and in the regulation of inflammation1-3. The present study was designed to assess the presence and significance of PTX3 in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)4-7. RNA-sequencing analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, single-cell bioinformatics analysis and immunohistochemistry of lung autopsy samples revealed that myelomonocytic cells and endothelial cells express high levels of PTX3 in patients with COVID-19. Increased plasma concentrations of PTX3 were detected in 96 patients with COVID-19. PTX3 emerged as a strong independent predictor of 28-d mortality in multivariable analysis, better than conventional markers of inflammation, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The prognostic significance of PTX3 abundance for mortality was confirmed in a second independent cohort (54 patients). Thus, circulating and lung myelomonocytic cells and endothelial cells are a major source of PTX3, and PTX3 plasma concentration can serve as an independent strong prognostic indicator of short-term mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Macrophages/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serum Amyloid P-Component/genetics , A549 Cells , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Cohort Studies , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism
6.
Clin Immunol ; 220: 108598, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778645

ABSTRACT

Growing clinical evidence has implicated complement as a pivotal driver of COVID-19 immunopathology. Deregulated complement activation may fuel cytokine-driven hyper-inflammation, thrombotic microangiopathy and NET-driven immunothrombosis, thereby leading to multi-organ failure. Complement therapeutics have gained traction as candidate drugs for countering the detrimental consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whether blockade of terminal complement effectors (C5, C5a, or C5aR1) may elicit similar outcomes to upstream intervention at the level of C3 remains debated. Here we compare the efficacy of the C5-targeting monoclonal antibody eculizumab with that of the compstatin-based C3-targeted drug candidate AMY-101 in small independent cohorts of severe COVID-19 patients. Our exploratory study indicates that therapeutic complement inhibition abrogates COVID-19 hyper-inflammation. Both C3 and C5 inhibitors elicit a robust anti-inflammatory response, reflected by a steep decline in C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, marked lung function improvement, and resolution of SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). C3 inhibition afforded broader therapeutic control in COVID-19 patients by attenuating both C3a and sC5b-9 generation and preventing FB consumption. This broader inhibitory profile was associated with a more robust decline of neutrophil counts, attenuated neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release, faster serum LDH decline, and more prominent lymphocyte recovery. These early clinical results offer important insights into the differential mechanistic basis and underlying biology of C3 and C5 inhibition in COVID-19 and point to a broader pathogenic involvement of C3-mediated pathways in thromboinflammation. They also support the evaluation of these complement-targeting agents as COVID-19 therapeutics in large prospective trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Complement C3/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement C5/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation/drug effects , Complement C3/genetics , Complement C3/immunology , Complement C5/genetics , Complement C5/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/virology , Pandemics , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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