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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335496

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Limited number of medications are available for the post-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19 infection. Whether bromhexine can prevent or mitigate symptomatic infection after virus exposure is undetermined. Methods A multi-center randomized;double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. The 372 adults (≥ 18 years) who had close contact within 4 days with a household member with confirmed COVID-19 were randomly assigned to receive bromhexine (n = 187) or placebo (n = 185) three times a day for two weeks. The primary outcome was the incidence of symptomatic COVID-19. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of hospitalization or death, the incidence of confirmed COVID-19 detection by PCR in symptomatic patients and presence of adverse drug reactions. Results The incidence of symptomatic COVID-19 was significantly lower in individuals who received bromhexine than in those who received the placebo (16 [8.6%] vs 34 [18.4%], relative risk = 0.47, p = 0.005). PCR-confirmation was reported in 13 (7.0%) and 26 (14.1%) of the individuals in the bromhexine and placebo groups, respectively ( p =  0.025), with a relative risk reduction of 50%. The hospitalization rate, death and medication side effects did not vary significantly between the bromhexine or placebo arms. Conclusion Bromhexine is an effective, non-invasive, and affordable agent with a low side-effect profile to prevent symptomatic COVID-19. Early use of bromhexine potentially provides another layer of protection and hence it can play a prominent role in ending the pandemic especially given the emergence of new variants and the vaccination challenges faced by developing countries.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-304915

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Considering the anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin and the role of medical comorbidities such as hypertension and coronary artery disease on prognosis of the COVID-19 patients, we aimed to assess the effect of atorvastatin add-on therapy on mortality due to COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, including patients who were hospitalized with confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19. Baseline characteristics and related clinical data of patients were recorded. Clinical outcomes consist of in hospital mortality, need for invasive mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. COX regression analysis models were used to assess the association of independent factors to outcomes. Results: Atorvastatin was administered for 421 out of 991 patients. The mean age was 61.640±17.003 years. Older age, higher prevalence of hypertension and coronary artery disease reported in patients who received atorvastatin. These patients had shorter hospital length of stay (P=0.001). Based on COX proportional hazard model, in hospital use of atorvastatin was associated to decrease in mortality (HR=0.679, P=0.005) and lower need for invasive mechanical ventilation (HR=0.602, P=0.014). Conclusions: Atorvastatin add-on therapy in patient with severe COVID-19 was associated with lower in hospital mortality and reduced the risk of need for invasive mechanical ventilation which support to continue the prescription of the medication.

3.
Bull Emerg Trauma ; 10(1): 9-15, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687831

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the levels of troponin I in COVID-19 patients and its role in the prediction of their in-hospital mortality as a cardiac biomarker. METHODS: The current retrospective cohort study was performed on the clinical records of 649 COVID-19-related hospitalized cases with at leat one positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test in Tehran, Iran from February 2020 to early June 2020. The on admission troponin I level divided into two groups of ≤0.03ng/mL (normal) and >0.03ng/mL (abnormal). The adjusted COX-regression model was used to determine the relationship between the studied variables and patient's in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: In this study, the median age of subjects was 65 years (54.8% men) and 29.53% of them had abnormal troponin I levels. Besides, the in-hospital mortality rate among patients with abnormal troponin I levels was found to be 51.56%; whereas, patients with normal levels exhibited 18.82% mortality. Also, the multivariable analysis indicated that the risk of death among hospitalized COVID-19 patients displaying abnormal troponin I levels was 67% higher than those with normal troponin I levels (Hazard ratio=1.67, 95% confidence interval=1.08-2.56, p=0.019). CONCLUSION: It seems that troponin I is one of the important factors related to in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients. Next, due to the high prevalence of cardiac complications in these patients, it is highly suggested to monitor and control cardiac biomarkers along with other clinical factors upon the patient's arrival at the hospital.

4.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12: 100871, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a scoring system as a tool for predicting the in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients in early stage of disease. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study, conducted on 893 COVID-19 patients in Tehran from February 18 to July 20, 2020. Potential factors were chosen via stepwise selection and multivariable logistic regression model. Cross-validation method was employed to assess the predictive performance of the model as well as the scoring system such as discrimination, calibration, and validity indices. RESULTS: The COVID-19 patients' median age was 63 yrs (54.98% male) and 233 (26.09%) patients expired during the study. The scoring system was developed based on 8 selected variables: age ≥55 yrs (OR = 5.67, 95% CI: 3.25-9.91), males (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.007-2.29), ICU need (OR = 16.32, 95% CI 10.13-26.28), pulse rate >90 (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.26-2.83), lymphocytes <17% (OR = 2.33, 95%CI: 1.54-3.50), RBC ≤4, 10 6/L (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.35-3.26), LDH >700 U/L (OR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.13-2.51) and troponin I level >0.03 ng/mL (OR = 1.75, 95%CI: 1.17-2.62). The AUC and the accuracy of scoring system after cross-validation were 79.4% and 79.89%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed that developed scoring system has a good performance and can use to help physicians for identifying high-risk patients in early stage of disease .

5.
Arch Acad Emerg Med ; 9(1): e65, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555483

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adults with underlying medical disorders are at increased risk for severe illness from the virus that causes COVID-19. This study aimed to compare the effect of underlying diseases on the mortality of male and female patients as a primary objective. We also evaluated the effect of drugs previously used by COVID-19 patients on their outcome. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was carried out on confirmed cases of COVID-19 who were admitted to a teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. Data was gathered from patients' files. Log binomial model was used for investigating the association of underlying diseases and in-hospital mortality of these patients. RESULTS: A total of 991 patients (mean age 61.62±17.02; 54.9% male) were recruited. Hypertension (41.1%), diabetes mellitus (30.6%), and coronary artery disease (19.6%) were the most common underlying diseases. The multivariable model showed that hypertension (RR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.22-2.14, p = 0.001) in male patients over 55 years old and coronary artery disease (RR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.24-4.46, p = 0.009) in female patients under 65 years old were risk factors of mortality. In females over 65 years old, the history of taking Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB) (RR = 0.272; 95% CI: 0.17-0.41, p = 0.001) was a significant protective factor for death. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with a history of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and coronary artery disease, especially those in specific age and sex groups, are high-risk patients for in-hospital mortality. Additionally, a previous history of taking ACEi and ARB medications in females over 65 tears old was a protective factor against in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients.

6.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(2): 201-208, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508778

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hyperinflammatory state has a role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Anakinra could reduce inflammation and help to combat the condition. In this study, we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of anakinra (PerkinRA®) in severe COVID-19. METHOD: The study was an open-label, randomized, controlled trial conducted in Imam Hossein Medical Center from May to July 2020. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in this study. We administered anakinra 100 mg daily intravenously. All patients received COVID-19 pharmacotherapy based on the represented national guideline. The need for invasive mechanical ventilation is considered the primary outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients were included in this study, and 15 of them received Anakinra. Nineteen patients were male (63.3%), and 11 were female (36.7%). The mean age of patients was 55.77 ± 15.89 years. In the intervention group, the need for invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly reduced compared to the control group (20.0% vs. 66.7%, p = .010). Also, these patients had a significantly lower length of hospital stay (p = .043). No significant higher rate of infection was recorded. CONCLUSION: Anakinra as an immunomodulatory agent has been associated with the reduced need for mechanical ventilation in patients admitted to intensive care units because of severe COVID-19. The medication reduced the hospital length of stay. Furthermore, no increased risk of infection was observed. Further randomized placebo-controlled trials with a larger sample size are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Clinical epidemiology and global health ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1451441

ABSTRACT

<h4>Background</h4> The aim of this study is to develop and validate a scoring system as a tool for predicting the in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients in early stage of disease. <h4>Methods</h4> This retrospective cohort study, conducted on 893 COVID-19 patients in Tehran from February 18 to July 20, 2020. Potential factors were chosen via stepwise selection and multivariable logistic regression model. Cross-validation method was employed to assess the predictive performance of the model as well as the scoring system such as discrimination, calibration, and validity indices. <h4>Results</h4> The COVID-19 patients’ median age was 63 yrs (54.98% male) and 233 (26.09%) patients expired during the study. The scoring system was developed based on 8 selected variables: age ≥55 yrs (OR = 5.67, 95% CI: 3.25–9.91), males (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.007–2.29), ICU need (OR = 16.32, 95% CI 10.13–26.28), pulse rate >90 (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.26–2.83), lymphocytes <17% (OR = 2.33, 95%CI: 1.54–3.50), RBC ≤4, 10 6/L (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.35–3.26), LDH >700 U/L (OR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.13–2.51) and troponin I level >0.03 ng/mL (OR = 1.75, 95%CI: 1.17–2.62). The AUC and the accuracy of scoring system after cross-validation were 79.4% and 79.89%, respectively. <h4>Conclusion</h4> This study showed that developed scoring system has a good performance and can use to help physicians for identifying high-risk patients in early stage of disease.

8.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
9.
Can J Diabetes ; 45(6): 524-530, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317699

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with diabetes are potentially at higher risk of mortality due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes and severity of pulmonary involvement in COVID-19 patients with and without diabetes. METHODS: In this cohort study, we recruited patients with diabetes who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 during the period from February 2020 to May 2020. Hospitalized individuals without diabetes were enrolled as control subjects. All patients were followed for 90 days and clinical findings and patients' outcomes were reported. RESULTS: Over a period of 4 months, 127 patients with diabetes and 127 individuals without diabetes with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were recruited. Their mean age was 65.70±12.51 years. Mortality was higher in the group with diabetes (22.8% vs 15.0%; p=0.109), although not significantly. More severe pulmonary involvement (p=0.015), extended hospital stay (p<0.001) and greater need for invasive ventilation (p=0.029) were reported in this population. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that diabetes was not independently associated with mortality (p=0.092). Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.054; p=0.003), aggravated pulmonary involvement on admission (OR, 1.149; p=0.001), presence of comorbidities (OR, 1.290; p=0.020) and hypothyroidism (OR, 6.576; p=0.021) were associated with mortality. Diabetic foot infection had a strong positive correlation with mortality (OR, 49.819; p=0.016), whereas insulin therapy had a negative correlation (OR, 0.242; p=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate due to COVID-19 did not differ significantly between patients with or without diabetes. Older age, macrovascular complications and presence of comorbidities could increase mortality in people with diabetes. Insulin therapy during hospitalization could attenuate the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia and improve prognosis of patients with COVID-19 and diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Hospitalization/trends , Respiration Disorders/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Respiration Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Respiration Disorders/therapy
10.
Arch Acad Emerg Med ; 9(1): e45, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although current evidence points to the possible prognostic value of electrocardiographic (ECG) findings for in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients, most of these studies have been performed on a small sample size. In this study, our aim was to investigate the ECG changes as prognostic indicators of in-hospital mortality. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, the findings of the first and the second ECGs of COVID-19 patients were extracted and changes in the ECGs were examined. Any abnormal finding in the second ECG that wasn't present in the initial ECG at the time of admission was defined as an ECG change. ECGs were interpreted by a cardiologist and the prognostic value of abnormal ECG findings for in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients was evaluated using multivariate analysis and the report of the relative risk (RR). RESULTS: Data of the ECGs recorded at the time of admission were extracted from the files of 893 patients; likewise, the second ECGs could be extracted from the records of 328 patients who had an initial ECG. The presence of sinus tachycardia (RR = 2.342; p <0.001), supraventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.688; p = 0.001), ventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.854; p = 0.011), interventricular conduction delays (RR = 1.608; p = 0.009), and abnormal R wave progression (RR = 1.766; p = 0.001) at the time of admission were independent prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality. In the second ECG, sinus tachycardia (RR = 2.222; p <0.001), supraventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.632; p <0.001), abnormal R wave progression (RR = 2.151; p = 0.009), and abnormal T wave (RR = 1.590; p = 0.001) were also independent prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. Moreover, by comparing the first and the second ECGs, it was found that the incidence of supraventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.973; p = 0.005) and ST segment elevation/depression (RR = 2.296; p <0.001) during hospitalization (ECG novel changes) are two independent prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Due to the fact that using electrocardiographic data is easy and accessible and it is easy to continuously monitor patients with this tool, ECGs can be useful in identifying high-risk COVID-19 patients for mortality.

11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14434, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255410

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Considering the anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin and the role of medical comorbidities such as hypertension and coronary artery disease on the prognosis of the COVID-19 patients, we aimed to assess the effect of atorvastatin add-on therapy on mortality caused by COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, including patients who were hospitalised with confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19. Baseline characteristics and related clinical data of patients were recorded. Clinical outcomes consist of in-hospital mortality, need for invasive mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. COX regression analysis models were used to assess the association of independent factors to outcomes. RESULTS: Atorvastatin was administered for 421 of 991 patients. The mean age was 61.640 ± 17.003 years. Older age, higher prevalence of hypertension and coronary artery disease reported in patients who received atorvastatin. These patients have shorter hospital length of stay (P = .001). Based on COX proportional hazard model, in-hospital use of atorvastatin was associated with decrease in mortality (HR = 0.679, P = .005) and lower need for invasive mechanical ventilation (HR = 0.602, P = .014). CONCLUSIONS: Atorvastatin add-on therapy in patient with severe COVID-19 was associated with lower in-hospital mortality and reduced the risk of need for invasive mechanical ventilation which supports to continue the prescription of the medication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206845

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
13.
European Journal of Integrative Medicine ; 42:101271, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-985199

ABSTRACT

Introduction Mechanical ventilation can increase the rate of free radicals in the systemic circulation due to its effect on the inflammatory system. Previous research has suggested that vitamin D has antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D on total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and its relationship with ICU patients' outcomes. Methods In this prospective randomized clinical trial, 36 ventilated ICU patients were randomly allocated to receive either a single intramuscular vitamin D 300,000 IU or its placebo. Serum Vitamin D and TAC were measured before and on day 7 after the intervention. clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were measured daily for seven days and on days 14 and 28. Results Thirty patients completed the study. The results show that injection of vitamin D leads to a significant increase in the mean changes of vitamin D level on the seventh day of the study (+3.5±1.3 vs -0.4±0.2 P=0.00) and TAC levels (3.2±3.9 vs -2.0±2.6 P=0.00. ICU length of stay was 18.3±8.4 and 25.4±6.6 days in the intervention and placebo arms of the study. Twelve patients in the placebo group and 5 in the vitamin D group died within the 28 day study period. The duration of mechanical ventilation was 15.7± 9.3 vs. 22.6± 9.1 days in vitamin D and placebo arms, respectively. Conclusion : Administration of vitamin D may increase TAC levels and decrease the length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation in ICU patients

14.
J. Cell. Mol. Anesth. ; 1(5): 32-36, 20200101.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-684157

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, a cluster of unexplained pneumonia cases has been reported in Wuhan, China, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) which has been spreading in 204 countries. To date no pharmaceutical products have been approved for the treatment of this viral pneumonia. Based on rapid spread of the disease and high disease burden, several agents have been proposed for treatment of this viral pneumonia, mainly antivirals and immunomodulator agents and underwent in-vitro, animal and clinical trials. Some of these agents have been revealed promising preclinical results but, non of them approved yet. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about the mechanism and considerations of widely used investigational agents that are used in the treatment of COVID-19 as off-label.

15.
J. Cell. Mol. Anesth. ; 1(5): 43-46, 20200101.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-683590

ABSTRACT

A pregnant woman (Gravida 2, Abortion 1, twin pregnancy with microinjection, Gestational Age: 23 weeks and 3 days) was referred to a tertiary referral hospital with complaints of fever, dry cough and dyspnea. She was admitted with a diagnosis of COVID-19. During her hospitalization, O2 saturation progressively declined, which required acute respiratory care and support leading to intubation and mechanical ventilation. Gradual recovery occurred through treatment processes and finally the patient was extubated. However, there was another episode of respiratory failure leading to reintubation after 5 days. Meanwhile, serum liver enzymes increased significantly and leaded to intrauterine death of both fetus followed by a critical decline in cardiac output to less than 10% and cardiac arrest followed by unsuccessful resuscitation within hours.

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