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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0204622, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053138

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels wane following two-doses of mRNA vaccination. An mRNA booster dose provides increased protection against hospitalization and death. We demonstrated that a booster dose provides a significant increase in the neutralization of the Beta, Delta and Omicron variants in addition to an increased neutralization of the vaccine strain. The total spike IgG measurements, obtained by using commercial kits that target the spike protein from the vaccine strain, may not reflect serum neutralization against variants of concern. IMPORTANCE This study found little to no neutralizing capability following a 2-dose mRNA vaccine series against the omicron variant, and neutralizing capacity to any variant strain tested was lost by 8-months post 2-dose series. However, the mRNA booster dose eliminated the immune escape observed by the Omicron variant, following the 2-dose series. Even more, the neutralizing titers were significantly higher for all variants post-boost, compared to the titers from the post-two-dose series. Our data are unique, using paired samples that eliminate potential confounders that may impact vaccine response. Notably, as seen after the primary two-dose vaccine series, total antibody levels did not correlate perfectly with variant neutralization activity, suggesting that simply testing titers as a measure of protection may not be a long-term solution. Therefore, it is important to reassess the utility of SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing, as current vaccine strain-based testing may not reliably detect reactive antibodies to Omicron or other variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing
2.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052884

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caught the world largely unprepared, including scientific and policy communities. On April 10-13, 2022, researchers across academia, industry, government, and nonprofit organizations met at the Keystone symposium "Lessons from the Pandemic: Responding to Emerging Zoonotic Viral Diseases" to discuss the successes and challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic and what lessons can be applied moving forward. Speakers focused on experiences not only from the COVID-19 pandemic but also from outbreaks of other pathogens, including the Ebola virus, Lassa virus, and Nipah virus. A general consensus was that investments made during the COVID-19 pandemic in infrastructure, collaborations, laboratory and manufacturing capacity, diagnostics, clinical trial networks, and regulatory enhancements-notably, in low-to-middle income countries-must be maintained and strengthened to enable quick, concerted responses to future threats, especially to zoonotic pathogens.

3.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998874

ABSTRACT

In late 2021, the omicron variant of SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged and replaced the previously dominant delta strain. Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against omicron has been challenging to estimate in clinical studies or is not available for all vaccines or populations of interest. T cell function can be predictive of vaccine longevity and effectiveness against disease, likely in a more robust way than antibody neutralization. In this mini review, we summarize the evidence on T cell immunity against omicron including effects of boosters, homologous versus heterologous regimens, hybrid immunity, memory responses and vaccine product. Overall, T cell reactivity in post-vaccine specimens is largely preserved against omicron, indicating that vaccines utilizing the parental antigen continue to be protective against disease caused by the omicron variant.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_1): S61-S71, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Male sex and old age are risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019, but the intersection of sex and aging on antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines has not been characterized. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from older adults (aged 75-98 years) before and after 3 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, and from younger adults (aged 18-74 years) post-dose 2, for comparison. Antibody binding to SARS-CoV-2 antigens (spike protein [S], S receptor-binding domain, and nucleocapsid), functional activity against S, and live-virus neutralization were measured against the vaccine virus and the Alpha, Delta, and Omicron variants of concern (VOCs). RESULTS: Vaccination induced greater antibody titers in older females than in older males, with both age and frailty associated with reduced antibody responses in males but not females. Responses declined significantly in the 6 months after the second dose. The third dose restored functional antibody responses and eliminated disparities caused by sex, age, and frailty in older adults. Responses to the VOCs, particularly the Omicron variant, were significantly reduced relative to the vaccine virus, with older males having lower titers to the VOCs than older females. Older adults had lower responses to the vaccine and VOC viruses than younger adults, with greater disparities in males than in females. CONCLUSIONS: Older and frail males may be more vulnerable to breakthrough infections owing to low antibody responses before receipt of a third vaccine dose. Promoting third dose coverage in older adults, especially males, is crucial to protecting this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Viral Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869857

ABSTRACT

Assessing COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is crucial for determining future vaccination strategies and other public health strategies. When clinical effectiveness data are unavailable, a common method of assessing vaccine performance is to utilize neutralization assays using post-vaccination sera. Neutralization studies are typically performed across a wide array of settings, populations and vaccination strategies, and using different methodologies. For any comparison and meta-analysis to be meaningful, the design and methodology of the studies used must at minimum address aspects that confer a certain degree of reliability and comparability. We identified and characterized three important categories in which studies differ (cohort details, assay details and data reporting details) and that can affect the overall reliability and/or usefulness of neutralization assay results. We define reliability as a measure of methodological accuracy, proper study setting concerning subjects, samples and viruses, and reporting quality. Each category comprises a set of several relevant key parameters. To each parameter, we assigned a possible impact (ranging from low to high) on overall study reliability depending on its potential to influence the results. We then developed a reliability assessment tool that assesses the aggregate reliability of a study across all parameters. The reliability assessment tool provides explicit selection criteria for inclusion of comparable studies in meta-analyses of neutralization activity of SARS-CoV-2 variants in post-vaccination sera and can also both guide the design of future neutralization studies and serve as a checklist for including important details on key parameters in publications.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337641

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody responses are attenuated in many solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) despite SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with the monoclonal antibody combination Tixagevimab and Cilgavimab (T+C) might augment immunoprotection, yet activity against Omicron sublineages in vaccinated SOTRs is unknown. Vaccinated SOTRs who received 300+300mg T+C (either single dose or two 150+150mg doses) within a prospective observational cohort submitted pre- and post-injection samples between 1/10/2022-4/4/2022. Binding antibody (anti-receptor binding domain [RBD], Roche) and surrogate neutralization (%ACE2 inhibition;≥20% connoting neutralizing inhibition, Meso Scale Discovery) were measured against variants including Omicron sublineages BA.1 and BA.2. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test and McNemar’s test. Among 61 participants, median (IQR) anti-RBD increased from 424 (IQR <0.8-2322.5) to 3394.5 (IQR 1403.9-7002.5) U/ml post T+C (p<0.001). The proportion demonstrating vaccine strain neutralizing inhibition increased from 46% to 100% post-T+C (p<0.001). BA.1 neutralization was low and did not increase (8% to 16% of participants post-T+C, p=0.06). In contrast, BA.2 neutralization increased from 7% to 72% of participants post-T+C (p<0.001). T+C increased anti-RBD levels, yet BA.1 neutralizing activity was minimal. Encouragingly, BA.2 neutralization was augmented and in the current variant climate T+C PrEP may serve as a useful complement to vaccination in high-risk SOTRs.

7.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 11(3): e12192, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739175

ABSTRACT

Several vaccines have been introduced to combat the coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines include mRNA-containing lipid nanoparticles or adenoviral vectors that encode the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, inactivated virus, or protein subunits. Despite growing success in worldwide vaccination efforts, additional capabilities may be needed in the future to address issues such as stability and storage requirements, need for vaccine boosters, desirability of different routes of administration, and emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants such as the Delta variant. Here, we present a novel, well-characterized SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate based on extracellular vesicles (EVs) of Salmonella typhimurium that are decorated with the mammalian cell culture-derived Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). RBD-conjugated outer membrane vesicles (RBD-OMVs) were used to immunize the golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model of COVID-19. Intranasal immunization resulted in high titres of blood anti-RBD IgG as well as detectable mucosal responses. Neutralizing antibody activity against wild-type and Delta variants was evident in all vaccinated subjects. Upon challenge with live virus, hamsters immunized with RBD-OMV, but not animals immunized with unconjugated OMVs or a vehicle control, avoided body mass loss, had lower virus titres in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and experienced less severe lung pathology. Our results emphasize the value and versatility of OMV-based vaccine approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Vesicles , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Liposomes , Mammals , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JCI Insight ; 7(5)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662370

ABSTRACT

Benchmarks for protective immunity from infection or severe disease after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are still being defined. Here, we characterized virus neutralizing and ELISA antibody levels, cellular immune responses, and viral variants in 4 separate groups: healthy controls (HCs) weeks (early) or months (late) following vaccination in comparison with symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 after partial or full mRNA vaccination. During the period of the study, most symptomatic breakthrough infections were caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant. Neutralizing antibody levels in the HCs were sustained over time against the vaccine parent virus but decreased against the Alpha variant, whereas IgG titers and T cell responses against the parent virus and Alpha variant declined over time. Both partially and fully vaccinated patients with symptomatic infections had lower virus neutralizing antibody levels against the parent virus than the HCs, similar IgG antibody titers, and similar virus-specific T cell responses measured by IFN-γ. Compared with HCs, neutralization activity against the Alpha variant was lower in the partially vaccinated infected patients and tended to be lower in the fully vaccinated infected patients. In this cohort of breakthrough infections, parent virus neutralization was the superior predictor of breakthrough infections with the Alpha variant of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Am J Transplant ; 22(4): 1253-1260, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583700

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) and breakthrough infections are more common. Additional SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses increase anti-spike IgG in some SOTRs, but it is uncertain whether neutralization of variants of concern (VOCs) is enhanced. We tested 47 SOTRs for clinical and research anti-spike IgG, pseudoneutralization (ACE2 blocking), and live-virus neutralization (nAb) against VOCs before and after a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose (70% mRNA, 30% Ad26.COV2.S) with comparison to 15 healthy controls after two mRNA vaccine doses. We used correlation analysis to compare anti-spike IgG assays and focused on thresholds associated with neutralization. A third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose increased median total anti-spike (1.6-fold), pseudoneutralization against VOCs (2.5-fold vs. Delta), and neutralizing antibodies (1.4-fold against Delta). However, neutralization activity was significantly lower than healthy controls (p < .001); 32% of SOTRs had zero detectable nAb against Delta after third vaccination compared to 100% for controls. Correlation with nAb was seen at anti-spike IgG >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the Euroimmun ELISA and >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the MSD research assay. These findings highlight benefits of a third vaccine dose for some SOTRs and the need for alternative strategies to improve protection in a significant subset of this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
10.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295058

ABSTRACT

Several vaccines have been introduced to combat the coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines include mRNA-containing lipid nanoparticles or adenoviral vectors that encode the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, inactivated virus, or protein subunits. Despite growing success in worldwide vaccination efforts, additional capabilities may be needed in the future to address issues such as stability and storage requirements, need for vaccine boosters, desirability of different routes of administration, and emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants such as the Delta variant. Here, we present a novel, well-characterized SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate based on extracellular vesicles (EVs) of Salmonella typhimurium that are decorated with the mammalian cell culture-derived Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). RBD-conjugated outer membrane vesicles (RBD-OMVs) were used to immunize the golden Syrian hamster ( Mesocricetus auratus ) model of COVID-19. Intranasal immunization resulted in high titers of blood anti-RBD IgG as well as detectable mucosal responses. Neutralizing antibody activity against wild-type and Delta variants was evident in all vaccinated subjects. Upon challenge with live virus, hamsters immunized with RBD-OMV, but not animals immunized with unconjugated OMVs or a vehicle control, avoided weight loss, had lower virus titers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and experienced less severe lung pathology. Our results emphasize the value and versatility of OMV-based vaccine approaches.

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