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1.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 8: 23337214221094192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869023

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Many nursing homes (NHs) are affected by COVID-19 and 30-day mortality is high. Knowledge on recovery of NH residents after COVID-19 is limited. Therefore, we investigated the trajectory in the first three months after a COVID-19 infection in NH residents. Methods: Retrospective observational cohort study of Dutch NH residents with COVID-19 between 1 September 2020 and 1 March 2021. Prevalence of COVID-19 symptoms and functioning was determined using interRAI (ADL-Hierarchy Scale (ADL-HS), Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) and Revised Index of Social Engagement (RISE)) at four time points. Descriptive and pattern analyses were performed. Results: Eighty-six residents were included. Symptom prevalences after three months were higher than at baseline. At group level, functioning on all domains deteriorated and was followed by recovery towards baseline, except for ADL functioning. There were four trajectories; 9.3% had no deterioration. Total and partial recovery occurred in respectively 30.2% and 55.8% of the residents. In 4.7% there was no recovery. Conclusion: In 86% of NH residents surviving three months after COVID-19, occurrence of COVID-19 symptoms and deterioration in functioning was followed by recovery. COVID-19 symptoms fatigue and sleeping behaviour were significantly more prevalent, and ADL functioning was significantly lower, at three months compared to baseline.

2.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 37(3)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia during the step-by-step lifting of restrictions after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands, and to describe psychotropic drug use (PDU) throughout the whole first wave. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study of nursing home residents with dementia. We measured neuropsychiatric symptoms using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q). From May to August 2020, the NPI-Q was filled in monthly. Psychotropic drug use was retrieved from the electronic prescription system, retrospectively for the months February to April and prospectively for the months May to August. RESULTS: We followed 252 residents with dementia in 19 Dutch nursing homes. Agitation was the most prevalent type of neuropsychiatric symptom at each assessment. Overall, the prevalence and severity of agitation and depression significantly decreased over time. When considering more in detail, we observed that in some residents specific neuropsychiatric symptoms resolved (resolution) while in others specific neuropsychiatric symptoms developed (incidence) during the study period. For the majority of the residents, neuropsychiatric symptoms persisted over time. Psychotropic drug use remained stable over time throughout the whole first wave of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: At group level, lifting the measures appeared to have beneficial effects on the prevalence and severity of agitation and depression in residents with dementia. Nevertheless, on an individual level we observed high heterogeneity in the course of neuropsychiatric symptoms over time. Despite the pressure of the pandemic and the restrictions in social contact imposed, PDU remained stable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Cohort Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/drug therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Psychomotor Agitation/diagnosis , Psychomotor Agitation/drug therapy , Psychomotor Agitation/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(1): 1-6.e1, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545127

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore how physicians in Dutch nursing homes practiced advance care planning (ACP) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore whether and how ACP changed during the first wave of the pandemic. DESIGN: Qualitative analysis of an online, mainly open-ended questionnaire on ACP among physicians working in nursing homes in the Netherlands during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Physicians in Dutch nursing homes. METHODS: Respondents were asked to describe a recent case in which they had a discussion on anticipatory medical care decisions and to indicate whether ACP was influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic in that specific case and in general. Answers were independently coded and a codebook was compiled in which the codes were ordered by themes that emerged from the data. RESULTS: A total of 129 questionnaires were filled out. Saturation was reached after analyzing 60 questionnaires. Four main themes evolved after coding the questionnaires: reasons for ACP discussion, discussing ACP, topics discussed in ACP, and decision making in ACP. COVID-19-specific changes in ACP indicated by respondents included (1) COVID-19 infection as a reason for initiating ACP, (2) a higher frequency of ACP discussions, (3) less face-to-face contact with surrogate decision makers, and (4) intensive care unit admission as an additional topic in anticipatory medical decision making. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: ACP in Dutch nursing homes has changed because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Maintaining frequent and informal contact with surrogate decision makers fosters mutual understanding and aids the decision-making process in ACP.


Subject(s)
Advance Care Planning , COVID-19 , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int Psychogeriatr ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169351

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: On May 11, the Dutch Government allowed 26 nursing homes to welcome 1 visitor per resident, after 2 months of lockdown. The study aimed to monitor in-depth the feasibility of the regulations and their impact on the well-being of residents, their visitors, and healthcare staff. DESIGN: Mixed-methods study in 5 of the 26 facilities; the facilities were affiliated to an academic network of nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: Visitors and healthcare professionals. INTERVENTION: Allowing visitors using local regulations based on national guidelines. MEASUREMENTS: Digital questionnaire, analyzing documentation such as infection prevention control protocols, attending meetings of COVID-19 crisis teams, in-depth telephone or in-person interviews with visitors and healthcare professionals, and on-site observations. RESULTS: National guidelines were translated with great variety into local care practice. Healthcare professionals agreed that reopening would increase the well-being of the residents and their loved ones. However, there were also great worries for increasing workload, increasing the risk of emotional exhaustion, and the risk of COVID-19 infections. Compliance with local regulations was generally satisfactory, but maintaining social distance and correctly wearing face masks appeared to be difficult. Care staff remained ambivalent for fear of infections. In general, allowing visitors was experienced as having a positive impact on the well-being of all stakeholders. Nevertheless, some residents with dementia showed negative effects. CONCLUSION: The complete lockdown of Dutch nursing homes had a substantial impact on the well-being of the residents. The reopening was welcomed by all stakeholders, but provided a high organizational workload as well as feelings of ambivalence among care staff. In the second wave, a more tailored approach is being implemented. However, facilities are sometimes still struggling to find the right balance between infection control and well-being.

5.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(12): 1774-1781.e2, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927083

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To mitigate the spread of COVID-19, a nationwide restriction for all visitors of residents of long-term care facilities including nursing homes (NHs) was established in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was an exploration of dilemmas experienced by elderly care physicians (ECPs) as a result of the COVID-19 driven restrictive visiting policy. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: ECPs working in Dutch NHs. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory study was performed using an open-ended questionnaire. A thematic analysis was applied. Data were collected between April 17 and May 10, 2020. RESULTS: Seventy-six ECPs answered the questionnaire describing a total of 114 cases in which they experienced a dilemma. Thematic analysis revealed 4 major themes: (1) The need for balancing safety for all through infection prevention measures versus quality of life of the individual residents and their loved ones; (2) The challenge of assessing the dying phase and how the allowed exception to the strict visitor restriction in the dying phase could be implemented; (3) The profound emotional impact on ECPs; (4) Many alternatives for visits highlight the wish to compensate for the absence of face-to-face contact opportunities. Many alternatives for visits highlight the wish to compensate for the absence of face-to-face opportunities but given the diversity of NH residents, alternatives were often only suitable for some of them. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: ECPs reported that the restrictive visitor policy deeply impacts NHs residents, their loved ones, and care professionals. The dilemmas encountered as a result of the policy highlight the wish by ECPs to offer solutions tailored to the individual residents. We identified an overview of aspects to consider when drafting future visiting policies for NHs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Homes , Organizational Policy , Visitors to Patients , Humans , Netherlands , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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