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1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is not definitively known if people with HIV (PWH) are more likely to be SARS-CoV-2 tested or test positive than people without HIV (PWoH). We describe SARS-CoV-2 testing and positivity in 6 large geographically and demographically diverse cohorts of PWH and PWoH in the United States. SETTING: The Corona-Infectious-Virus Epidemiology Team (CIVET) comprises five clinical cohorts within a health system (Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA; Kaiser Permanente Mid-Atlantic States, Rockville, MD; University of North Carolina Health, Chapel Hill, NC; Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; Veterans Aging Cohort Study) and one interval cohort (MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study). METHODS: We calculated the proportion of patients SARS-CoV-2 tested and the test positivity proportion by HIV status from March 1 to December 31, 2020. RESULTS: The cohorts ranged in size from 1,675 to 31,304 PWH and 1,430 to 3,742,604 PWoH. The proportion of PWH who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 (19.6%-40.5% across sites) was significantly higher than PWoH (14.8%-29.4%) in the clinical cohorts. However, among those tested, the proportion of patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests was comparable by HIV status; the difference in proportion of SARS-CoV-2 positivity ranged from 4.7% lower to 1.4% higher. CONCLUSION: Although PWH had higher testing proportions compared with PWoH, we did not find evidence of increased positivity in 6 large, diverse populations across the United States. Ongoing monitoring of testing, positivity, and COVID-19 related outcomes in PWH are needed given availability, response, and durability of COVID-19 vaccines; emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants; and latest therapeutic options.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 386(4): 305-315, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir improves clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with moderate-to-severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Whether the use of remdesivir in symptomatic, nonhospitalized patients with Covid-19 who are at high risk for disease progression prevents hospitalization is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving nonhospitalized patients with Covid-19 who had symptom onset within the previous 7 days and who had at least one risk factor for disease progression (age ≥60 years, obesity, or certain coexisting medical conditions). Patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous remdesivir (200 mg on day 1 and 100 mg on days 2 and 3) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of Covid-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause by day 28. The primary safety end point was any adverse event. A secondary end point was a composite of a Covid-19-related medically attended visit or death from any cause by day 28. RESULTS: A total of 562 patients who underwent randomization and received at least one dose of remdesivir or placebo were included in the analyses: 279 patients in the remdesivir group and 283 in the placebo group. The mean age was 50 years, 47.9% of the patients were women, and 41.8% were Hispanic or Latinx. The most common coexisting conditions were diabetes mellitus (61.6%), obesity (55.2%), and hypertension (47.7%). Covid-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause occurred in 2 patients (0.7%) in the remdesivir group and in 15 (5.3%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.59; P = 0.008). A total of 4 of 246 patients (1.6%) in the remdesivir group and 21 of 252 (8.3%) in the placebo group had a Covid-19-related medically attended visit by day 28 (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.56). No patients had died by day 28. Adverse events occurred in 42.3% of the patients in the remdesivir group and in 46.3% of those in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Among nonhospitalized patients who were at high risk for Covid-19 progression, a 3-day course of remdesivir had an acceptable safety profile and resulted in an 87% lower risk of hospitalization or death than placebo. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; PINETREE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04501952; EudraCT number, 2020-003510-12.).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Time-to-Treatment , Viral Load
3.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(1): 159-165, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371828

ABSTRACT

Among approximately 4.6 million members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we examined associations of severe COVID-19 with demographic factors and comorbidities. As of July 23, 2021, 16 182 had been hospitalized, 2416 admitted to an ICU, and 1525 died due to COVID-19. Age was strongly associated with hospitalization, ICU admission, and death. Black persons and Hispanic ethnicity had higher risk of death compared with Whites. Among the comorbidities examined, Alzheimer's disease was associated with the highest risk for hospitalization (aHR 3.19, CI: 2.88-3.52) and death (aHR 4.04, CI: 3.32-4.91). Parkinson's disease had the second highest risk of death (aHR = 2.07, CI: 1.50-2.87).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Am Heart J ; 235: 54-64, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The MITIGATE study aims to evaluate the real-world clinical effectiveness of pre-treatment with icosapent ethyl (IPE), compared with usual care, on laboratory-confirmed viral upper respiratory infection (URI)-related morbidity and mortality in adults with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). BACKGROUND: IPE is a highly purified and stable omega-3 fatty acid prescription medication that is approved for cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk adults on statin therapy with elevated triglycerides. Preclinical data and clinical observations suggest that IPE may have pleiotropic effects including antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties that may prevent or reduce the downstream sequelae and cardiopulmonary consequences of viral URIs. METHODS: MITIGATE is a virtual, electronic health record-based, open-label, randomized, pragmatic clinical trial enrolling ∼16,500 participants within Kaiser Permanente Northern California - a fully integrated and learning health care delivery system with 21 hospitals and >255 ambulatory clinics serving ∼4.5 million members. Adults ≥50 years with established ASCVD and no prior history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will be prospectively identified and pre-randomized in a 1:10 allocation ratio (∼ 1,500 IPE: ∼15,000 usual care) stratified by age and previous respiratory health status to the intervention (IPE 2 grams by mouth twice daily with meals) vs the control group (usual care) for a minimum follow-up duration of 6 months. The co-primary endpoints are moderate-to-severe laboratory-confirmed viral URI and worst clinical status due to a viral URI at any point in time. CONCLUSION: The MITIGATE study will inform clinical practice by providing evidence on the real-world clinical effectiveness of pretreatment with IPE to prevent and/or reduce the sequelae of laboratory-confirmed viral URIs in a high-risk cohort of patients with established ASCVD.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
5.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(10): 773-781, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity, race/ethnicity, and other correlated characteristics have emerged as high-profile risk factors for adverse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated outcomes, yet studies have not adequately disentangled their effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine the adjusted effect of body mass index (BMI), associated comorbidities, time, neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors, and other factors on risk for death due to COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Kaiser Permanente Southern California, a large integrated health care organization. PATIENTS: Kaiser Permanente Southern California members diagnosed with COVID-19 from 13 February to 2 May 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable Poisson regression estimated the adjusted effect of BMI and other factors on risk for death at 21 days; models were also stratified by age and sex. RESULTS: Among 6916 patients with COVID-19, there was a J-shaped association between BMI and risk for death, even after adjustment for obesity-related comorbidities. Compared with patients with a BMI of 18.5 to 24 kg/m2, those with BMIs of 40 to 44 kg/m2 and greater than 45 kg/m2 had relative risks of 2.68 (95% CI, 1.43 to 5.04) and 4.18 (CI, 2.12 to 8.26), respectively. This risk was most striking among those aged 60 years or younger and men. Increased risk for death associated with Black or Latino race/ethnicity or other sociodemographic characteristics was not detected. LIMITATION: Deaths occurring outside a health care setting and not captured in membership files may have been missed. CONCLUSION: Obesity plays a profound role in risk for death from COVID-19, particularly in male patients and younger populations. Our capitated system with more equalized health care access may explain the absence of effect of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities on death. Our data highlight the leading role of severe obesity over correlated risk factors, providing a target for early intervention. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Roche-Genentech.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , California/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Young Adult
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