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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335535

ABSTRACT

Background: The global epidemiology of asthma among COVID-19 patients presents striking geographic differences defining high and low [asthma and COVID-19] co-occurrence prevalence zones (1). The objective of the present study was to compare asthma prevalence among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in major global hubs across the world with the application of common inclusion criteria and definitions. Methods: : We built a network of six academic hospitals in Stanford (Stanford University)/USA, Frankfurt (Goethe University), Giessen (Justus Liebig University) and Marburg (Philipps University)/Germany, and Moscow (Clinical Hospital 52 in collaboration with Sechenov University)/Russia. We collected clinical and laboratory data for patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. Comorbidities reported were based on the 2020 International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision codes. Results: : Asthmatics were overrepresented among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Stanford and underrepresented in Moscow and Germany as compared to the prevalence among adults in the local community. Asthma prevalence was similar among ICU and hospital non-ICU patients, which implied that the risk for developing severe COVID-19 was not higher among asthmatics. The number of males and comorbidities was higher among COVID-19 patients in the Stanford cohort, and the most frequent comorbidities among these asthma patients were other chronic inflammatory airway disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Conclusion: Observed disparity in COVID-19-associated risk among asthmatics across countries and continents is connected to varying prevalence of underlying comorbidities, particularly COPD. Public health policies in the future will need to consider comorbidities with an emphasis on COPD for prioritization of vaccination and preemptive treatment.

2.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706625

ABSTRACT

SCOPE: The objective of these guidelines is to identify the most appropriate diagnostic test and/or diagnostic approach for SARS-CoV-2. The recommendations are intended to provide guidance to clinicians, clinical microbiologists, other health care personnel, and decision makers. METHODS: An ESCMID COVID-19 guidelines task force was established by the ESCMID Executive Committee. A small group was established, half appointed by the chair and the remaining selected with an open call. Each panel met virtually once a week. For all decisions, a simple majority vote was used. A list of clinical questions using the PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) format was developed at the beginning of the process. For each PICO, two panel members performed a literature search focusing on systematic reviews, with a third panellist involved in case of inconsistent results. Quality of evidence assessment was based on the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation - adoption, adaptation, and de novo development of recommendations) approach. RECOMMENDATIONS: A total of 43 PICO questions were selected that involve the following types of populations: (a) patients with signs and symptoms of COVID-19; (b) travellers, healthcare workers, and other individuals at risk for exposure to SARS-CoV-2; (c) asymptomatic individuals, and (d) close contacts of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The type of diagnostic test (commercial rapid nucleic acid amplification tests and rapid antigen detection), biomaterial, time since onset of symptoms/contact with an infectious case, age, disease severity, and risk of developing severe disease are also taken into consideration.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306228

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a public health emergency. Asthma does not represent a risk factor for COVID-19 in several published cohorts. We hypothesized that the SARS-CoV-2 proteome contains T cell epitopes, which are potentially cross-reactive to allergen epitopes. We aimed at identifying homologous peptide sequences by means of two distinct complementary bioinformatics approaches. Pipeline 1 included prediction of MHC Class I and Class II epitopes contained in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome and allergens along with alignment and elaborate ranking approaches. Pipeline 2 involved alignment of SARS-CoV-2 overlapping peptides with known allergen-derived T cell epitopes. Our results indicate a large number of MHC Class I epitope pairs including known as well as de novo predicted allergen T cell epitopes with high probability for cross-reactivity. Allergen sources, such as Aspergillus fumigatus , Phleum pratense and Dermatophagoides species are of particular interest due to their association with multiple cross-reactive candidate peptides, independently of the applied bioinformatic approach. In contrast, peptides derived from food allergens, as well as MHC class II epitopes did not achieve high in silico ranking and were therefore not further investigated. Our findings warrant further experimental confirmation along with examination of the functional importance of such cross-reactive responses.

4.
Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine (Second Edition) ; : 129-137, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1414445

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses are responsible for a variety of clinical syndromes including the common cold, acute otitis media, laryngitis, sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, influenza-like illness, and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Diagnosis of respiratory viral infections is primarily clinical and is further supported by laboratory techniques such as antigen detection, serology, and nucleic acid detection. Preventive strategies are based on avoidance of risk factors and, in case of influenza, vaccination. Treatment modalities include over-the-counter and non-specific remedies along with a small number of specific antiviral medications such as the influenza neuraminidase inhibitors or palivizumab against respiratory syncytial virus.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5417, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410404

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations, including autoimmune features and autoantibody production. Here we develop three protein arrays to measure IgG autoantibodies associated with connective tissue diseases, anti-cytokine antibodies, and anti-viral antibody responses in serum from 147 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Autoantibodies are identified in approximately 50% of patients but in less than 15% of healthy controls. When present, autoantibodies largely target autoantigens associated with rare disorders such as myositis, systemic sclerosis and overlap syndromes. A subset of autoantibodies targeting traditional autoantigens or cytokines develop de novo following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autoantibodies track with longitudinal development of IgG antibodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and a subset of non-structural proteins, but not proteins from influenza, seasonal coronaviruses or other pathogenic viruses. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 causes development of new-onset IgG autoantibodies in a significant proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and are positively correlated with immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantigens/immunology , Connective Tissue Diseases/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/immunology
8.
Leukemia ; 35(10): 2917-2923, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356548

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in elder patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening complication of COVID-19 and has been linked with severe hyperinflammation. Dexamethasone has emerged as standard of care for COVID-19 associated respiratory failure. In a non-randomized prospective phase II multi-center study, we asked whether targeted inhibition of Janus kinase-mediated cytokine signaling using ruxolitinib is feasible and efficacious in SARS-CoV-2- induced ARDS with hyperinflammation. Sixteen SARS-CoV-2 infected patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for ARDS were treated with ruxolitinib in addition to standard treatment. Ruxolitinib treatment was well tolerated and 13 patients survived at least the first 28 days on treatment, which was the primary endpoint of the trial. Immediate start of ruxolitinib after deterioration was associated with improved outcome, as was a lymphocyte-to-neutrophils ratio above 0.07. Together, treatment with the janus-kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib is feasible and might be efficacious in COVID-19 induced ARDS patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. The trial has been registered under EudraCT-No.: 2020-001732-10 and NCT04359290.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitriles , Prognosis , Pyrimidines , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Survival Rate
9.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 981-986, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although molecular tests are considered the reference standard for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnostics, serological and immunological tests may be useful in specific settings. OBJECTIVES: This review summarizes the underlying principles and performance of COVID-19 serological and immunological testing. SOURCES: Selected peer-reviewed publications on COVID-19 related serology and immunology published between December 2019 and March 2021. CONTENT: Serological tests are highly specific but heterogeneous in their sensitivity for the diagnosis of COVID-19. For certain indications, including delayed disease presentations, serological tests can have added value. The presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 may indicate a recent or past COVID-19 infection. Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) antibody tests have the advantages of being easy and fast to perform, but many have a low sensitivity in acute settings. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs) have higher sensitivities. Besides humoral immunity, cellular immunity is also essential for successful host defences against viruses. Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays can be used to measure T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. The presence of cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in never exposed patients suggests the possibility of cellular immunity induced by other circulating coronaviruses. T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 have also been detected in recovered COVID-19 patients with no detectable antibodies. IMPLICATIONS: Serological and immunological tests are primarily applied for population-based seroprevalence studies to evaluate the effectiveness of COVID-19 control measures and increase our understanding of the immunology behind COVID-19. Combining molecular diagnostics with serological tests may optimize the detection of COVID-19. As not all infected patients will develop antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, assessment of cellular immunity may provide complementary information on whether a patient has been previously infected with COVID-19. More studies are needed to understand the correlations of these serological and immunological parameters with protective immunity, taking into account the different circulating virus variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoassay , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4792, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104550

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a public health emergency. Asthma does not represent a risk factor for COVID-19 in several published cohorts. We hypothesized that the SARS-CoV-2 proteome contains T cell epitopes, which are potentially cross-reactive to allergen epitopes. We aimed at identifying homologous peptide sequences by means of two distinct complementary bioinformatics approaches. Pipeline 1 included prediction of MHC Class I and Class II epitopes contained in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome and allergens along with alignment and elaborate ranking approaches. Pipeline 2 involved alignment of SARS-CoV-2 overlapping peptides with known allergen-derived T cell epitopes. Our results indicate a large number of MHC Class I epitope pairs including known as well as de novo predicted allergen T cell epitopes with high probability for cross-reactivity. Allergen sources, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Phleum pratense and Dermatophagoides species are of particular interest due to their association with multiple cross-reactive candidate peptides, independently of the applied bioinformatic approach. In contrast, peptides derived from food allergens, as well as MHC class II epitopes did not achieve high in silico ranking and were therefore not further investigated. Our findings warrant further experimental confirmation along with examination of the functional importance of such cross-reactive responses.


Subject(s)
Allergens/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Asthma/immunology , Computational Biology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Viral Proteins/immunology
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(6): 1295-1301, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812091

ABSTRACT

The newly described severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for a pandemic (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]). It is now well established that certain comorbidities define high-risk patients. They include hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. In contrast, the context with bronchial asthma is controversial and shows marked regional differences. Because asthma is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory lung disease worldwide and SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the upper and lower airways leading to marked inflammation, the question arises about the possible clinical and pathophysiological association between asthma and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. Here, we analyze the global epidemiology of asthma among patients with COVID-19 and propose the concept that patients suffering from different asthma endotypes (type 2 asthma vs non-type 2 asthma) present with a different risk profile in terms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, development of COVID-19, and progression to severe COVID-19 outcomes. This concept may have important implications for future COVID-19 diagnostics and immune-based therapy developments.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Pandemics
15.
J Infect ; 81(2): 205-212, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609140

ABSTRACT

A subgroup of COVID-19 patients develop very severe disease with requirement for ICU treatment, ventilation, and ECMO therapy. Laboratory tests indicate that the immune and clotting system show marked alterations with hyper-activation, hyper-inflammation, cytokine storm development. Furthermore, organ-specific biomarkers demonstrate the involvement of cardiac muscle, kidney, and liver dysfunction in many patients. In this article the use of laboratory biomarkers is discussed with regard to their use for diagnosis, disease progression, and risk assessment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Inflammation/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokines/analysis , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 181, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-266348

ABSTRACT

The availability of pathogen-specific treatment options for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) increased the need for rapid diagnostic tests. Besides, retrospective studies, improved lab-based detection methods and the intensified search for new viruses since the beginning of the twenty-first century led to the discovery of several novel respiratory viruses. Among them are human bocavirus (HBoV), human coronaviruses (HCoV-HKU1, -NL63), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rhinovirus type C (RV-C), and human polyomaviruses (KIPyV, WUPyV). Additionally, new viruses like SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), novel strains of influenza virus A and B, and (most recently) SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged. Although clinical presentation may be similar among different viruses, associated symptoms may range from a mild cold to a severe respiratory illness, and thus require a fast and reliable diagnosis. The increasing number of commercially available rapid point-of-care tests (POCTs) for respiratory viruses illustrates both the need for this kind of tests but also the problem, i.e., that the majority of such assays has significant limitations. In this review, we summarize recently published characteristics of POCTs and discuss their implications for the treatment of RTIs. The second key aspect of this work is a description of new and innovative diagnostic techniques, ranging from biosensors to novel portable and current lab-based nucleic acid amplification methods with the potential future use in point-of-care settings. While prototypes for some methods already exist, other ideas are still experimental, but all of them give an outlook of what can be expected as the next generation of POCTs.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Point-of-Care Testing , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Biosensing Techniques/methods , DNA Viruses/isolation & purification , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification
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