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2.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 208, 2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused a still evolving global pandemic. Given the worldwide vaccination campaign, the understanding of the vaccine-induced versus COVID-19-induced immunity will contribute to adjusting vaccine dosing strategies and speeding-up vaccination efforts. METHODS: Anti-spike-RBD IgGs and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) titers were measured in BNT162b2 mRNA vaccinated participants (n = 250); we also investigated humoral and cellular immune responses in vaccinated individuals (n = 21) of this cohort 5 months post-vaccination and assayed NAbs levels in COVID-19 hospitalized patients (n = 60) with moderate or severe disease, as well as in COVID-19 recovered patients (n = 34). RESULTS: We found that one (boosting) dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine triggers robust immune (i.e., anti-spike-RBD IgGs and NAbs) responses in COVID-19 convalescent healthy recipients, while naïve recipients require both priming and boosting shots to acquire high antibody titers. Severe COVID-19 triggers an earlier and more intense (versus moderate disease) immune response in hospitalized patients; in all cases, however, antibody titers remain at high levels in COVID-19 recovered patients. Although virus infection promotes an earlier and more intense, versus priming vaccination, immune response, boosting vaccination induces antibody titers significantly higher and likely more durable versus COVID-19. In support, high anti-spike-RBD IgGs/NAbs titers along with spike (vaccine encoded antigen) specific T cell clones were found in the serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively, of vaccinated individuals 5 months post-vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support vaccination efficacy, also suggesting that vaccination likely offers more protection than natural infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Kinetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390540

ABSTRACT

Emerging data suggest suboptimal antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with hematological malignancies. We evaluated the humoral response following the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). An FDA-approved, ELISA-based methodology was implemented to evaluate the titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 on day 1 of the first vaccine, and afterwards on day 22 and 50. One hundred and thirty-two patients with CLL/lymphomas and 214 healthy matched controls vaccinated during the same period, at the same center were enrolled in the study (NCT04743388). Vaccination with two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine led to lower production of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with CLL/lymphomas compared with controls both on day 22 and on day 50 (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Disease-related immune dysregulation and therapy-related immunosuppression are involved in the low humoral response. Importantly, active treatment with Rituximab, Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or chemotherapy was an independent prognostic factor for suboptimal antibody response. Patients with HL showed superior humoral responses to the NHL/CLL subgroups. In conclusion, patients with CLL/lymphomas have low humoral response following COVID-19 vaccination, underlining the need for timely vaccination ideally during a treatment-free period and for continuous vigilance on infection control measures.

4.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335013

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-S-RBD IgGs up to three months after the second vaccination dose with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. NAbs and anti-S-RBD levels were measured on days 1 (before the first vaccine shot), 8, 22 (before the second shot), 36, 50, and three months after the second vaccination (D111) (NCT04743388). 283 health workers were included in this study. NAbs showed a rapid increase from D8 to D36 at a constant rate of about 3% per day and reached a median (SD) of 97.2% (4.7) at D36. From D36 to D50, a slight decrease in NAbs values was detected and it became more prominent between D50 and D111 when the rate of decline was determined at -0.11 per day. The median (SD) NAbs value at D111 was 92.7% (11.8). A similar pattern was also observed for anti-S-RBD antibodies. Anti-S-RBDs showed a steeper increase during D22-D36 and a lower decline rate during D36-D111. Prior COVID-19 infection and younger age were associated with superior antibody responses over time. In conclusion, we found a persistent but declining anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity at 3 months following full vaccination with BNT162b2 in healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
5.
Clin Exp Med ; 2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317568

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is considered as the most important preventive strategy against COVID-19, but its efficacy in patients with hematological malignancies is largely unknown. We investigated the development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). After the first dose of the vaccine, on D22, WM/CLL/NHL patients had lower NAb titers compared to controls: the median NAb inhibition titer was 17% (range 0-91%, IQR 8-27%) for WM/CLL/NHL patients versus 32% (range 2-98%, IQR 19-48%) for controls (P < 0.001). Only 8 (14%) patients versus 114 (54%) controls developed NAb titers ≥ 30% on D22 (p < 0.001). Our data indicate that the first dose of both BNT162b2 and AZD1222 leads to lower production of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with WM/CLL/NHL compared to controls of similar age and gender and without malignant disease. Even though the response rates were not optimal, vaccination is still considered essential and if possible should be performed before treatment initiation. These patients with suboptimal responses should be considered to be prioritized for booster doses.

7.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 86, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249562

ABSTRACT

Vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 provides significant protection against the infection in the general population. However, only limited data exist for patients with cancer under systemic therapy. Based on this, our site has initiated a study evaluating safety and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with solid and hematological malignancies under several systemic therapies. The initial results of the cohort of 59 patients receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors are presented here. Despite no new safety issues have been noticed, the levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies are significantly lower in comparison to matched healthy volunteers up to day 22 post the first dose. These results should be taken into consideration for the patients under treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/immunology , Vaccination
11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124925

ABSTRACT

Between June and November 2020, we assessed plasma antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid protein in 4996 participants (aged 18-82 years, 34.5% men) from the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. The weighted overall prevalence was 1.6% and monthly prevalence correlated with viral RNA-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in Greece, in the same period. Notably, 49% of seropositive cases reported no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection-related clinical symptoms and 33% were unsuspected of their previous infection. Additionally, levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies against the spike-protein receptor-binding domain were similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, irrespective of age and gender. Using Food and Drug Administration Emergency Use Authorization-approved assays, these results support the need for such studies on pandemic evaluation and highlight the development of robust humoral immune responses even among asymptomatic individuals. The high percentage of unsuspected/asymptomatic active cases, which may contribute to community transmission for more days than that of cases who are aware and self-isolate, underscores the necessity of measures across the population for the efficient control of the pandemic.

12.
Life ; 10(9):214, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-784035

ABSTRACT

Due to early implementation of public health measures, Greece had low number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 severe incidents in hospitalized patients. The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA), especially its health-care/medical personnel, has been actively involved in the first line of state responses to COVID-19. To estimate the prevalence of antibodies (Igs) against SARS-CoV-2 among NKUA members, we designed a five consecutive monthly serosurvey among randomly selected NKUA consenting volunteers. Here, we present the results from the first 2500 plasma samples collected during June-July 2020. Twenty-five donors were tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 Igs;thus, the overall seroprevalence was 1.00%. The weighted overall seroprevalence was 0.93% (95% CI: 0.27, 2.09) and varied between males [1.05% (95% CI: 0.18, 2.92)] and females [0.84% (95% CI: 0.13, 2.49)], age-groups and different categories (higher in participants from the School of Health Sciences and in scientific affiliates/faculty members/laboratory assistants), but no statistical differences were detected. Although focused on the specific population of NKUA members, our study shows that the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Igs for the period June-July 2020 remained low and provides knowledge of public health importance for the NKUA members. Given that approximately one in three infections was asymptomatic, continuous monitoring of the progression of the pandemic by assessing Ig seroprevalence is needed.

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