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1.
Applied Clinical Trials ; 30(9):18-20, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243287

ABSTRACT

Rebadging also reduces fixed or direct costs for clients, as well as the legal risks associated with using contractors in full-time, long-term engagements. * Employees are assured secure employment, re-assigned back to their original employer (as a vendor contractor) or via new positions within the FSP vendor. * Vendors find rebadging not only an important source of revenue, but also gain broader access to top-level talent, critical for any successful service provider. While FSP models with or without rebadging are ultimately about capacity management, the best vendors deliver wide-ranging value to help the client: * retain access to a dedicated team of full-time equivalent (FTE) staff for a broad range of services (data management, medical writing, program leadership, clinical supplies, regulatory, clinical monitoring, statistics, medical, etc.). * increase flexibility, including on-demand access to time and materials (T&M) or unit-based models that can deliver services with work volume that does not require dedicated FTEs. * access additional vendor expert staff from across the globe and shift or centralize services to increase efficiency, reduce timelines and save costs. * accelerate and optimize key HR processes, including hiring, onboarding and training. [...]in the EU and elsewhere, ARD-type regulations are in place to help ensure employers don't take advantage of their employees by offshoring their work or forcing them to rebadge with lower salaries and benefits. [...]joining a successful FSP vendor gives the employees a range of value beyond job security. Vendors The global market for outsourced clinical development services to CROs, including FSP providers, is estimated at approximately US $44.3 billion, and projected to grow to US $57.2 billion by 2024 (CAGR: 6.5%).'

2.
Obstetrics & Gynecology ; 141(5):45S-45S, 2023.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-20243079
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 633664, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281909

ABSTRACT

As a highly social species, inclusion in social networks and the presence of strong social bonds are critical to our health and well-being. Indeed, impaired social functioning is a component of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, and substance use disorder. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, our social networks are at risk of fracture and many are vulnerable to the negative consequences of social isolation. Importantly, infection itself leads to changes in social behavior as a component of "sickness behavior." Furthermore, as in the case of COVID-19, males and females often differ in their immunological response to infection, and, therefore, in their susceptibility to negative outcomes. In this review, we discuss the many ways in which infection changes social behavior-sometimes to the benefit of the host, and in some instances for the sake of the pathogen-in species ranging from eusocial insects to humans. We also explore the neuroimmune mechanisms by which these changes in social behavior occur. Finally, we touch upon the ways in which the social environment (group living, social isolation, etc.) shapes the immune system and its ability to respond to challenge. Throughout we emphasize how males and females differ in their response to immune activation, both behaviorally and physiologically.

4.
BMJ Open ; 13(2): e065121, 2023 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281907

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) affects around 15% of older people; however, it is often unrecognised and underdiagnosed until patients are hospitalised. Screening is an important process which aims to facilitate proactive assessment, diagnosis and management of health conditions. Healthcare systems do not routinely screen for OD in older people, and healthcare professionals (HCPs) are largely unaware of the need to screen. This realist review aims to identify relevant literature and develop programme theories to understand what works, for whom, under what circumstances and how, to facilitate primary care HCPs to recognise, screen and initially diagnose OD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will follow five steps for undertaking a realist review: (1) clarify the scope, (2) literature search, (3) appraise and extract data, (4) evidence synthesis and (5) evaluation. Initial programme theories (IPTs) will be constructed after the preliminary literature search, informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework and with input from a stakeholder group. We will search Medline, Google Scholar, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Scopus and PsycINFO databases. We will obtain additional evidence through grey literature, snowball sampling, lateral searching and consulting the stakeholder group. Literature will be screened, evaluated and synthesised in Covidence. Evidence will be assessed for quality by evaluating its relevance and rigour. Data will be extracted and synthesised according to their relation to IPTs. We will follow the Realist and Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards quality and publication standards to report study results. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required for this review. We will disseminate this research through publication in a peer-reviewed journal, written pieces targeted to diverse groups of HCPs on selected online platforms and public engagement events. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022320327.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Sciences , Deglutition Disorders , Humans , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Databases, Factual , Gray Literature , Primary Health Care , Review Literature as Topic
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1015002, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089844

ABSTRACT

Infants exposed to caregivers infected with SARS-CoV-2 may have heightened infection risks relative to older children due to their more intensive care and feeding needs. However, there has been limited research on COVID-19 outcomes in exposed infants beyond the neonatal period. Between June 2020 - March 2021, we conducted interviews and collected capillary dried blood spots from 46 SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers and their infants (aged 1-36 months) for up to two months following maternal infection onset (COVID+ group, 87% breastfeeding). Comparative data were also collected from 26 breastfeeding mothers with no known SARS-CoV-2 infection or exposures (breastfeeding control group), and 11 mothers who tested SARS-CoV-2 negative after experiencing symptoms or close contact exposure (COVID- group, 73% breastfeeding). Dried blood spots were assayed for anti-SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG and IgA positivity and anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 + S2 IgG concentrations. Within the COVID+ group, the mean probability of seropositivity among infant samples was lower than that of corresponding maternal samples (0.54 and 0.87, respectively, for IgG; 0.33 and 0.85, respectively, for IgA), with likelihood of infant infection positively associated with the number of maternal symptoms and other household infections reported. COVID+ mothers reported a lower incidence of COVID-19 symptoms among their infants as compared to themselves and other household adults, and infants had similar PCR positivity rates as other household children. No samples returned by COVID- mothers or their infants tested antibody positive. Among the breastfeeding control group, 44% of mothers but none of their infants tested antibody positive in at least one sample. Results support previous research demonstrating minimal risks to infants following maternal COVID-19 infection, including for breastfeeding infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Female , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin A
6.
Curriculum Perspectives ; 2022.
Article in English | Pmc | ID: covidwho-1926117

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 provided the world at large, including the world of mathematics education, with a challenge demanding attention and understanding. If met, this could potentially provide society with many of the skills needed to tackle the challenges of hyperobjects (Morton, 2013) such as climate change, which are potentially more threatening in the long-term. The COVID-19 context and the massive amount of data it has produced are the most recent examples of the growing recognition that the school mathematics curriculum has a role to play outside of the pure mathematics classroom. This paper considers COVID-19 as a stimulus for increasing the importance of statistical literacy and data literacy in preparing society for coping with world crises. Topics considered include the importance of acknowledging statistics as a significant component of mathematical ways of knowing, the contextual motivation provided by the COVID-19 crisis, the importance of statistics and statistical literacy, the place of statistics in the wider school curriculum, and finally, its place in the classroom. These topics need to be taken into account by both policy makers and teachers.

7.
Applied Clinical Trials ; 30(9):18-20, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1400052
8.
Historian ; - (149):18, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1368323

ABSTRACT

In recent times health has been at the forefront of everyone's minds. Epidemics and pandemics are not new, but the Covid-19 outbreak is probably the first to have such a noticeable effect on the modern world. The Isle of Man has been highlighted, at times, as having 'done well'. Not only have there been relatively few deaths but, once the first lockdown was lifted, life generally returned to normal. Nevertheless, restrictions regarding travel to the island and subsequent isolation were kept in place. There is no doubt that a combination of having only two points of entry to the island and having a small population made controlling the virus much easier. The island of Guernsey had a similar experience and the two islands partnered up for a while with an air bridge which went some way to help the rather beleaguered tourist industry.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253543, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282302

ABSTRACT

Based on several lines of evidence, numerous investigators have suggested that acetaminophen exposure during early development can induce neurological disorders. We had previously postulated that acetaminophen exposure early in life, if combined with antioxidants that prevent accumulation of NAPQI, the toxic metabolite of acetaminophen, might be innocuous. In this study, we administered acetaminophen at or below the currently recommended therapeutic dose to male laboratory rat pups aged 4-10 days. The antioxidants cysteine and mannitol were included to prevent accumulation of NAPQI. In addition, animals were exposed to a cassette of common stress factors: an inflammatory diet, psychological stress, antibiotics, and mock infections using killed bacteria. At age 37-49 days, observation during introduction to a novel conspecific revealed increased rearing behavior, an asocial activity, in animals treated with acetaminophen plus antioxidants, regardless of their exposure to oxidative stress factors (2-way ANOVA; P < 0.0001). This observation would suggest that the initial hypothesis is incorrect, and that oxidative stress mediators do not entirely eliminate the effects of acetaminophen on neurodevelopment. This study provides additional cause for caution when considering the use of acetaminophen in the pediatric population, and provides evidence that the effects of acetaminophen on neurodevelopment need to be considered both in the presence and in the absence of oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Cysteine/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Neurogenesis/drug effects , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Female , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
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