Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21
Filter
1.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):4965, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837335

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to initiate a co-design process with adolescents to inform the development of a targeted health literacy intervention for implementation in designated socioeconomically disadvantaged post-primary schools in Ireland. Purposely developed vignettes were explored in a series of eight workshops that were conducted separately with staff (n = 26) and students (n = 33) across four schools. Data was analysed using content analysis. A number of key health topics were identified as important and influential for the participants in this context: food choices, mental health and wellbeing, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, sleep and substance misuse. Participants also suggested many health-related capacity building actions. Participants recognized that many of these health topics and capacity building actions were intertwined and also highlighted that some of these actions may be more feasible and/or impactful than others. For example, students and school staff both indicated the need to use relevant, applied and engaging approaches to improve health literacy and subsequent health behaviour. The co-design process adopted empowered stakeholders to actively engage in the design and development of future intervention strategies, which may increase the likelihood of acceptability, effectiveness and sustainability of the resulting intervention.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321603

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has required major changes in behavior and created significant health and economic concerns for many individuals. In this context, we have explored ethical judgments as part of a larger project on market ethics. We found that marketing practices judged as highly unethical before the pandemic, were judged to be much less unethical one year later. Of the questionable practices examined during the lockdown, those related to the pandemic (e.g., price gouging on hand sanitizer) were generally evaluated the most unethical, equal to or more unethical than the most egregious practices previously tested. Experience of lockdown affected ethical judgments, with number of people in the household, lockdown duration, and time spent on social media associated with less unethical judgments. Broader effects of the pandemic, including negative affect, diminished well-being, and financial difficulties, were also associated with less ethical concern. Implications for policymakers and marketing practitioners are discussed.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292998

ABSTRACT

Importance: The long-term effects of COVID-19 on the incidence of vascular diseases are unclear. Objective: To quantify the association between time since diagnosis of COVID-19 and vascular disease, overall and by age, sex, ethnicity, and pre-existing disease. Design: Cohort study based on population-wide linked electronic health records, with follow up from January 1st to December 7th 2020. Setting and participants: Adults registered with an NHS general practice in England or Wales and alive on January 1st 2020. Exposures: Time since diagnosis of COVID-19 (categorised as 0-6 days, 1-2 weeks, 3-4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-26 and 27-49 weeks since diagnosis), with and without hospitalisation within 28 days of diagnosis. Main outcomes and measures: Primary outcomes were arterial thromboses (mainly acute myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke) and venous thromboembolic events (VTE, mainly pulmonary embolism and lower limb deep vein thrombosis). We also studied other vascular events (transient ischaemic attack, haemorrhagic stroke, heart failure and angina). Hazard ratios were adjusted for demographic characteristics, previous disease diagnoses, comorbidities and medications. Results: Among 48 million adults, 130,930 were and 1,315,471 were not hospitalised within 28 days of COVID-19. In England, there were 259,742 first arterial thromboses and 60,066 first VTE during 41.6 million person-years follow-up. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for first arterial thrombosis compared with no COVID-19 declined rapidly from 21.7 (95% CI 21.0-22.4) to 3.87 (3.58-4.19) in weeks 1 and 2 after COVID-19, 2.80 (2.61-3.01) during weeks 3-4 then to 1.34 (1.21-1.48) during weeks 27-49. aHRs for first VTE declined from 33.2 (31.3-35.2) and 8.52 (7.59-9.58) in weeks 1 and 2 to 7.95 (7.28-8.68) and 4.26 (3.86-4.69) during weeks 3-4 and 5-8, then 2.20 (1.99-2.44) and 1.80 (1.50-2.17) during weeks 13-26 and 27-49 respectively. aHRs were higher, for longer after diagnosis, after hospitalised than non-hospitalised COVID-19. aHRs were also higher among people of Black and Asian than White ethnicity and among people without than with a previous event. Across the whole population estimated increases in risk of arterial thromboses and VTEs were 2.5% and 0.6% respectively 49 weeks after COVID-19, corresponding to 7,197 and 3,517 additional events respectively after 1.4 million COVID-19 diagnoses. Conclusions and Relevance: High rates of vascular disease early after COVID-19 diagnosis decline more rapidly for arterial thromboses than VTEs but rates remain elevated up to 49 weeks after COVID-19. These results support continued policies to avoid COVID-19 infection with effective COVID-19 vaccines and use of secondary preventive agents in high-risk patients.

5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106121, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding the safety of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) in patients with stroke and COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter study included consecutive stroke patients with and without COVID-19 treated with IV-tPA between February 18, 2019, to December 31, 2020, at 9 centers participating in the CASCADE initiative. Clinical outcomes included modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge, in-hospital mortality, the rate of hemorrhagic transformation. Using Bayesian multiple regression and after adjusting for variables with significant value in univariable analysis, we reported the posterior adjusted odds ratio (OR, with 95% Credible Intervals [CrI]) of the main outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 545 stroke patients, including 101 patients with COVID-19 were evaluated. Patients with COVID-19 had a more severe stroke at admission. In the study cohort, 85 (15.9%) patients had a hemorrhagic transformation, and 72 (13.1%) died in the hospital. After adjustment for confounding variables, discharge mRS score ≥2 (OR: 0.73, 95% CrI: 0.16, 3.05), in-hospital mortality (OR: 2.06, 95% CrI: 0.76, 5.53), and hemorrhagic transformation (OR: 1.514, 95% CrI: 0.66, 3.31) were similar in COVID-19 and non COVID-19 patients. High-sensitivity C reactive protein level was a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation in all cases (OR:1.01, 95%CI: 1.0026, 1.018), including those with COVID-19 (OR:1.024, 95%CI:1.002, 1.054). CONCLUSION: IV-tPA treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke and COVID-19 was not associated with an increased risk of disability, mortality, and hemorrhagic transformation compared to those without COVID-19. IV-tPA should continue to be considered as the standard of care in patients with hyper acute stroke and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Disability Evaluation , Europe , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Iran , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Brain Commun ; 3(3): fcab168, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364745

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is associated with new-onset neurological and psychiatric conditions. Detailed clinical data, including factors associated with recovery, are lacking, hampering prediction modelling and targeted therapeutic interventions. In a UK-wide cross-sectional surveillance study of adult hospitalized patients during the first COVID-19 wave, with multi-professional input from general and sub-specialty neurologists, psychiatrists, stroke physicians, and intensivists, we captured detailed data on demographics, risk factors, pre-COVID-19 Rockwood frailty score, comorbidities, neurological presentation and outcome. A priori clinical case definitions were used, with cross-specialty independent adjudication for discrepant cases. Multivariable logistic regression was performed using demographic and clinical variables, to determine the factors associated with outcome. A total of 267 cases were included. Cerebrovascular events were most frequently reported (131, 49%), followed by other central disorders (95, 36%) including delirium (28, 11%), central inflammatory (25, 9%), psychiatric (25, 9%), and other encephalopathies (17, 7%), including a severe encephalopathy (n = 13) not meeting delirium criteria; and peripheral nerve disorders (41, 15%). Those with the severe encephalopathy, in comparison to delirium, were younger, had higher rates of admission to intensive care and a longer duration of ventilation. Compared to normative data during the equivalent time period prior to the pandemic, cases of stroke in association with COVID-19 were younger and had a greater number of conventional, modifiable cerebrovascular risk factors. Twenty-seven per cent of strokes occurred in patients <60 years. Relative to those >60 years old, the younger stroke patients presented with delayed onset from respiratory symptoms, higher rates of multi-vessel occlusion (31%) and systemic thrombotic events. Clinical outcomes varied between disease groups, with cerebrovascular disease conferring the worst prognosis, but this effect was less marked than the pre-morbid factors of older age and a higher pre-COVID-19 frailty score, and a high admission white cell count, which were independently associated with a poor outcome. In summary, this study describes the spectrum of neurological and psychiatric conditions associated with COVID-19. In addition, we identify a severe COVID-19 encephalopathy atypical for delirium, and a phenotype of COVID-19 associated stroke in younger adults with a tendency for multiple infarcts and systemic thromboses. These clinical data will be useful to inform mechanistic studies and stratification of patients in clinical trials.

7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 113(3): 747, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347496
8.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1953953, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309553

ABSTRACT

Augmented reality (AR) is a relatively new technology that allows for digitally generated three-dimensional representations to be integrated with real environmental stimuli. AR can make use of smart phones, tablets, or other devices to achieve a highly stimulating learning environment and hands-on immersive experience. The use of AR in industry is becoming widespread with applications being developed for use not just for entertainment and gaming but also healthcare, retail and marketing, education, military, travel and tourism, automotive industry, manufacturing, architecture, and engineering. Due to the distinct learning advantages that AR offers, such as remote learning and interactive simulations, AR-based teaching programs are also increasingly being adopted within medical schools across the world. These advantages are further highlighted by the current COVID-19 pandemic, which has caused an even greater shift towards online learning. In this review, we investigate the use of AR in medical training/education and its effect on students' experiences and learning outcomes. This includes the main goals of AR-based learning, such as to simplify the delivery and enhance the comprehension of complex information. We also describe how AR can enhance the experiences of medical students, by improving knowledge and understanding, practical skills and social skills. These concepts are discussed within the context of specific AR medical training programs, such as HoloHuman, OculAR SIM, and HoloPatient. Finally, we discuss the challenges of AR in learning and teaching and propose future directions for the use of this technology in medical education.


Subject(s)
Augmented Reality , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/organization & administration , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence/standards , Education, Distance/methods , Humans , Learning , Schools, Medical/organization & administration
9.
Int J Psychol ; 57(1): 49-62, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287360

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on people worldwide. We conducted an international survey (n = 3646) examining the degree to which people's appraisals and coping activities around the pandemic predicted their health and well-being. We obtained subsamples from 12 countries-Bangladesh, Bulgaria, China, Colombia, India, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Portugal, Turkey and the United States. For each, we assessed appraisals and coping strategies as well as indicators of physical and mental health and well-being. Results indicated that, despite mean-level societal differences in outcomes, the pattern of appraisals and coping strategies predicting health and well-being was consistent across countries. Use of disengagement coping (particularly behavioural disengagement and self-isolation) was associated with relatively negative outcomes. In contrast, optimistic appraisals (particularly of high accommodation-focused coping potential and the ability to meet one's physical needs), use of problem-focused coping strategies (especially problem-solving) and accommodative coping strategies (especially positive reappraisal and self-encouragement) were associated with relatively positive outcomes. Our study highlights the critical importance of considering accommodative coping in stress and coping research. It also provides important information on how people have been dealing with the pandemic, the predictors of well-being under pandemic conditions and the generality of such relations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 11(2): e135-e146, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177733

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologic complications are increasingly recognized in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This coronavirus is related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and other human coronavirus-related illnesses that are associated with neurologic symptoms. These symptoms raise the question of a neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2. RECENT FINDINGS: Potential neurologic symptoms and syndromes of SARS-CoV-2 include headache, fatigue, dizziness, anosmia, ageusia, anorexia, myalgias, meningoencephalitis, hemorrhage, altered consciousness, Guillain-Barré syndrome, syncope, seizure, and stroke. In addition, we discuss neurologic effects of other coronaviruses, special considerations for management of neurologic patients, and possible long-term neurologic and public health sequelae. SUMMARY: As SARS-CoV-2 is projected to infect a large part of the world's population, understanding the potential neurologic implications of COVID-19 will help neurologists and others recognize and intervene in neurologic morbidity during and after the pandemic of 2020.

13.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(3): 242-248, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913804

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We set out to determine which characteristics and outcomes of stroke are associated with COVID-19. METHODS: This case-control study included patients admitted with stroke to 13 hospitals in England and Scotland between 9 March and 5 July 2020. We collected data on 86 strokes (81 ischaemic strokes and 5 intracerebral haemorrhages) in patients with evidence of COVID-19 at the time of stroke onset (cases). They were compared with 1384 strokes (1193 ischaemic strokes and 191 intracerebral haemorrhages) in patients admitted during the same time period who never had evidence of COVID-19 (controls). In addition, the whole group of stroke admissions, including another 37 patients who appeared to have developed COVID-19 after their stroke, were included in two logistic regression analyses examining which features were independently associated with COVID-19 status and with inpatient mortality. RESULTS: Cases with ischaemic stroke were more likely than ischaemic controls to occur in Asians (18.8% vs 6.7%, p<0.0002), were more likely to involve multiple large vessel occlusions (17.9% vs 8.1%, p<0.03), were more severe (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 8 vs 5, p<0.002), were associated with higher D-dimer levels (p<0.01) and were associated with more severe disability on discharge (median modified Rankin Scale score 4 vs 3, p<0.0001) and inpatient death (19.8% vs 6.9%, p<0.0001). Recurrence of stroke during the patient's admission was rare in cases and controls (2.3% vs 1.0%, NS). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that COVID-19 may be an important modifier of the onset, characteristics and outcome of acute ischaemic stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhagic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United Kingdom
15.
Int J Stroke ; 15(7): 722-732, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630557

ABSTRACT

Anecdotal reports and clinical observations have recently emerged suggesting a relationship between COVID-19 disease and stroke, highlighting the possibility that infected individuals may be more susceptible to cerebrovascular events. In this review we draw on emerging studies of the current pandemic and data from earlier, viral epidemics, to describe possible mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 may influence the prevalence of stroke, with a focus on the thromboinflammatory pathways, which may be perturbed. Some of these potential mechanisms are not novel but are, in fact, long-standing hypotheses linking stroke with preceding infection that are yet to be confirmed. The current pandemic may present a renewed opportunity to better understand the relationship between infection and stroke and possible underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/prevention & control
16.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3156-3168, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748838

ABSTRACT

Understanding the relationship between infection and stroke has taken on new urgency in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This association is not a new concept, as several infections have long been recognized to contribute to stroke risk. The association of infection and stroke is also bidirectional. Although infection can lead to stroke, stroke also induces immune suppression which increases risk of infection. Apart from their short-term effects, emerging evidence suggests that poststroke immune changes may also adversely affect long-term cognitive outcomes in patients with stroke, increasing the risk of poststroke neurodegeneration and dementia. Infections at the time of stroke may also increase immune dysregulation after the stroke, further exacerbating the risk of cognitive decline. This review will cover the role of acute infections, including respiratory infections such as COVID-19, as a trigger for stroke; the role of infectious burden, or the cumulative number of infections throughout life, as a contributor to long-term risk of atherosclerotic disease and stroke; immune dysregulation after stroke and its effect on the risk of stroke-associated infection; and the impact of infection at the time of a stroke on the immune reaction to brain injury and subsequent long-term cognitive and functional outcomes. Finally, we will present a model to conceptualize the many relationships among chronic and acute infections and their short- and long-term neurological consequences. This model will suggest several directions for future research.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Infections/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Atherosclerosis/immunology , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/immunology , Bacteremia/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/physiopathology , Endothelium/physiopathology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Infections/immunology , Infections/physiopathology , Inflammation/immunology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Pandemics , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/immunology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/epidemiology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/immunology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/physiopathology
17.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 28S: 253-258, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703966

ABSTRACT

We report 4 cases of post myocardial infarction complications due to the delay in presentation during COVID-19 era. We highlighted the need for auscultating the chest for early diagnosis. Through this case series, we urge to raise awareness among cardiac patients to access healthcare despite the fear of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105229, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Concerns have arisen regarding patient access and delivery of acute stroke care during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated key population level events on activity of the three hyperacute stroke units (HASUs) within Greater Manchester and East Cheshire (GM & EC), whilst adjusting for environmental factors. METHODS: Weekly stroke admission & discharge counts in the three HASUs were collected locally from Emergency Department (ED) data and Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme core dataset prior to, and during the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic (Jan 2020 to May 2020). Whilst adjusting for local traffic-related air pollution and ambient measurement, an interrupted time-series analysis using a segmented generalised linear model investigated key population level events on the rate of stroke team ED assessments, admissions for stroke, referrals for transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and stroke discharges. RESULTS: The median total number of ED stroke assessments, admissions, TIA referrals, and discharges across the three HASU sites prior to the first UK COVID-19 death were 150, 114, 69, and 76 per week. The stable weekly trend in ED assessments and stroke admissions decreased by approximately 16% (and 21% for TIAs) between first UK hospital COVID-19 death (5th March) and the implementation of the Act-FAST campaign (6th April) where a modest 4% and 5% increase per week was observed. TIA referrals increased post Government intervention (23rd March), without fully returning to the numbers observed in January and February. Trends in discharges from stroke units appeared unaffected within the study period reported here. CONCLUSION: Despite adjustment for environmental factors stroke activity was temporarily modified by the COVID-19 pandemic. Underlying motivations within the population are still not clear. This raises concerns that patients may have avoided urgent health care risking poorer short and long-term health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/trends , Environment , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Admission/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation/trends , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Time Factors
19.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 160(4): 937-947.e2, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced our cardiac surgery program and hospital to enact drastic measures that has forced us to change how we care for cardiac surgery patients, assist with COVID-19 care, and enable support for the hospital in terms of physical resources, providers, and resident training. METHODS: In this review, we review the cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 and describe our system-wide adaptations to the pandemic, including the use of telemedicine, how a severe reduction in operative volume affected our program, the process of redeployment of staff, repurposing of residents into specific task teams, the creation of operation room intensive care units, and the challenges that we faced in this process. RESULTS: We offer a revised set of definitions of surgical priority during this pandemic and how this was applied to our system, followed by specific considerations in coronary/valve, aortic, heart failure and transplant surgery. Finally, we outline a path forward for cardiac surgery for the near future. CONCLUSIONS: We recognize that individual programs around the world will eventually face COVID-19 with varying levels of infection burden and different resources, and we hope this document can assist programs to plan for the future.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Coronavirus Infections , Health Care Rationing , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Pandemics , Perioperative Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/trends , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Health Care Rationing/methods , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Operating Rooms/organization & administration , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration
20.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(10): 875-882, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns regarding potential neurological complications of COVID-19 are being increasingly reported, primarily in small series. Larger studies have been limited by both geography and specialty. Comprehensive characterisation of clinical syndromes is crucial to allow rational selection and evaluation of potential therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate the breadth of complications of COVID-19 across the UK that affected the brain. METHODS: During the exponential phase of the pandemic, we developed an online network of secure rapid-response case report notification portals across the spectrum of major UK neuroscience bodies, comprising the Association of British Neurologists (ABN), the British Association of Stroke Physicians (BASP), and the Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCPsych), and representing neurology, stroke, psychiatry, and intensive care. Broad clinical syndromes associated with COVID-19 were classified as a cerebrovascular event (defined as an acute ischaemic, haemorrhagic, or thrombotic vascular event involving the brain parenchyma or subarachnoid space), altered mental status (defined as an acute alteration in personality, behaviour, cognition, or consciousness), peripheral neurology (defined as involving nerve roots, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, or muscle), or other (with free text boxes for those not meeting these syndromic presentations). Physicians were encouraged to report cases prospectively and we permitted recent cases to be notified retrospectively when assigned a confirmed date of admission or initial clinical assessment, allowing identification of cases that occurred before notification portals were available. Data collected were compared with the geographical, demographic, and temporal presentation of overall cases of COVID-19 as reported by UK Government public health bodies. FINDINGS: The ABN portal was launched on April 2, 2020, the BASP portal on April 3, 2020, and the RCPsych portal on April 21, 2020. Data lock for this report was on April 26, 2020. During this period, the platforms received notification of 153 unique cases that met the clinical case definitions by clinicians in the UK, with an exponential growth in reported cases that was similar to overall COVID-19 data from UK Government public health bodies. Median patient age was 71 years (range 23-94; IQR 58-79). Complete clinical datasets were available for 125 (82%) of 153 patients. 77 (62%) of 125 patients presented with a cerebrovascular event, of whom 57 (74%) had an ischaemic stroke, nine (12%) an intracerebral haemorrhage, and one (1%) CNS vasculitis. 39 (31%) of 125 patients presented with altered mental status, comprising nine (23%) patients with unspecified encephalopathy and seven (18%) patients with encephalitis. The remaining 23 (59%) patients with altered mental status fulfilled the clinical case definitions for psychiatric diagnoses as classified by the notifying psychiatrist or neuropsychiatrist, and 21 (92%) of these were new diagnoses. Ten (43%) of 23 patients with neuropsychiatric disorders had new-onset psychosis, six (26%) had a neurocognitive (dementia-like) syndrome, and four (17%) had an affective disorder. 18 (49%) of 37 patients with altered mental status were younger than 60 years and 19 (51%) were older than 60 years, whereas 13 (18%) of 74 patients with cerebrovascular events were younger than 60 years versus 61 (82%) patients older than 60 years. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first nationwide, cross-specialty surveillance study of acute neurological and psychiatric complications of COVID-19. Altered mental status was the second most common presentation, comprising encephalopathy or encephalitis and primary psychiatric diagnoses, often occurring in younger patients. This study provides valuable and timely data that are urgently needed by clinicians, researchers, and funders to inform immediate steps in COVID-19 neuroscience research and health policy. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Mental Disorders/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , United Kingdom , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL