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1.
Nat Immunol ; 23(6): 960-970, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873528

ABSTRACT

The emergence of current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) and potential future spillovers of SARS-like coronaviruses into humans pose a major threat to human health and the global economy. Development of broadly effective coronavirus vaccines that can mitigate these threats is needed. Here, we utilized a targeted donor selection strategy to isolate a large panel of human broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to sarbecoviruses. Many of these bnAbs are remarkably effective in neutralizing a diversity of sarbecoviruses and against most SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, including the Omicron variant. Neutralization breadth is achieved by bnAb binding to epitopes on a relatively conserved face of the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Consistent with targeting of conserved sites, select RBD bnAbs exhibited protective efficacy against diverse SARS-like coronaviruses in a prophylaxis challenge model in vivo. These bnAbs provide new opportunities and choices for next-generation antibody prophylactic and therapeutic applications and provide a molecular basis for effective design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the spectrum of COVID-19 in people with HIV (PWH) is critical to provide clinical guidance and risk-reduction strategies. SETTING: CNICS, a U.S. multisite clinical cohort of PWH in care. METHODS: We identified COVID-19 cases and severity (hospitalization, intensive care, death) in a large, diverse HIV cohort during March 1-December 31, 2020. We determined predictors and relative risks of hospitalization among PWH with COVID-19, adjusted for disease risk scores. RESULTS: Of 16,056 PWH in care, 649 were diagnosed with COVID-19 between March-December 2020. Case fatality was 2%; 106 (16.3%) were hospitalized and 12 died. PWH with current CD4 count<350 cells/mm3 (aRR 2.68; 95%CI 1.93-3.71;P<.001) or lowest recorded CD4 count <200 (aRR 1.67; 95%CI 1.18-2.36;P<.005) had greater risks of hospitalization. HIV viral load and antiretroviral therapy (ART) status were not associated with hospitalization, although the majority of PWH were suppressed (86%). Black PWH were 51% more likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19 compared to other racial/ethnic groups (aRR 1.51; 95%CI 1.04-2.19;P=.03). Chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and increased cardiovascular and hepatic fibrosis risk scores were associated with higher hospitalization risk. PWH who were older, not on ART, with current CD4<350, diabetes, and CKD were overrepresented amongst PWH who required intubation or died. CONCLUSIONS: PWH with CD4<350 cells/mm3, and history of CD4<200, have a clear excess risk of severe COVID-19, accounting for comorbidities associated with severe outcomes. PWH with these risk factors should be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination, early treatment, and monitored closely for worsening illness.

3.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855821

ABSTRACT

The authors report on a possible direct exposure to SARS-CoV-2 from a COVID-19-positive individual to an adult horse. The individual, diagnosed with COVID-19 (Delta B.1.617.2), had daily contact to her two horses prior to and during the development of clinical disease. None of the two horses developed abnormal clinical signs or had detectable SARS-CoV-2 in blood, nasal secretion, or feces via RT-qPCR. However, one of the two horses showed close temporal seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 using a protein-based ELISA and the plaque reduction neutralization test. The results suggest that horses can become silently infected with SARS-CoV-2 following close contact with humans infected with SARS-CoV-2. As a precautionary measure, humans infected with SARS-CoV-2 should avoid close contact with equids and other companion animals during the time of their illness to prevent viral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Horses , Seroconversion
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335662

ABSTRACT

We isolated a SARS-CoV-2 BA.2 variant from a person with COVID-19 recrudescence after nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment. Antiviral sensitivity and neutralizing antibody testing was performed and compared with parental SARS-CoV-2 and multiple variants of concern. We found that neither NM resistance nor absence of neutralizing immunity were likely causes of the recrudescence.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334132

ABSTRACT

A growing number of studies indicate that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with inflammatory sequelae, but molecular signatures governing the normal vs. pathologic convalescence process have not been well-delineated. We characterized global immune and proteome responses in matched plasma and saliva samples obtained from COVID-19 patients collected between 4-6 weeks after initial clinical symptoms resolved. Convalescent subjects showed robust IgA and IgG responses and positive antibody correlations between matched saliva and plasma samples. However, global shotgun proteomics revealed persistent inflammatory patterns in convalescent samples including dysfunction of salivary innate immune cells and clotting factors in plasma (e.g., fibrinogen and antithrombin), with positive correlations to acute COVID-19 disease severity. Saliva samples were characterized by higher concentrations of IgA, and proteomics showed altered pathways that correlated positively with IgA levels. Our study positions saliva as a viable fluid to monitor immunity beyond plasma to document COVID-19 immune, inflammatory, and coagulation-related sequelae.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329705

ABSTRACT

Pan-betacoronavirus neutralizing antibodies may hold the key to developing broadly protective vaccines against coronaviruses that cause severe disease, for anticipating novel pandemic-causing viruses, and to respond more effectively to SARS-CoV-2 variants. The emergence of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has illustrated the limitations of solely targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the envelope Spike (S)-protein. Here, we isolated a large panel of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) from SARS-CoV-2 recovered-vaccinated donors that target a conserved S2 region in the fusion machinery on betacoronavirus spikes. Select bnAbs show broad in vivo protection against all three pathogenic betacoronaviruses, SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, that have spilled over into humans in the past 20 years to cause severe disease. The bnAbs provide new opportunities for antibody-based interventions and key insights for developing pan-betacoronavirus vaccines.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310641

ABSTRACT

An 83 year old female had asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection while taking ruxolitinib. She remained RT-PCR positive for viral RNA for >120 days, Pegylated interferon for 4 weeks led to viral RNA clearance. The observations support combination therapy of ruxolitinib + interferon for COVID-19.

9.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(637): eabi9215, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673344

ABSTRACT

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to coronaviruses (CoVs) are valuable in their own right as prophylactic and therapeutic reagents to treat diverse CoVs and as templates for rational pan-CoV vaccine design. We recently described a bnAb, CC40.8, from a CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent donor that exhibits broad reactivity with human ß-CoVs. Here, we showed that CC40.8 targets the conserved S2 stem helix region of the CoV spike fusion machinery. We determined a crystal structure of CC40.8 Fab with a SARS-CoV-2 S2 stem peptide at 1.6-Å resolution and found that the peptide adopted a mainly helical structure. Conserved residues in ß-CoVs interacted with CC40.8 antibody, thereby providing a molecular basis for its broad reactivity. CC40.8 exhibited in vivo protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in two animal models. In both models, CC40.8-treated animals exhibited less weight loss and reduced lung viral titers compared to controls. Furthermore, we noted that CC40.8-like bnAbs are relatively rare in human COVID-19 infection, and therefore, their elicitation may require rational structure-based vaccine design strategies. Overall, our study describes a target on ß-CoV spike proteins for protective antibodies that may facilitate the development of pan-ß-CoV vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(3): 388-399.e3, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670319

ABSTRACT

Both SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 vaccines elicit memory T cell responses. Here, we report the development of 2 pools of experimentally defined SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes that, in combination with spike, were used to discriminate 4 groups of subjects with different SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccine status. The overall T cell-based classification accuracy was 89.2% and 88.5% in the experimental and validation cohorts. This scheme was applicable to different mRNA vaccines and different lengths of time post infection/post vaccination and yielded increased accuracy when compared to serological readouts. T cell responses from breakthrough infections were also studied and effectively segregated from vaccine responses, with a combined performance of 86.6% across all 239 subjects from the 5 groups. We anticipate that a T cell-based immunodiagnostic scheme to classify subjects based on their vaccination and natural infection history will be an important tool for longitudinal monitoring of vaccinations and for establishing SARS-CoV-2 correlates of protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
12.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S807-S808, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564094

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread and the development of safe and effective therapeutics for the prevention of severe disease remains a priority. BRII-196 and BRII-198 are non-competing anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs with YTE triple amino acid substitution in Fc to extend half-life and reduce receptor binding, that are being studied for treatment of COVID-19 in the ACTIV-2 Trial, sponsored by NIAID and led by ACTG. Methods ACTIV-2 evaluates safety/efficacy of investigational agents for treatment of non-hospitalized adults with mild-moderate COVID-19 under a randomized, blinded, controlled adaptive platform. BRII-196/BRII-198 (1000 mg each) as a single dose given as sequential infusions, or placebo to those at high risk of clinical progression (i.e., age ≥ 60 years or presence of other medical conditions) within 10 days of symptom onset and positive test for SARS-CoV-2. The primary endpoint was hospitalization and/or death through day 28. We report Phase 3 BRII-196/BRII-198 trial results per DSMB recommendation following an interim analysis. Results Between January and July 2021, 837 participants (418 active, 419 placebo) from sites in the US (66%), Brazil, South Africa, Mexico, Argentina and the Philippines were randomized and received study product at time of emerging variants. Median age 49 years (Q1, Q3: 39, 58), 51% female, 17% Black/African-American and 49% Hispanic/Latino, with median 6 days from symptom onset. At interim analysis 71% and 97% had a day 28 and 7 visit, respectively. For all available data at interim review, BRII-196/BRII-198 compared to placebo had fewer hospitalizations (12 vs. 45) and deaths (1 vs. 9). At day 28 of follow-up, there was an estimated 78% reduction in hospitalization and/or death (2.4 vs. 11.1%), relative risk 0.22 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.86), P=0.00001 (nominal one-sided). Grade 3 or higher adverse events (AEs) were observed less frequently among BRII-196/BRII-198 participants than placebo (3.8% vs. 13.4%) with no severe infusion reactions or drug related serious AEs. Conclusion BRII-196/BRII-198 was safe, well-tolerated, and demonstrated significant reduction compared to placebo in the risk of hospitalization and/or death among adults with mild-moderate COVID-19 at high risk for progression to severe disease. Disclosures Kara W. Chew, MD, MS, Amgen (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Merck Sharp & Dohme (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support David Alain Wohl, MD, Gilead Sciences (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Advisor or Review Panel member, Consultant, Research Grant or Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator;Janssen (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Advisor or Review Panel member;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Advisor or Review Panel member, Research Grant or Support;ViiV (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Advisor or Review Panel member, Research Grant or Support Joseph J. Eron, MD, Gilead Sciences (Consultant, Research Grant or Support)Janssen (Consultant, Research Grant or Support)Merck (Consultant)ViiV (Consultant, Research Grant or Support) David A. Margolis, MD MPH, Brii Biosciences (Employee) Courtney Fletcher, Pharm.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH (Grant/Research Support) Davey Smith, M.D., Linear Therapies, Matrix Biomed, Bayer (Consultant, Shareholder) Eric Daar, Gilead (Consultant, Grant/Research Support)Merck (Consultant)ViiV (Consultant, Grant/Research Support)

13.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(11): 961-968, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553997

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic first began in December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has continuously evolved with many variants emerging across the world. These variants are categorized as the variant of interest (VOI), variant of concern (VOC), and variant under monitoring (VUM). As of September 15, 2021, there are four SARS-CoV-2 lineages designated as the VOC (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants). VOCs have increased transmissibility compared to the original virus, and have the potential for increasing disease severity. In addition, VOCs exhibit decreased susceptibility to vaccine-induced and infection-induced immune responses, and thus possess the ability to reinfect previously infected and recovered individuals. Given their ability to evade immune responses, VOC are less susceptible to monoclonal antibody treatments. VOCs can also impact the effectiveness of mRNA and adenovirus vector vaccines, although the currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines are still effective in preventing infection and severe disease. Current measures to reduce transmission as well as efforts to monitor and understand the impact of variants should be continued. Here, we review the molecular features, epidemiology, impact on transmissibility, disease severity, and vaccine effectiveness of VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cell ; 184(25): 6022-6036.e18, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536466

ABSTRACT

Viral-deletion mutants that conditionally replicate and inhibit the wild-type virus (i.e., defective interfering particles, DIPs) have long been proposed as single-administration interventions with high genetic barriers to resistance. However, theories predict that robust, therapeutic DIPs (i.e., therapeutic interfering particles, TIPs) must conditionally spread between cells with R0 >1. Here, we report engineering of TIPs that conditionally replicate with SARS-CoV-2, exhibit R0 >1, and inhibit viral replication 10- to 100-fold. Inhibition occurs via competition for viral replication machinery, and a single administration of TIP RNA inhibits SARS-CoV-2 sustainably in continuous cultures. Strikingly, TIPs maintain efficacy against neutralization-resistant variants (e.g., B.1.351). In hamsters, both prophylactic and therapeutic intranasal administration of lipid-nanoparticle TIPs durably suppressed SARS-CoV-2 by 100-fold in the lungs, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and prevented severe pulmonary edema. These data provide proof of concept for a class of single-administration antivirals that may circumvent current requirements to continually update medical countermeasures against new variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): 1717-1721, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501059

ABSTRACT

As of March 2021, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had caused more than 123 million infections and almost 3 million deaths worldwide. Dramatic advances have been made in vaccine development and nonpharmaceutical interventions to stop the spread of infection. However, treatments to stop disease progression are limited. A wide variety of "repurposed" drugs evaluated for treatment of COVID-19 have had little or no benefit. More recently, intravenous monoclonal antibody (mAb) combinations have been authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration for emergency use for outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 including some active against emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants of concern. Easier to administer therapeutics including intramuscular and subcutaneous mAbs and oral antivirals are in clinical trials. Reliable, safe, effective COVID-19 treatment for early infection in the outpatient setting is of urgent and critical importance. Availability of such treatment should lead to reduced progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2
16.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents ; 58:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1440057
17.
J Med Chem ; 65(4): 2866-2879, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440451

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), presents an urgent public health crisis. Without available targeted therapies, treatment options remain limited for COVID-19 patients. Using medicinal chemistry and rational drug design strategies, we identify a 2-phenyl-1,2-benzoselenazol-3-one class of compounds targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). FRET-based screening against recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Mpro identified six compounds that inhibit proteolysis with nanomolar IC50 values. Preincubation dilution experiments and molecular docking determined that the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro can occur by either covalent or noncovalent mechanisms, and lead E04 was determined to inhibit Mpro competitively. Lead E24 inhibited viral replication with a nanomolar EC50 value (844 nM) in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 cells and was further confirmed to impair SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung epithelial cells and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived 3D lung organoids. Altogether, these studies provide a structural framework and mechanism of Mpro inhibition that should facilitate the design of future COVID-19 treatments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzothiazoles/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Benzothiazoles/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(8): ofaa325, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387984

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses (eg, Zika, Ebola, HIV) are often shed in male genital secretions. We evaluated the presence and level of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in semen, nasal secretion, and saliva collected after confirmed infection. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in semen 6-17 days after the onset of symptoms despite concomitant shedding in oral secretions.

19.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab129, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334238

ABSTRACT

Together with protective measures, routine screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection helps provide a safe working environment. We evaluated a pooled nucleic acid testing strategy in a research laboratory. It allowed lab activity to be maintained and would save 25 920 person-hours and $1 684 800/year by increasing the margin of safety for returning to work.

20.
Science ; 371(6529)2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309798

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune memory to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for improving diagnostics and vaccines and for assessing the likely future course of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed multiple compartments of circulating immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in 254 samples from 188 COVID-19 cases, including 43 samples at ≥6 months after infection. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the spike protein was relatively stable over 6+ months. Spike-specific memory B cells were more abundant at 6 months than at 1 month after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells declined with a half-life of 3 to 5 months. By studying antibody, memory B cell, CD4+ T cell, and CD8+ T cell memory to SARS-CoV-2 in an integrated manner, we observed that each component of SARS-CoV-2 immune memory exhibited distinct kinetics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States , Young Adult
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