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1.
Health Technol (Berl) ; 13(3): 523-533, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316741

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The emergence of the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has led to public health restrictions and a shift towards virtual care and telehealth. The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators of virtual care from the perspective of neurological and psychiatric patients. Methods: One-on-one interviews were conducted remotely using telephone and online video teleconferencing. There was a total of 57 participants, and a thematic content analysis was conducted using NVivo software. Results: The two main themes were (1) virtual health service delivery and (2) virtual physician/patient interaction, with subthemes around how virtual care improved accessibility of care for patients and improved patient-centered care; how privacy and technical issues impact patients using virtual care; and the need for relationality and connection between health care providers and patients while using virtual care. Conclusions: This study showed that virtual care can increase accessibility and efficiency for patients and providers, indicating its potential for ongoing use in the delivery of clinical care. Virtual care was found to be an acceptable mode of healthcare delivery from the perspective of patients; however, there is a continued need for relationship-building between care providers and patients.

4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12988, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967623

ABSTRACT

The long-term impact of COVID-19 among those with mild infections is not well characterized. Among 81 adults who completed online assessments at 3- and 12-months following infection, quality of life scores did not significantly improve over time. Among 62 subjects who also completed telephone interviews, respiratory symptoms or exercise limitation were reported by 42% at a median follow-up of 387 days (IQR 251-402 days). Those with persistent respiratory symptoms scored lower on the EQ-5D visual analog score compared to those without. Persistent respiratory symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood of full-time employment at 1 year (aOR 0.09, 95%CI 0.01-0.91; P = 0.041). In an adjusted linear regression, persistent respiratory symptoms (P = 0.037) and female sex (P = 0.016) were both independent risks for increased visits to a primary care provider. This cohort study demonstrates that respiratory symptoms are frequent at 1 year following COVID-19 and more importantly, are associated with negative impacts on employment, quality of life, and health care utilization. Further research is needed to determine the pathophysiology and risk factors for persistent symptoms as well as optimal management strategies to improve the level of functioning and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Outpatients , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Prospective Studies
5.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 16(1): 25, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902397

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Timothy's law to reduce mental health care disparities was enacted in January 2007 in New York state (NY). According to Timothy's law, "if a patient is suffering from a Biologically Based Mental Illness, or is a Child with Serious Emotional Disturbances, the Inpatient mental health benefit will be the same as for any other illness". An assessment of its impact on inpatient mental health care is lacking. We provide a rigorous study of this policy intervention's effect over the first year of its implementation. METHODS: We used a quasi-experimental design to combine the difference-in-difference method and propensity score weighting. Data are from inpatient records in NY and California (CA) (as a control) between January 2006 to December 2006 (the pre-enactment year in NY) and January to December 2007 (the enactment year) for non-Medicare/Medicaid patients hospitalized in both years with specific illnesses covered by Timothy's Law. Change in length of stay from 2006 to 2007 was measured for each patient, and the differences observed in NY and California were compared to each other (Difference-in-Difference), with differences in the characteristics of patients in NY and California addressed through Propensity Score Weighting (PSW). RESULTS: Before Timothy's Law was enacted (2006), length of stay (LOS) in NY was 16.3 days on average, and length of stay per hospitalization (LOSPH) was 11.72 days on average for the 1237 patients under study in 2006. In 2007, LOS increased by 4.91 days in NY (95% CI (2.89, 7.01)) compared with similar patients in California, and LOSPH by 3.25 days (95% CI (1.96, 4.57)). Among patients with serious mental illness diagnoses, LOS in NY increased by 7.07 days (95% CI (4.15, 10.17)), and LOSPH by 4.04 days (95% CI (1.93, 6.03)) compared to California. CONCLUSIONS: Our study strongly suggests that, within the time frame of just a single year, Timothy's Law significantly increased inpatient mental healthcare utilization in NY. Our study raises the possibility that similar laws in other locations could have similar effects.

6.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(5): 458-464, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901048

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the rate of primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and superficial surgical site infections (SSI) is currently unknown. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate any changes in the rates of 90-day PJI or 30-day SSI, including trends in microbiology of the infections, during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the three years prior. Patients and Methods: An Institutional Review Board-approved, multicenter, retrospective study was conducted with five participating academic institutions across two healthcare systems in the northeastern United States. Primary TJA patients from the years 2017-2019 were grouped as a pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort and patients from the year 2020 were grouped as a COVID-19 pandemic cohort. Differences in patient demographics, PJI, SSI, and microbiology between the two cohorts were assessed. Results: A total of 14,844 TJAs in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort and 5,453 TJAs in the COVID-19 pandemic cohort were evaluated. There were no substantial differences of the combined 90-day PJI and 30-day superficial SSI rates between the pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort (0.35%) compared with the COVID-19 pandemic cohort (0.26%; p = 0.303). Conclusions: This study did not find any change in the rates of 90-day PJI or 30-day superficial SSI in patients undergoing primary TJA between a pre-COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 pandemic cohort. Larger national database studies may identify small but substantial differences in 90-day PJI and 30-day superficial SSI rates between these two time periods. Our data may support continued efforts to maintain high compliance with hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and limited hospital visitation whenever possible.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Infectious , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Prosthesis-Related Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prosthesis-Related Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology
7.
Neuroimage Clin ; 34: 103002, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821425

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common neuropathological finding and clinical entity that occurs independently and with co-existent Alzheimer's disease (AD) and small vessel disease. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics of the fornix, the primary efferent tract of the hippocampus between CAA, AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy controls, 32 CAA, 21 AD, and 26 MCI patients were recruited at two centers. Diffusion tensor images were acquired at 3 T with high spatial resolution and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) to suppress cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and minimize partial volume effects on the fornix. The fornix was delineated with deterministic tractography to yield mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AXD), radial diffusivity (RD), fractional anisotropy (FA) and tract volume. Volumetric measurements of the hippocampus, thalamus, and lateral ventricles were obtained using T1-weighted MRI. RESULTS: Diffusivity (MD, AXD, and RD) of the fornix was highest in AD followed by CAA compared to controls; the MCI group was not significantly different from controls. FA was similar between groups. Fornix tract volume was âˆ¼ 30% lower for all three patient groups compared to controls, but not significantly different between the patient groups. Thalamic and hippocampal volumes were preserved in CAA, but lower in AD and MCI compared to controls. Lateral ventricular volumes were increased in CAA, AD and MCI. Global cognition, memory, and executive function all correlated negatively with fornix diffusivity across the combined clinical group. CONCLUSION: There were significant diffusion changes of the fornix in CAA, AD and MCI compared to controls, despite relatively intact thalamic and hippocampal volumes in CAA, suggesting the mechanisms for fornix diffusion abnormalities may differ in CAA compared to AD and MCI.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Anisotropy , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Tensor Imaging/methods , Fornix, Brain/diagnostic imaging , Fornix, Brain/pathology , Humans
8.
CMAJ ; 194(12): E444-E455, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemics may promote hospital avoidance, and added precautions may exacerbate treatment delays for medical emergencies such as stroke. We sought to evaluate ischemic stroke presentations, management and outcomes during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study, using linked administrative and stroke registry data from Alberta to identify all patients presenting with stroke before the pandemic (Jan. 1, 2016 to Feb. 27, 2020) and in 5 periods over the first pandemic year (Feb. 28, 2020 to Mar. 31, 2021), reflecting changes in case numbers and restrictions. We evaluated changes in hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, thrombolysis, endovascular therapy, workflow times and outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 19 531 patients in the prepandemic period and 4900 patients across the 5 pandemic periods. Presentations for ischemic stroke dropped in the first pandemic wave (weekly adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50 to 0.59). Population-level incidence of thrombolysis (adjusted IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.62) and endovascular therapy (adjusted IRR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.84) also decreased during the first wave, but proportions of patients presenting with stroke who received acute therapies did not decline. Rates of patients presenting with stroke did not return to prepandemic levels, even during a lull in COVID-19 cases between the first 2 waves of the pandemic, and fell further in subsequent waves. In-hospital delays in thrombolysis or endovascular therapy occurred in several pandemic periods. The likelihood of in-hospital death increased in Wave 2 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.74) and Wave 3 (adjusted OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.00). Out-of-hospital deaths, as a proportion of stroke-related deaths, rose during 4 of 5 pandemic periods. INTERPRETATION: The first year of the COVID-19 pandemic saw persistently reduced rates of patients presenting with ischemic stroke, recurrent treatment delays and higher risk of in-hospital death in later waves. These findings support public health messaging that encourages care-seeking for medical emergencies during pandemic periods, and stroke systems should re-evaluate protocols to mitigate inefficiencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Alberta/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Pandemics
10.
Alzheimer's & Dementia ; 17(S7):e049559, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1664344

ABSTRACT

Background The emergence of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) as a novel coronavirus in late 2019 necessitated public health measures that have impacted the provision of care for people living with dementia and their families. The rapid shift to virtual care across health and social care sectors meant that providers did not have the opportunity to benefit from an evidence-based understanding about how and which services can safely and effectively be delivered virtually prior to public health measures being implemented. Additionally, isolation resulting from social distancing may be harming well-being for families as formal and informal supports become less accessible. Method To understand lived experiences and necessary changes in models of care delivery for people living with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, we remotely interviewed 20 dyads of people living with dementia and their care partners who normally attend a dementia specialty clinic in Calgary, Alberta, during a period where essential businesses were closed and health care had abruptly transitioned to telemedicine. Participants were 50% female and a majority of clinic patients in the dyad had a diagnosis of Alzheimer?s Disease (75%). A reflexive thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview and field note data. Result Themes regarding virtual service provision emerged through the iterative qualitative data analysis: (1) continuation of community-based services for care partners and families delivered in innovative ways to meet support needs during the pandemic;(2) guidance in adapting to technology to enable accessible and effective treatment in a virtual care environment;(3) adapting the process and structure of virtual appointments to operationalize critical information provision while maintaining dignity for the person living with dementia. Conclusion The rapid move to virtual healthcare has influenced how and when people access health services. Health system innovation in the way we structure service models and care provision can mitigate barriers to maintaining high quality virtual health care for people living with dementia. In-depth understandings of how health systems can provide high-quality care in new virtual settings is key to maintaining quality of life for community-dwelling people living with dementia and care partners in times of public health emergencies.

12.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 1(3): 234-243, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470534

ABSTRACT

Patients with multiple myeloma have a compromised immune system, due to both the disease and antimyeloma therapies, and may therefore be particularly susceptible to COVID-19. Here, we report outcomes and risk factors for serious disease in patients with multiple myeloma treated at five large academic centers in New York City in the spring of 2020, during which it was a global epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Of 100 patients with multiple myeloma (male 58%; median age 68) diagnosed with COVID-19, 75 were admitted; of these, 13 patients (17%) were placed on invasive mechanical ventilation, and 22 patients (29%) expired. Of the 25 nonadmitted patients, 4 were asymptomatic. There was a higher risk of adverse outcome (intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, or death) in Hispanics/Latinos (n = 21), OR = 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-16.7), and African American Blacks (n = 33), OR = 3.5 (1.1-11.5), as compared with White patients (n = 36). Patients who met the adverse combined endpoint had overall higher levels of inflammatory markers and cytokine activation. None of the other studied risk factors were significantly associated (P > 0.05) with adverse outcome: hypertension (n = 56), OR = 2.2 (0.9-5.4); diabetes (n = 18), OR = 0.9 (0.3-2.9); age >65 years (n = 63), OR = 1.8 (0.7-4.6); high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplant <12 months (n = 7), OR = 0.9 (0.2-5.4); and immunoglobulin G <650 mg/dL (n = 42), OR = 0.9 (0.3-2.2). In this largest cohort to date of patients with multiple myeloma and COVID-19, we found the case fatality rate to be 29% among hospitalized patients and that race/ethnicity was the most significant risk factor for adverse outcome. Significance: Patients with multiple myeloma are immunocompromised, raising the question whether they are at higher risk of severe COVID-19 disease. In this large case series on COVID-19 in patients with multiple myeloma, we report 29% mortality rates among hospitalized patients and identify race/ethnicity as the most significant risk factor for severe outcome.See related commentary by Munshi and Anderson, p. 218. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 215.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125524, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414844

ABSTRACT

Importance: As of May 2021, more than 32 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in the United States, resulting in more than 615 000 deaths. Anaphylactic reactions associated with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. Objective: To characterize the immunologic mechanisms underlying allergic reactions to these vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 22 patients with suspected allergic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines between December 18, 2020, and January 27, 2021, at a large regional health care network. Participants were individuals who received at least 1 of the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision anaphylaxis codes: T78.2XXA, T80.52XA, T78.2XXD, or E949.9, with documentation of COVID-19 vaccination. Suspected allergy cases were identified and invited for follow-up allergy testing. Exposures: FDA-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Allergic reactions were graded using standard definitions, including Brighton criteria. Skin prick testing was conducted to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate 80 (P80). Histamine (1 mg/mL) and filtered saline (negative control) were used for internal validation. Basophil activation testing after stimulation for 30 minutes at 37 °C was also conducted. Concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgE antibodies to PEG were obtained to determine possible mechanisms. Results: Of 22 patients (20 [91%] women; mean [SD] age, 40.9 [10.3] years; 15 [68%] with clinical allergy history), 17 (77%) met Brighton anaphylaxis criteria. All reactions fully resolved. Of patients who underwent skin prick tests, 0 of 11 tested positive to PEG, 0 of 11 tested positive to P80, and 1 of 10 (10%) tested positive to the same brand of mRNA vaccine used to vaccinate that individual. Among these same participants, 10 of 11 (91%) had positive basophil activation test results to PEG and 11 of 11 (100%) had positive basophil activation test results to their administered mRNA vaccine. No PEG IgE was detected; instead, PEG IgG was found in tested individuals who had an allergy to the vaccine. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on this case series, women and those with a history of allergic reactions appear at have an elevated risk of mRNA vaccine allergy. Immunological testing suggests non-IgE-mediated immune responses to PEG may be responsible in most individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/organization & administration , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 59(10): 926-931, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS), creating shortages leading to additional production by new, non-traditional manufacturers. In June 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued warnings about methanol or 1-propanol contaminated brands of hand sanitizer. Exposure to methanol, including dermally, can cause kidney damage, blindness and death. Exposure to 1-propanol can cause severe acidosis and death. Chronic exposure may be more likely due to increased hand sanitizer use in 2020. METHODS: We used generic codes for ABHS to characterize exposures reported to the Texas Poison Control Network in 2019 and 2020. For 2020 cases, we also used case narratives to identify cases considered COVID-19 -related and cases where the caller reported exposure to unknown ABHS with safety concerns, specifically identified brands on the FDA warning list or before that warning was made in June 2020. RESULTS: Reported exposures to ABHS increased 72.5% between 2019 and 2020. In 2020, 10% of the cases were COVID-19 -related. COVID-19 -related cases in 2020 were likely to be older, to have a lower portion of young children exposed and to report chronic use of hand sanitizer. Similar trends were reported among cases who reported possible exposures to potentially unsafe ABHS products, including products on the FDA list. Most exposures were not referred for medical attention, and no deaths were reported among the Texas cases. DISCUSSION: Callers reporting exposures to ABHS related to use prompted by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) and specific exposure to unsafe products differ from the traditional callers in being older, reporting chronic use and in healthcare facility (HCF) referral. The 72.5% increase in 2020 calls compared to 2019 cases differ from typical exposures, which often involve young children. Changes in manufacturing processes by additional manufacturers have produced potential exposure to toxic alcohol-containing products and others in Texas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Sanitizers/poisoning , Poison Control Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child, Preschool , Ethanol , Female , Hand Sanitizers/toxicity , Humans , Male , Methanol , Middle Aged , Texas/epidemiology , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
17.
Dementia (London) ; 20(6): 2007-2023, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004307

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated public health measures that have impacted the provision of care for people living with dementia and their families. Additionally, the isolation that results from social distancing may be harming well-being for families as formal and informal supports become less accessible. For those living with dementia and experiencing agitation, social distancing may be even harder to maintain, or social distancing could potentially aggravate dementia-related neuropsychiatric symptoms. To understand the lived experience of social and physical distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, we remotely interviewed 21 participants who normally attend a dementia specialty clinic in Calgary, Alberta, during a period where essential businesses were closed and health care had abruptly transitioned to telemedicine. A reflexive thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview and field note data. The impacts of the public health measures in response to the pandemic emerged through iterative analysis in three main categories of experience: (1) personal, (2) health services, and (3) health status (of both persons living with dementia and care partner). Isolation and mental health needs emerged as important impacts to family experiences. This in-depth understanding of the needs and experiences of the pandemic for people living with dementia suggests that innovative means are urgently needed to facilitate provision of remote medicine and also social interaction and integration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Dementia , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Mental Health , Telemedicine
18.
Can Geriatr J ; 23(3): 216-218, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971352

ABSTRACT

Hospitals and intensive care units are straining to provide care for a large surge of patients with coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19). Contingency plans are being made for the possibility that resources for lifesaving care, including mechanical ventilators, will be in short supply. Covid-19 is more severe and more likely to be fatal in older persons. Dementia is one of the commonest severe comorbidities of aging. Persons with dementia are vulnerable and often need the support of others to make their voices heard. This commentary, created by a task force commissioned by the Alzheimer Society of Canada, provides guidance for triaging persons with dementia to scarce medical resources during the Covid-19 pandemic.

19.
Epilepsy Behav ; 113: 107599, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) as a novel coronavirus resulted in a global pandemic that necessitated the implementation of social distancing measures. These public health measures may have affected the provision of care for patients with epilepsy. Social isolation may have also adversely affected well-being and quality of life due to informal and formal support networks becoming less accessible. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the lived experiences of patients with epilepsy and to see how their quality of life and healthcare has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: From April 27 to May 15, 2020 we performed remote interviews with 18 participants who had virtual appointments with their healthcare providers and were enrolled in the Calgary Comprehensive Epilepsy Program registry. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, after which transcripts were analyzed and coded into relevant themes using NVivo 12. RESULTS: Three broad themes emerged throughout the interviews:1) impact of pandemic on informal and formal support systems; 2) impact of pandemic on healthcare provision; and 3) concerns about the impact of the pandemic on personal situations and society in the future. Participants reported anxiety and stress about decreased social engagement and activity cessations. Although face-to-face appointments were preferred, virtual care was well-received. Common concerns about the future included securing employment and burnout from balancing family responsibilities. Some patients also feared they would be stigmatized as society adapted to the situation. SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights the need for additional research in anticipation of the implementation of remote medicine in the management and treatment of epilepsy. It also highlights the tenacity of those living with epilepsy during difficult periods despite social and familial pressures. Raising awareness during this time about the lives and experiences of epilepsy patients can help challenge misconceptions and stigma in the workplace and wider society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Telemedicine/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alberta/epidemiology , Epilepsy/therapy , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Quality of Life/psychology , Telemedicine/methods , Young Adult
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